The Mamalilikala are an indigenous nation, a part of the Kwakwaka'wakw, in central British Columbia, on northern Vancouver Island. Their main village was Memkumlis, located on Village Island, their Indian Act band government is the Mamalilikulla-Qwe'Qwa'Sot'Em First Nation. Kwakwaka'wakw U'mista Cultural Society - Alert Bay
William Robert Broughton
William Robert Broughton was a British naval officer in the late 18th century. As a lieutenant in the Royal Navy, he commanded HMS Chatham as part of the Vancouver Expedition, a voyage of exploration through the Pacific Ocean led by Captain George Vancouver in the early 1790s. William Robert Broughton was born on 22 March 1762, his father, Charles Broughton, was a Hamburg merchant and his mother, Anne Elizabeth, was the daughter of Baron William de Hertoghe. Broughton married his cousin, Jemima, on 26 November 1802, they had four children. On 12 March 1821, while in Florence, Broughton died two days later, he was buried in the English burial ground in Leghorn. Broughton's name was added to the muster of the yacht Catherine on 1 May 1774, as captain's servant but Broughton first went to sea on 18 November when he joined the 10-gun brig-sloop, Falcon which sailed for North America, under the command of Captain John Linzee. On 14 February 1777, Broughton, by a midshipman, transferred to Harlem under Lieutenant John Knight.
He was appointed to the 64-gun Eagle on 1 July 1778 in December he joined the seventy-four, Superb as a Master's mate and began service in the East Indies. On 12 January 1782, Broughton was promoted to Lieutenant aboard the 68-gun Burford commanded by Captain Peter Rainier; when Burford paid off on 19 July 1784, Broughton went ashore and did not serve again for four years. Broughton resumed his career on 23 June 1788, aboard the 18-gun sloop, under Manley Dixon, serving in The Channel and the Mediterranean. On 13 May 1790, he renewed his acquaintance with John Knight, her captain. Broughton's first command came on 18 December when he was given command of the brig and asked to accompany George Vancouver in his exploration of the north-west Pacific. En route to the Pacific Northwest the expedition spent some time exploring the South Pacific and whilst sailing separately from Vancouver, in November 1791, Broughton and his crew became the first Europeans to sight both The Snares and the Chatham Islands on the 23rd and 29th respectively.
The former group contains an island. Sometime after their arrival in North America, in 1792, Broughton was given the task of charting a group of islands in the Queen Charlotte Sound. In his honour, Vancouver named them the Broughton Archipelago. In October, Broughton was ordered to explore the lower stretches of the Columbia River, between present-day Oregon and Washington. With several boats from his ship and his party navigated upstream as far as the Columbia River Gorge and on 30 October, he reached his farthest point, landing in eastern Multnomah County east of Portland and northwest of Mount Hood, which he named for Viscount Samuel Hood, Admiral of the British Fleet. Late in 1792, stymied by conflicting instructions over Nootka Sound, sent Broughton back to England via Mexico and the Atlantic, bearing dispatches and requesting instructions. On 3 October 1793, Broughton was promoted to commander and given command of HMS Providence, a ship commanded by Captain William Bligh; the fitting out caused a long delay and the ship didn't sail until February 1795 and when Broughton returned to north-west America, he was unable to locate Vancouver.
Determining that Vancouver had returned to England having completed his survey, Broughton crossed the Pacific and began a four-year survey of the Asian coast between the latitudes of 35 and 52 degrees north, which would include, the Kurile Islands, Japan and Formosa. From September 1796 Broughton charted the east coast of Honshu and Hokkaidō before wintering at Macau where he purchased a small schooner to assist the Providence. Next year he returned to Japan where the Providence was wrecked on what was to become known as Providence Reef, now Yae Bishi or Yabiji, at Miyako Island; the schooner saved the crew of the wrecked ship and they continued north along the east coast of Honshu. Passing Hokkaido, the expedition sailed north into the Gulf of Tartary along the west coast of Sakhalin. Finding extensive shallows at the north end of the gulf it was falsely concluded that Sakhalin was part of the mainland. Broughton turned south along the coast of Korea and headed home by way of Trincomalee, where the crew was paid off and he was court-martialled for the loss of his ship.
Having been acquitted, he reached England in February 1799 and shortly after began to write his book, "A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean. It was published in 1804. Having been kept from the greater part of the French Revolutionary War by his book, Broughton resumed his active naval career on 23 June 1801, when he was given command of the 50-gun Batavier in The Channel, he served aboard her until the Peace of Amiens was ratified, in April 1802. In May, Broughton was given command of the 36-gun Penelope, serving in the North Sea, an appointment that lasted until two days before his next command, the seventy-four, Illustrious, on 30 May 1807. In her, Broughton continued service. After the battle, Lord Cochrane proclaimed that Admiral Gambier had not done enough to destroy the French fleet and Gambier demanded a court martial at which he was acquitted, despite Broughton speaking out against him. In November 1810, still in command of
Johnstone Strait is a 110 km channel along the north east coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. Opposite the Vancouver Island coast, running north to south, are Hanson Island, West Cracroft Island, the mainland British Columbia Coast, Hardwicke Island, West Thurlow Island and East Thurlow Island. At that point, the strait meets Discovery Passage; the strait is between 2.5 5 km wide. It is a major navigation channel on the west coast of North America, it is the preferred channel for vessels from the Georgia Strait leaving to the north of Vancouver Island through the Queen Charlotte Strait bound for Prince Rupert, Queen Charlotte Islands and the North Pacific Ocean, for southbound vessels from those areas bound for the Port of Vancouver. The Strait is home to 150 orca whales during the summer months, which are seen by kayakers and boaters packed with tourists. Scientists including Michael Bigg and Paul Spong have been researching the orcas in the Strait since 1970. Spong established the OrcaLab, based on studying the Orcas in their natural habitat without interfering with their lives or their habitat.
The strait includes the Robson Bight Ecological Reserve. The Strait was named by Vancouver for master of the armed tender Chatham. In 1792, his survey party established. There are no towns along the length of the strait. Telegraph Cove and Robson Bight on Vancouver Island are along the strait near its north end and the village of Sayward on Kelsey Bay is near its midpoint. Cordero Channel Orcas of Johnstone Strait
The Kwakwa̱ka̱ʼwakw known as the Kwakiutl are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Their current population, according to a 2016 census, is 3,665. Most live in their traditional territory on northern Vancouver Island, nearby smaller islands including the Discovery Islands, the adjacent British Columbia mainland; some live outside their homelands in urban areas such as Victoria and Vancouver. They are politically organized into 13 band governments, their language, now spoken by only 3.1% of the population, consists of four dialects of what is referred to as Kwakʼwala. These dialects are ʼNak̓wala, G̱uc̓ala and T̓łat̓łasik̓wala; the name Kwakiutl derives from Kwaguʼł—the name of a single community of Kwakwakaʼwakw located at Fort Rupert. The anthropologist Franz Boas had done most of his anthropological work in this area and popularized the term for both this nation and the collective as a whole; the term became misapplied to mean all the nations who spoke Kwakʼwala, as well as three other Indigenous peoples whose language is a part of the Wakashan linguistic group, but whose language is not Kwakʼwala.
These peoples, incorrectly known as the Northern Kwakiutl, were the Haisla and Heiltsuk. Many people who others call "Kwakiutl" consider that name a misnomer, they prefer the name Kwakwakaʼwakw, which means "Kwakʼwala-speaking-peoples". One exception is the Laich-kwil-tach at Campbell River—they are known as the Southern Kwakiutl, their council is the Kwakiutl District Council. Kwakwakaʼwakw oral history says their ancestors came in the forms of animals by way of land, sea, or underground; when one of these ancestral animals arrived at a given spot, it discarded its animal appearance and became human. Animals that figure in these origin myths include the Thunderbird, his brother Kolus, the seagull, grizzly bear, or chief ghost; some ancestors are said to come from distant places. The Kwakwakaʼwakw economy was based on fishing, with the men engaging in some hunting, the women gathering wild fruits and berries. Ornate weaving and woodwork were important crafts, wealth, defined by slaves and material goods, was prominently displayed and traded at potlatch ceremonies.
These customs were the subject of extensive study by the anthropologist Franz Boas. In contrast to most non-native societies and status were not determined by how much you had, but by how much you had to give away; this act of giving away your wealth was one of the main acts in a potlatch. The first documented contact was with Captain George Vancouver in 1792. Disease, which developed as a result of direct contact with European settlers along the West Coast of Canada, drastically reduced the Indigenous Kwakwakaʼwakw population during the late 19th-early 20th century. Kwakwakaʼwakw population dropped by 75% between 1830 and 1880. Kwakwakaʼwakw dancers from Vancouver Island performed at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. An account of experiences of two founders of early residential schools for Aboriginal children was published in 2006 by the University of British Columbia Press. Good Intentions Gone Awry – Emma Crosby and the Methodist Mission On the Northwest Coast by Jan Hare and Jean Barman contains the letters and account of the life of the wife of Thomas Crosby the first missionary in Lax Kw'alaams.
This covers the period from 1870 to the turn of the 20th century. A second book was published in 2005 by the University of Calgary Press, The Letters of Margaret Butcher – Missionary Imperialism on the North Pacific Coast edited by Mary-Ellen Kelm, it picks up the story from 1916 to 1919 in Kitamaat Village and details of Butcher's experiences among the Haisla people. A review article entitled Mothers of a Native Hell about these two books was published in the British Columbia online news magazine The Tyee in 2007. Restoring their ties to their land and rights, the Kwakwakaʼwakw have undertaken much in bringing back their customs and language. Potlatches occur more as families reconnect to their birthright, the community uses language programs and social events to restore the language. Artists in the 19th and 20th centuries, such as Mungo Martin, Ellen Neel and Willie Seaweed have taken efforts to revive Kwakwakaʼwakw art and culture; each Kwakwakaʼwakw nation has its own clans, history and peoples, but remain collectively similar to the rest of the Kwak̓wala-Speaking nations.
Kwakwakaʼwakw kinship is based on a bilinear structure, with loose characteristics of a patrilineal culture. It has interconnected community life; the Kwakwakaʼwakw are made up of numerous bands. Within those communities they were organized into extended family units or na'mima, which means of one kind; each ` na ` mima' had positions that carried particular privileges. Each community had around four'na'mima', although some had more, some had less. Kwakwakaʼwakw follow their genealogy back to their ancestral roots. A head chief who, through primogeniture, could trace his origins to that'na'mima's ancestors delineated the roles throughout the rest of his family; every clan had several sub-chiefs, who gained their titles and position through their own family's primogeniture. These chiefs organized their people to harvest the communal lands. Kwakwaʼwakw society was organized into four classes: the nobility, attained through birthright and connection in lineage to ancestors, the aristocracy who attained status through connection to wealth, resources or spiritual powers displayed or distributed in the potlatch and slaves.
On the nobility class, "the noble was recognized a
The Silverthrone Caldera is a active caldera complex in southwestern British Columbia, located over 350 kilometres northwest of the city of Vancouver and about 50 kilometres west of Mount Waddington in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains. The caldera is one of the largest of the few calderas in western Canada, measuring about 30 kilometres long and 20 kilometres wide. Mount Silverthrone, an eroded lava dome on the caldera's northern flank, 2,864 metres high may be the highest volcano in Canada; the main glaciers in the Silverthrone area are the Pashleth, Trudel and Silverthrone glaciers. Most of the caldera lies in the Ha-Iltzuk Icefield, the largest icefield in the southern half of the Coast Mountains. Nearly half of the icefield is drained by the Klinaklini Glacier; the Silverthrone Caldera is remote and visited or studied by geoscientists, such as volcanologists. It can be reached by helicopter or — with major difficulty — by hiking along one of the several river valleys extending from the British Columbia Coast or from the Interior Plateau.
Silverthrone is part of the Pemberton Volcanic Belt, circumscribed by a group of epizonal intrusions. At another eroded caldera complex called Franklin Glacier Complex, the Pemberton Volcanic Belt merges with the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, a northwest-trending belt of volcanic cones and fields extending from near the Canada–United States border east of Vancouver on the British Columbia Coast; the intrusions are thought to be subvolcanic bodies associated with a volcanic front, active in the Miocene, during early stages of subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate. With the notable exception of King Island, all the intrusive and eruptive rocks are calc-alkaline granodioritic bodies and dacite ejecta. On a broader scale, the intrusive and eruptive rocks are part of the Coast Plutonic Complex, the single largest contiguous granite outcropping in North America; the intrusive and metamorphic rocks extend 1,800 kilometres along the coast of British Columbia, the Alaska Panhandle and southwestern Yukon. This is a remnant of a once vast volcanic arc called the Coast Range Arc that formed as a result of subduction of the Farallon and Kula Plates during the Jurassic-to-Eocene periods.
In contrast, Meager and Silverthrone areas are of recent volcanic origin. Like other calderas, Silverthrone formed as a result of emptying the magma chamber beneath the volcano. If enough magma is erupted, the emptied chamber will not be able to support the weight of the volcanic edifice above it. A circular fracture—a "ring fault"—develops around the edge of the chamber; these ring fractures serve as feeders for fault intrusions that are known as ring dikes. Secondary volcanic vents may form above the ring fracture; as the magma chamber empties, the center of the volcano within the ring fracture begins to collapse. The collapse may occur as the result of a single cataclysmic eruption, or it may occur in stages as the result of a series of eruptions; the total area that collapses may be hundreds of thousands of square kilometers. Steep contacts between the thick basal breccia of Mount Silverthrone and older crystalline rocks of adjacent peaks suggest that the breccia is part of a caldera-fill succession.
The presence of irregular subvolcanic intrusions and a profusion of dikes within the breccia—but not in adjacent country rock—provide further evidence of the Silverthrone Caldera. Potassium-argon dates of 750,000 and 400,000 years on rhyolitic lava domes above the basal breccia are consistent with the high rates of uplift and erosion recorded elsewhere in the Coast Mountains; the still unexplained tectonic causes of the volcanism that has produced the Silverthrone Caldera are a matter of ongoing research. Silverthrone is not above a hotspot as are Hawaii. However, it may be a product of the Cascadia subduction zone because andesite, basaltic andesite and rhyolite can be found at the volcano and elsewhere along the subduction zone. At issue are the current plate configuration and rate of subduction but Silverthrone's chemistry indicates that Silverthrone is subduction related; the Cascadia subduction zone is a long convergent plate boundary that separates the Juan de Fuca, Explorer and North American Plates.
Here, the oceanic crust of the Pacific Ocean sinks beneath North America at a rate of 40 millimetres per year. Hot magma upwelling above the descending oceanic plate creates volcanoes, each of which erupts for a few million years, it is estimated. Several volcanoes in the arc are active. All of the known historic eruptions in the arc have been in the United States. Two of the most recent were Lassen Peak in 1914 to 1921 and the major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, it is the site of Canada's most recent major eruption, about 2,350 years ago at the Mount Meager massif. Little is known about Silverthrone’s eruptive history. However, as at other calderas, eruptions at Silverthrone are explosive in nature, involving viscous magma, glowing avalanches of hot volcanic ash and pyroclastic flows; the source magma of this rock is classified as acidic, having high to intermediate levels of silica, as in rhyolite and andesite. Andesitic and rhyolitic ma
The Interior Plateau comprises a large region of the Interior of British Columbia, lies between the Cariboo and Monashee Mountains on the east, the Hazelton Mountains, Coast Mountains and Cascade Range on the west. The continuation of the plateau into the United States is known there as the Columbia Plateau. Physiographically, the Interior Plateau is a section of the larger Northern Plateaus province, which in turn is part of the Intermontane Plateaus physiographic division.. It has several subdivisions, these being: The Fraser Plateau The Chilcotin Plateau The Cariboo Plateau The Bonaparte Plateau The Nechako Plateau The McGregor Plateau The Thompson PlateauThe Cariboo and Chilcotin Plateaus are separated by the Fraser River; the Nechako Plateau flanks the Fraser on both sides. Several mountain ranges and hill-systems are included in the definition of this region such as the following: the Pavilion Range includes: The Clear Range The Marble Range The Cornwall Hills The Trachyte Hills The Arrowstone Hills The Rainbow Range The Itcha Range The Ilgachuz Range The Quanchus Range The Telegraph Range The Fawnie Range The Pattullo Range Some classifications systems assign the Pattullo Range to the Hazelton Mountains, which are part of the larger Skeena Mountains complex, but theoretically is the Quanchus Range.
The Cariboo Mountains are sometimes included as part of the Interior Plateau. Three areas liminal to the plateau, i.e. sometimes considered part of it rather than the adjoining mountain ranges, are the Shuswap Highland, Okanagan Highland and Quesnel Highland. The location of the Interior Plateau in North America is between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Coast Ranges, it is cut by the basins and tributaries of two rivers: the Fraser. The northern region is wooded, except in lowland and more southerly areas which resemble the sagebrush grasslands which typify the southern part of the plateau in the Columbia drainage; the first documented human presence was in 8500 BC. Bison remains and other fluted points date back to this time frame. An important sites in the area is at Wenatchee site; the Windust phase is dated between 10600 BC and 7100 BC. At the Lind Coulee Archaeological Site in east-central Washington, leaf-shaped projectile points and knives date between 8500-5500 BC. Based on archaeological evidence, it is suggested that these people were hunters, subsisting from fishing and plant gathering.
The presence of sea shells gives. A small oval shaped dwelling was found at the Paulina Lake site in Oregon, dating to 7100 BC; the Cascade phase took place from 7100-4300 BC, was marked by a slight change in toolkit technology from the Windust peoples. A residential structure was found for this group, dating between 5500-4300 BC. Other pithouses followed between 4000-2000 BC. Most residential structures are located on rivers. During the historic era and salmon were the staple foods, which give us an indication that Cascade groups harvested salmon runs in the summer and fall; the Late Period, dated to about 2500 BC, the pithouse came into existence, such as those at the Keatley Creek Archaeological Site. Other markers of this period include the increasing number of settlements. Fishing continued to increase, technology advanced, introducing more specialized barb fish spears and composite toggling harpoons. Other technology was used as well, including weirs. Trade networks flourished during this time, using sea shells, fish grease and others.
Columbia River Plateau Chilcotin Group Fagan, Brian M. Ancient North America. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd. 2005
Queen Charlotte Strait
Queen Charlotte Strait is a strait between Vancouver Island and the Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It connects Queen Charlotte Sound with Johnstone Strait and Discovery Passage and via them to the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound, it forms part of the Inside Passage from Washington to Alaska. The term Queen Charlotte Strait is used to refer to the general region and its many communities, notably of the Kwakwaka'wakw peoples. Despite its name, Queen Charlotte Strait does not lie between the mainland. According to the BCGNIS, the northern boundary of Queen Charlotte Strait is defined as a line running Cape Sutil, at the north end of Vancouver Island, to Cape Caution on the mainland; the southern end of Queen Charlotte Strait is described as "several narrow channels north and east of Malcolm Island". Queen Charlotte Sound was named by James Strange on August 5, 1786, in honour of Queen Charlotte, the consort of King George III. Strange was the leader of a fur trading expedition of two vessels, the Captain Cook, under Captain Henry Lawrie, the Experiment, under Captain John Guise.
During a boat excursion up Goletas Channel, Strange saw an opening ahead and named it Queen Charlotte Sound. The body of water he named was. For some time Queen Charlotte Strait was called Queen Charlotte Sound, until 1920 when the BCGNIS and Hydrographic Service distinguished between Queen Charlotte Sound and Queen Charlotte Strait. George Vancouver, who used the name in his maps and writings, wrote that the sound was named by Mr. S. Wedgeborough, in command of the Experiment under James Strange, but this is a mistake; the strait lies between the Mainland and Vancouver Island portions of the Mount Waddington Regional District, a form of regional municipal governance with power over zoning and sewer permits and inter-municipal integration. Most communities in the region, are Indian reserve communities of the Kwakwaka'wakw peoples which are outside the jurisdiction of regional district governance; the traditional territories of most of the various Kwakwaka'wakw peoples overlap in the strait, a vital fishery resource and transportation link between their communities.
Kwakwaka'wakw Broughton Archipelago Knight Inlet Fjords of Canada Queen Charlotte Channel Google Map