Snake River (St. Croix River tributary)
The Snake River is a 104-mile-long tributary of the St. Croix River in east-central Minnesota in the United States, it is one of three streams in Minnesota with this name. Its name is a translation from the Ojibwa Ginebigo-ziibi, after the Dakota peoples who made their homes along this river. Kanabec County's name is derived from the Ojibwe word for this river; the Snake River with its tributaries drains a 1,009 square miles area of Aitkin, Mille Lacs and Pine counties. After flowing southward from its headwaters in southern Aitkin County, the Snake flows through Kanabec County, turning eastward near Mora, following a minor fault line, it drains into the St. Croix River 13 miles east of Minnesota. Two lakes are associated with Cross Lake and Pokegama Lake. Cross Lake is a translation from the Ojibwa bimijigamaa, meaning "a lake that traverses", is located 13 miles from the river's mouth. Pokegama Lake, located 17.5 miles from the river's mouth, gets its name from the Ojibwa bakegamaa, meaning "a side-lake".
Major tributaries of the Snake River are the Knife River, Ann River, Groundhouse River, Rice Creek. The Snake and the Knife rivers served as the main waterway to connect the St. Croix River with Mille Lacs Lake; as recorded by Henry Schoolcraft, Chief Kappamappa made his home at Chengwatana at the mouth of the Snake. A stream near the outlet of Pokegama Lake is called Mission Creek, for a Presbyterian mission which brought the first printing press to Minnesota, to print literature in the Ojibwe language. During the treaty-making periods, this river was inhabited by the Biitan-akiing-enabijig who were both Ojibwa and Dakota; the Biitan-akiing-enabijig had numerous internal skirmishes as they defined themselves as either Ojibwa or Dakota, giving a false perspective that the Mdewakanton Dakota Sioux and Ojibwa Nations were at constant war. The Biitan-akiing-enabijig who defined themselves as Ojibwa became part of the St. Croix Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, the Snake River sub-band subsequently became part of the St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Minnesota, one of the four constituent tribes of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe.
The North West Company fur trade post was established on the river near present Pine City. The post was used for several years abandoned and destroyed in a fire; the site was rediscovered and excavated. The rowhouse and palisade fence were reconstructed and opened up as a living history museum in 1970. Together with Cross Lake and the Knife River, the 1757 edition of the Mitchell Map identifies this river system as "Portage River" as it served as the waterway that connected the St. Croix River with Mille Lacs Lake and the upper Mississippi River, via a short portage. List of rivers of Minnesota Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Cordes, Jim. Pine County... and its memories. North Branch: Jim Cordes. Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0960-8
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
St. Croix River (Wisconsin–Minnesota)
The St. Croix River is a tributary of the Mississippi River 169 miles long, in the U. S. states of Minnesota. The lower 125 miles of the river form the border between Minnesota; the river is a National Scenic Riverway under the protection of the National Park Service. A hydroelectric plant at St. Croix Falls supplies power to the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area; the St. Croix River rises in the northwestern corner of Wisconsin, out of Upper St. Croix Lake in Douglas County, near Solon Springs 20 miles south of Lake Superior, it flows south to Gordon southwest. It is joined by the Namekagon River in northern Burnett County, where it becomes wider. A few miles downstream the St. Croix meets the boundary between Minnesota and Wisconsin, which it demarcates for another 130 miles until its confluence with the Mississippi River. Other major tributaries include the Kettle River, Snake River, Sunrise River joining from the west, the Apple River, Willow River, Kinnickinnic River joining from the east.
Just below Stillwater, Minnesota the river widens into Lake St. Croix, joins the Mississippi River at Prescott, Wisconsin 20 miles southeast of St. Paul, Minnesota; the St. Croix River was one of the original eight rivers to have significant portions placed under protection by the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968; the upper reaches of the river in Wisconsin below the St. Croix Flowage, 15 miles downstream from its source, as well as the Namekagon River, are protected as the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway; the free-flowing nature of the river is interrupted only by a hydroelectric dam operated by the Northern States Power Company at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin; the lower 27 miles below the dam, including both sides of the river along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border, were protected as part of the Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway; this area includes the Dalles of the St. Croix River, a scenic gorge located near Interstate Park, south of St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Although the addition of an interstate bridge connected to MN Highway 36 was objected to by residents, nearby communities, conservation groups, the National Park Service, construction of the bridge was authorized by amending the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968.
Light and noise pollution are concerns of those opposed to the bridge, who cites the original act that kept such activity to the south along the Interstate 94 corridor. The St. Croix Crossing bridge was completed in August 2017; the St. Croix River Association is a watershed-wide non-profit advocating for conservation throughout the watershed. Founded in 1911 as an all-volunteer citizens group, it has evolved into a staffed, mature nonprofit organization and official "friends group" of the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, its mission is to protect and celebrate the St. Croix River and its watershed. Father Louis Hennepin wrote in 1683, from information provided by Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut: "There is another River which falls... into the Meschasipi... We named it The River of the Grave, or Mausoleum, because the Savages buried there one of their Men..., bitten by a Rattlesnake." In the original French, this is translated as "Rivière Tombeaux". Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin's 1688 map recorded a "Fort St. Croix" on the upper reaches of the river.
The name "Rivière de Sainte-Croix" was applied to the river sometime in 1688 or 1689, this more auspicious name supplanted Father Hennepin's earlier designation. On Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi by Guillaume Delisle and on A Map of North America by John Blair, the St. Croix River—more what was known as the east branch of the St. Croix River —is shown as the Ouasisacadeba, a French representation of the Dakota name for the St. Croix River. On the 1778 Mitchell Map, the river is titled "Ouadeba", which represents the Dakota watpá meaning "river"; the upper portion of river—originally called the north branch of the St. Croix River—was known to the Ojibwa as Manoominikeshiinh-ziibi. Downstream of its confluence with the Namekagon, the Ojibwa renamed the river as Gichi-ziibi or Okijii-ziibi At the time of European settlement of the valley and Ojibwe were engaged in a long and deadly war with each other; the portion of the river below the confluence with Trade River is called Jiibayaatig-ziibi in the Ojibwe language, reinforcing the earlier "Rivière Tombeaux" name in their language.
On Map of the Territories of Michigan and Ouisconsin by John Farmer, the St. Croix River is shown as the "Chippewa River". However, by 1843, Joseph Nicollet's Hydrographical Basin of the Upper Mississippi River reinforced the name provided by Franquelin's 1688 map; the river is the result of geologic forces going back 1.1 billion years. At that time, the Mid-Continent Rift rendered the middle of North America apart, creating a volcanic zone; the lava spewed forth cooled into hard basalt. That basalt is. About 500 million years ago, a shallow sea covered the area, laying down layers of sand and minerals that make up much of the sandstone bluffs now seen along the river. In the last 20,000 years, glaciers have scraped the landscape and released torrents of meltwater, which carved the St. Croix River's course; the river has been home to people for thousands of years. A bison kill site in May Township, Washington County, Minnesota is believed to be about 4,000 years old. An Oneota village from about 1200 A.
D. has been studied
Mille Lacs Lake
Mille Lacs Lake is a large but shallow lake in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It is located in the counties of Mille Lacs and Crow Wing 100 miles north of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Mille Lacs means "thousand lakes" in French. In the Ojibwe language of the people who occupied this area, the lake is called Misi-zaaga'igan. Mille Lacs is Minnesota's second-largest inland lake at 132,516 acres, after Red Lake; the maximum depth is 42 feet. Much of the main lake has depths ranging from 20- to 38-feet. Gravel and rock bars are common in the southern half of the lake. Two islands in the center comprise the Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, the smallest such refuge in the United States. Shallow reef-top fishing exists on all sides of the lake. Deep-water angling takes place on the southern deep gravel and rocks as well as on dozens of mud flats in the north half of the lake. Shoreline break fishing on varied bottom types occurs all around the lake; the weed line is at nine to twelve feet.
There are many local fisherman's names for some features of the lake. Spirit Island, the small rock-made island in the south west region of the lake, is referred to as Bird Crap Island or Stinky Stony Island; the lake has many species of fish including walleye, northern pike, jumbo perch, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, black crappie and tullibee. It is one of Minnesota's most popular fishing lakes. Ice fishing houses number in the thousands during the winter, it is a prime spawning grounds for walleye. Billions of walleye eggs and fry are produced there every year. In the absence of a thermocline, fish can travel the whole area of the lake. Archaeologists indicate that the area around the lake is one of the earliest known sites of human settlement in the state of Minnesota; the Rum River drains from Lake Mille Lacs into the Mississippi River to the south at present-day Anoka. On early French maps, the lake was identified as Lac Buade or Minsisaugaigun. On a 1733 map by Henry Popple, Mille Lacs Lake is shown as "Lake Miſsiſsucaigan or Baude".
As late as 1843, it was referred to as "Mini Sagaigonin or Mille Lacs" on United States government maps. In the Dakota language, the lake is known as mde waḳaŋ; the Mdewakanton group of the Santee Sioux identified by their location around the lake. In Ojibwe, the lake is known as Misi-zaaga'igan megwe Midaaswaakogamaakaan, or as Misi-zaaga'igan, as it is the largest lake in the Brainerd Lakes Area; the lake was named "Mille Lacs Lake", as the Brainerd Lakes Area was called "Region of Thousand Lakes" in French. Areas around the lake are protected and available to the public in state parks: Father Hennepin State Park]] and Mille Lacs Kathio State Park. Portions of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, of the federally recognized Mille Lacs Dakota, border the lake. In 2013, a windblown wall of ice, called an ice shove, moved off the lake and damaged houses on the lake shore. Garrison, Minnesota Isle, Minnesota Malmo Township, Minnesota Onamia, Minnesota Vineland, Minnesota Wahkon, Minnesota Wealthwood Township, Minnesota List of lakes in Minnesota Mille Lacs Area Tourism Council Mille Lacs Messenger newspaper Mille Lacs Webcam Mille Lacs - Isle Bay Webcam - Hunter Winfields Mille Lacs - Isle Bay Webcam - Chapman's Mille Lacs Resort & Guide Service
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Mora is a city in and the county seat of Kanabec County in Minnesota. It is located at the junction of Minnesota State Highways 23 and 65; the population was 3,571 at the 2010 census. Mora was platted in 1882; the city was named after Sweden. A post office has been in operation at Mora since 1883. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.27 square miles, of which 5.00 square miles is land and 0.27 square miles is water. Mora is located 72 miles north of Minneapolis and St. Paul at the intersection of Minnesota Highways 23 and 65, it is 52 miles northeast of St. Cloud and 91 miles southwest of Duluth. Mora is along the Snake River; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,571 people, 1,513 households, 857 families residing in the city. The population density was 714.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,684 housing units at an average density of 336.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.4% White, 0.2% African American, 0.3% Native American 0.3% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 1,513 households of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.4% were non-families. 37.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 39.6 years. 23.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,139 people, 1,381 households, 814 families residing in the city; the population density in the year 2000 was 781.2 per square mile. There were 1,471 housing units at an average density of 359.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.71% White, 0.28% African American, 1.28% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 1.25% from two or more races.
1.57 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 1,381 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 23.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,566, the median income for a family was $40,577. Males had a median income of $32,222 versus $21,797 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,949. 9.0% of the population and 6.0% of families were below the poverty line.
Out of the total population, 7.7% of those under the age of 18 and 10.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Mora is served by the Mora Municipal Airport; the following routes are located within the city of Mora. Minnesota State Highway 23 Minnesota State Highway 65 Mora is the home of a gigantic Dala horse, a Mora clock commemorating the town's Swedish roots. Mora's sister city and namesake is Mora, known for being the ending point of the Swedish Vasaloppet, they became sister cities in 1972. The city of Mora plays host each February to the Vasaloppet USA, the largest cross-country skiing event in Minnesota, as well as the Snake River Canoe Race, the Mora Half-Marathon, the Mora Bicycle Tour. Roger Crawford, State Representative Henry Rines, Minnesota State Treasurer, Speaker of the Minnesota House of Representatives Media related to Mora, Minnesota at Wikimedia Commons City of Mora – Official Website dala.mn – Mora's community portal Mora, about Mora Minnesota