ESPN on ABC
ESPN on ABC is the brand used for sports event and documentary programming televised on the American Broadcasting Company in the United States. The broadcast network retains its own sports division. ABC broadcasts use ESPN's production and announcing staff, incorporate elements such as ESPN-branded on-screen graphics, SportsCenter in-game updates, the BottomLine ticker; the ABC logo is used for identification purposes as a digital on-screen graphic during sports broadcasts on the network, in promotions to disambiguate events airing the broadcast network from those shown on the ESPN cable channel. The broadcast network's sports event coverage carried the ABC Sports brand prior to September 2, 2006; when ABC acquired a controlling interest in ESPN in 1984, it operated the cable network separately from its network sports division. The integration of ABC Sports with ESPN began after The Walt Disney Company bought ABC in 1996; the branding change to ESPN on ABC was made to better orient ESPN viewers with event telecasts on ABC and provide consistent branding for all sports broadcasts on Disney-owned channels.
Despite its name, ABC's sports coverage is supplemental to ESPN and not a simulcast of programs aired by the network, although ESPN and ESPN2 will carry ABC's regional broadcasts that otherwise would not air in certain markets. Like its longtime competitors CBS Sports and NBC Sports, ABC Sports was part of the news division of the ABC network, after 1961, was spun off into its own independent division; when Roone Arledge came to ABC Sports as a producer of NCAA football games in 1960, the network was in financial shambles. The International Olympic Committee wanted a bank to guarantee ABC's contract to broadcast the 1960 Olympics. At the time, Edgar Scherick served as the de facto head of ABC Sports. Scherick had joined the fledgling ABC television network when he persuaded it to purchase Sports Programs, Inc. in exchange for the network acquiring shares in the company. Scherick had formed the company after he left CBS, when the network would not make him the head of its sports programming unit.
Before ABC Sports became a formal division of the network, Scherick and ABC programming chief Tom Moore pulled off many programming deals involving the most popular American sporting events. While Scherick was not interested in "For Men Only," he recognized the talent. Arledge realized; the lack of a formal organization would offer him the opportunity to claim real power when the network matured. With this, he signed on with Scherick as an assistant producer, with Arledge ascending to a role as executive producer of its sports telecasts. Several months before ABC began broadcasting NCAA college football games, Arledge sent Scherick a remarkable memo, filled with youthful exuberance, television production concepts which sports broadcasts have adhered to since. Network broadcasts of sporting events had consisted of simple set-ups and focused on the game itself. In his memo, Arledge not only offered another way to broadcast the game to the sports fan, but recognized that television had to take fans to the game.
In addition, he had the forethought to realize that the broadcasts needed to attract, hold the attention of female viewers, as well as males. On September 17, 1960, the then-29-year-old Arledge put his vision into reality with ABC's first NCAA college football broadcast from Birmingham, between the Alabama Crimson Tide and the Georgia Bulldogs which Alabama won, 21–6. Despite the production values he brought to NCAA college football, Scherick wanted low-budget sports programming that could attract and retain an audience, he hit upon the idea of broadcasting field events sponsored by the Amateur Athletic Union. While Americans were not fans of track and field events, Scherick figured that Americans understood games. In January 1961, Scherick called Arledge into his office, asked him to attend the annual AAU board of governors meeting. While he was shaking hands, Scherick said, "if the mood seemed right, might he cut a deal to broadcast AAU events on ABC?" It seemed like a tall assignment, however as Scherick said years "Roone was a gentile and I was not."
Arledge came back with a deal for ABC to broadcast all AAU events for $50,000 per year. Next and Arledge divided up their NCAA college football sponsor list, they telephoned their sponsors and said in so many words, "Advertise on our new sports show coming up in April, or forget about buying commercials on NCAA college football this fall." The two persuaded enough sponsors to advertise on the broadcasts, though it took them to the last day of a deadline imposed by ABC's programming operations to do it. Wide World of Sports – an anthology series featuring a different sporting event each broadcast, which premiered on the network on April 29, 1961 – suited Scherick's plans exactly. By exploiting the speed of jet transportation and flexibility of videotape, Scherick was able to undercut NBC and CBS's advantages in broadcasting live sporting events. In that era, with communications nowhere near as universal as they are in the present day, ABC was able to safely record events on
Robert Montgomery Knight is a retired American basketball coach. Nicknamed The General, Knight won 902 NCAA Division I men's college basketball games, the most all-time at the time of his retirement and third all-time, behind his former player and assistant coach Mike Krzyzewski of Duke and Jim Boeheim of Syracuse, who are both still active. Knight is best known as the head coach of the Indiana Hoosiers from 1971 to 2000, he coached at Texas Tech and at Army. While at Indiana, Knight led his teams to three NCAA championships, one National Invitation Tournament championship, 11 Big Ten Conference championships, his 1975–76 team went undefeated during the regular season and won the 1976 NCAA tournament. The 1976 Indiana squad is the last men's college basketball team to go undefeated for the entire season. Knight received National Coach of the Year honors four times and Big Ten Coach of the Year honors eight times. In 1984, he coached the USA men's Olympic team to a gold medal, becoming one of only three basketball coaches to win an NCAA title, NIT title, an Olympic gold medal.
Knight was one of college basketball's most successful and innovative coaches, having popularized the motion offense. He has been praised for running good programs, most of his players graduated. However, Knight has sparked controversy with his behavior, he famously threw a chair across the court during a game and was once arrested for assaulting a police officer. Knight displayed a volatile nature and was prone to violent outbursts with students and during encounters with members of the press, he was recorded on videotape grabbing one of his players by the neck. Knight remains "the object of near fanatical devotion" from many of his former players and Indiana fans. Knight's combative nature and unacceptable pattern of behavior reached a saturation point, university president Myles Brand fired him in 2000. In 2008, Knight joined ESPN as a men's college basketball studio analyst during Championship Week and for coverage of the NCAA Tournament, he continued covering college basketball for ESPN through the 2014–15 season.
Knight was born in 1940 Massillon and grew up in Orrville, Ohio. He began playing organized basketball at Orrville High School. Knight continued at Ohio State in 1958. Despite being a star player in high school, he played a reserve role as a forward on the 1960 Ohio State Buckeyes team that won the NCAA Championship and featured future Hall of Fame players John Havlicek and Jerry Lucas; the Buckeyes lost to the Cincinnati Bearcats in each of the next two NCAA Championship games, of which Knight was a part. Due in part to the star power of those Ohio State teams, Knight received scant playing time, but that did not prevent him from making an impact. In the 1961 NCAA Championship game, Knight came off the bench with 1:41 on the clock and Cincinnati leading Ohio State, 61-59. In the words of then-Ohio State assistant coach Frank Truitt, Knight got the ball in the left front court and faked a drive into the middle. Crossed over like he worked on it all his life and drove right in and laid it up; that tied the game for us, Knight ran clear across the floor like a 100-yard dash sprinter and ran right at me and said,'See there, coach, I should have been in that game a long time ago!'
To which Truitt replied, "Sit down, you hot dog. You're lucky you're on the floor."In addition to lettering in basketball at Ohio State, it has been claimed that Knight lettered in football and baseball. Knight graduated with a degree in history and government in 1962. After Knight graduated from Ohio State in 1962, he coached junior varsity basketball at Cuyahoga Falls High School in Ohio for one year. Knight enlisted in the United States Army and accepted an assistant coaching position with the Army Black Knights in 1963, two years he was named head coach at the young age of 24. In six seasons at West Point, Knight won 102 games, with his first as a head coach coming against Worcester Polytechnic Institute. One of his players was Mike Krzyzewski, who served as his assistant before becoming a Hall of Fame head coach at Duke. Mike Silliman was another of Knight's players at Army, Knight was quoted as saying, "Mike Silliman is the best player I have coached." During his tenure at Army, Knight gained a reputation for having an explosive temper.
For example, after Army's 66-60 loss to BYU and Hall of Fame coach Stan Watts in the semifinals of the 1966 NIT, Knight lost control, kicking lockers and verbally blasting the officials. Embarrassed, he went to Watts' hotel room and apologized. Watts forgave him, is quoted as saying, "I want you to know that you're going to be one of the bright young coaches in the country, it's just a matter of time before you win a national championship." In 1971, Indiana University hired Knight as head coach. During his 29 years at the school, the Hoosiers won 662 games, including 22 seasons of 20 or more wins, while losing 239, a.735 winning percentage. In 24 NCAA tournament appearances at Indiana, Hoosier teams under Knight won 42 of 63 games, winning titles in 1976, 1981, 1987, while losing in the semi-finals in 1973 and 1992. In 1972–73, Knight's second year as coach, Indiana won the Big Ten championship and reached the Final Four, but lost to UCLA, on its way to its seventh consecutive national title.
The following season, 1973–74, Indiana once again captured a Big Ten title. In the two following seasons, 1974–75 and 1975–7
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
Texas Tech Red Raiders basketball
The Texas Tech Red Raiders basketball team represents Texas Tech University in basketball. Texas Tech competes in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletics Association, as a charter member of the Big 12 Conference, since its first season in 1996; the team competed in the Border Conference and Southwest Conference. The team was founded in 1925, having since won 12 regular season conference championships, 5 postseason conference championships, made 17 appearances in the NCAA Tournament as of the 2018–19 season; the Red Raiders have played their home games at the United Supermarkets Arena since 1999 on the university's campus in Lubbock, Texas. Chris Beard, the team's 17th head coach, has led the Red Raiders since the 2016–17 season. Texas Tech's basketball program was founded the same year the school opened its doors in 1925; the inaugural game was a 37–25 loss to Daniel Baker College. Tech would lose two more games before clinching their first victory—35–21 at Sul Ross University. Grady Higginbotham was the first coach.
Until Pat Knight, Higgenbotham was the only Tech basketball coach to garner an overall losing record during his stay. Following Higgenbotham's departure, Victor Payne led the Matadors from 1927 to 1930, his final tally stood at 20 losses. W. L. Golightly coached only one season. Dell Morgan held the head coaching job from 1931 to 1934, he was followed by Virgil Ballard. Though Ballard coached only a single season, it was during his time that the team won their milestone 100th game, a one-point victory over House of David. Ballard left with a 15–9 record. Berl Huffman was twice the head basketball coach at Texas Tech—first from 1935 to 1942 and from 1946 to 1947. During his total of eight seasons, he garnered a record of 121–67. Polk Robison was the only other person to serve two different times as the head basketball coach at the school; when Huffman left in 1942, Robison took the job. And, when Huffman left a second time in 1947, it was Robison who again filled the position, this time remaining until 1961.
At a total of 18 seasons, his stay is the second longest of any Red Raiders basketball coach, behind Gerald Myers. He departed after leading his teams to 254 wins, 195 losses, the first two NCAA tournaments in school history. Gene Gibson followed Robison into the position. In his eight seasons, he chalked up the second best conference record in Texas Tech history and led the Raiders to a Southwest Conference Championship in 1962. Bob Bass led the program to a 22–15 record over a season-and-a-half before returning to professional basketball coaching duties. Gerald Myers became coach of the Red Raiders mid-year during the 1970/71 season and stayed until 1991, his stay was the longest of any head basketball coach at Tech, several milestones were passed during his tenure, including wins #600, #700, #800, #900. With a Texas Tech career record of 326–261, Myers has more wins with the Red Raiders than any other men's basketball coach in school history. Myers led Tech to 16 winning seasons, two Southwest Conference championships, three SWC tournament titles, four NCAA Tournament berths.
Myers served as the school's athletic director from 1996 to 2011. James Dickey replaced Myers as head coach prior to the 1991/92 season and would remain at Texas Tech until his dismissal at the end of the 2000/01 season. During his 10 seasons at Texas Tech, Dickey amassed a 166–124 win-loss record; the program won its 1,000th game under Dickey—a 71–62 victory at UALR. Dickey took over a Texas Tech program that had finished with a 13–45 combined record over Myers' final two years and led his first team to a winning season and fifth-place finish in Southwest Conference play, after having been picked to finish last in the conference. In his second year as head coach, the Red Raiders won the Southwest Conference tournament championship, the school's fourth, to secure the league's automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament. Texas Tech finished the 1994/95 season with a 20–10 record, sharing the SWC regular season championship with Texas and earning a berth in the 1995 National Invitation Tournament. In the SWC's final season, Dickey's 1995–96 Red Raiders produced the most successful season in school history and one of the more memorable seasons in the history of the conference, finishing 30–2 overall and undefeated in conference play, winning both the SWC regular season championship and the conference tournament title, advancing to the "Sweet Sixteen" in the NCAA Tournament, finishing #8 in the AP Poll and #10 in the Coaches' Poll.
The Raiders moved to the Big 12 for the 1996/97 season, appeared to pick up right where they left off with a solid 19–9 season. For all intents and purposes, Dickey's tenure ended on the first day of the inaugural Big 12 basketball tournament. During the Raiders' first-round game, it was discovered that that two players had played the entire season while academically ineligible. Hours after that game, Texas Tech announced that it was withdrawing from postseason consideration and forfeiting its entire conference schedule; the Raiders had lost that game, would have had to forfeit it if they had won. A subsequent investigation revealed massive violations dating back to 1990 in men's basketball and nine other sports; as a result, the NCAA stripped Tech of its two NCAA tournament wins in 1996 and docked it nine scholarships over four years. Dickey was unable to recover from the lost scholarships, his Red Raiders finished with four consecutive losing seasons, during which they only won a total of 18 games in Big 12 play.
He was fired after his 2000/01 team prod
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
The University of Arkansas at Little Rock is a metropolitan public research university located in Little Rock, United States. Established as Little Rock Junior College by the Little Rock School District in 1927, the institution became a private four-year university under the name Little Rock University in 1957, it returned to public status in 1969 when it merged with the University of Arkansas System under its present name. Located on 250 acres, the UALR campus encompasses more than 56 buildings, including the Center for Nanotechnology Integrative Sciences, the Emerging Analytics Center, the Sequoyah Research Center, the Ottenheimer Library Additionally, UALR houses special learning facilities that include a learning resource center, art galleries, KUAR public radio station, University Television, cyber café, speech and hearing clinic, a campus-wide wireless network; the university features more than 100 undergraduate degrees and 60 graduate degrees, including graduate certificates, master's degrees, doctorates, through both traditional and online courses.
Students attend classes in one of the university's six colleges and a law school: College of Arts and Sciences College of Business College of Education and Health Professions George W. Donaghey College of Engineering and Information Technology College of Social Sciences and Communication William H. Bowen School of Law The student life at UALR is typical of public universities in the United States, it is characterized by student-run organizations and affiliation groups that support social, academic and religious activities and interests. Some of the services offered by the UALR Office of Campus Life are intramural sports and fitness programs, diversity programs, leadership development, peer tutoring, student government association, student support programs including groups for non-traditional and first generation students, a student-run newspaper, fraternity and sorority life; the proximity of the UALR campus to downtown Little Rock enables students to take advantage of a wide array of recreational, educational and employment opportunities that are not available anywhere else in Arkansas.
UALR provides a variety of on-campus living options for students ranging from traditional resident rooms to multiple bedroom apartments. The university has four residence halls on the eastern side of the campus and the University Village Apartment Complex on the southern side of campus. Six learning communities focusing on criminal justice and culture, majors and careers, future business innovators, nursing careers, STEM are available to students. UALR's 14 athletic teams are known as the Little Rock Trojans, with all teams participating in the Sun Belt Conference. Little Rock is one of two Sun Belt members. Little Rock's main athletic offices are located in the Jack Stephens Center. UALR offers the following sports: The only Little Rock team that does not compete in the Sun Belt is the women's swimming and diving team; that team instead competes in the Missouri Valley Conference. On July 1, 2014, the UALR Collections and Archives division was created; the division encompasses: Ottenheimer Library Center for Arkansas History and Culture Sequoyah National Research Center The Japanese School of Little Rock, a weekend Japanese education program, holds its classes at the University Plaza.
Camille Bennett – Arkansas House of Representatives, 2015-present Karilyn Brown – Arkansas House of Representatives, 2015-present James Richard Cheek – U. S. Ambassador to El Salvador, Ethiopia and Argentina Charlie Daniels – Arkansas Commissioner of State Lands, Arkansas Secretary of State, Arkansas State Auditor Vivian Flowers – Arkansas House of Representatives, 2015-present Kenneth Henderson - Arkansas House of Representatives, 2015-present Douglas House Arkansas House of Representatives, 2013-present Allen Kerr – Arkansas Insurance Commissioner and former member of the Arkansas House of Representatives Mike Ross – U. S. House of Representatives, 2001-–2013 Bill Sample – Arkansas House of Representatives, 2005–2010. S. District Court, Eastern District of Texas, Nominated June 2014 Vic Snyder – U. S. House of Representatives, 1997–2011 James Sturch – – Arkansas House of Representatives, 2015-present James E. Cofer, Ed. D from UALR.
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
Texas Tech University
Texas Tech University referred to as Texas Tech, Tech, or TTU, is a public research university in Lubbock, Texas. Established on February 10, 1923, known as Texas Technological College, it is the main institution of the four-institution Texas Tech University System; the university's student enrollment is the seventh-largest in Texas as of the Fall 2017 semester. The university shares its campus with Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, making it the only campus in Texas to house an undergraduate university, law school, medical school; the university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through 13 colleges and hosts 60 research centers and institutes. Texas Tech University has awarded over 200,000 degrees since 1927, including over 40,000 graduate and professional degrees; the Carnegie Foundation classifies Texas Tech as having "highest research activity". Research projects in the areas of epidemiology, pulsed power, grid computing, atmospheric sciences, wind energy are among the most prominent at the university.
The Spanish Renaissance-themed campus, described by author James Michener as "the most beautiful west of the Mississippi until you get to Stanford", has been awarded the Grand Award for excellence in grounds-keeping, has been noted for possessing a public art collection among the ten best in the United States. The Texas Tech Red Raiders are charter members of the Big 12 Conference and compete in Division I for all varsity sports; the Red Raiders football team has made 36 bowl appearances, 17th most of any university. The Red Raiders basketball team has made 14 appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament. Bob Knight has coached the second most wins in men's NCAA Division I basketball history and served as the team's head coach from 2001 to 2008; the Lady Raiders basketball team won the 1993 NCAA Division I Tournament. In 1999, Texas Tech's Goin' Band from Raiderland received the Sudler Trophy, awarded to "recognize collegiate marching bands of particular excellence". Although the majority of the university's students are from the southwestern United States, the school has served students from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.
Texas Tech University alumni and former students have gone on to prominent careers in government, science, education and entertainment. The call to open a college in West Texas began shortly after settlers arrived in the area in the 1880s. In 1917, the Texas legislature passed a bill creating a branch of Texas A&M to be in Abilene. However, the bill was repealed two years during the next session after it was discovered Governor James E. Ferguson had falsely reported the site committee's choice of location. After new legislation passed in the state house and senate in 1921, Governor Pat Neff vetoed it, citing hard financial times in West Texas. Furious about Neff's veto, some in West Texas went so far as to recommend West Texas secede from the state. In 1923, the legislature decided, rather than a branch campus, a new university would better serve the region's needs under legislation co-authored by State Senator William H. Bledsoe of Lubbock and State Representative Roy Alvin Baldwin of Slaton in southern Lubbock County.
On February 10, 1923, Neff signed the legislation creating Texas Technological College, in July of that year, a committee began searching for a site. When the committee's members visited Lubbock, they were overwhelmed to find residents lining the streets to show support for hosting the institution; that August, Lubbock was chosen on the first ballot over other area towns, including Floydada, Big Spring, Sweetwater. Construction of the college campus began on November 1, 1924. Ten days the cornerstone of the Administration Building was laid in front of 20,000 people. Governor Pat Neff, Amon G. Carter, Reverend E. E. Robinson, Colonel Ernest O. Thompson, Representative Richard M. Chitwood, the chairman of the House Education Committee, who became the first Texas Tech business manager, spoke at the event. Chitwood served in the position only fifteen months. With an enrollment of 914 students—both men and women—Texas Technological College opened for classes on October 1, 1925, it was composed of four schools—Agriculture, Home Economics, Liberal Arts.
Texas Tech grew in the early years. During the 1930s, Bradford Knapp, the university's second president, proceeded with an expansion program, which included new dormitories, the first library, a golf course, a swimming pool, paved streets and alleys, landscaping. A proposed $80,000 allocation for a football stadium was shelved; the library won the approval of Governor James V. Allred; because the state cut appropriations by 30% at the start of the Great Depression, President Knapp applied for assistance from the major New Deal agencies to expand Texas Tech, including the Works Progress Administration, Public Works Administration, Civil Works Administration, the National Youth Administration. Wyatt C. Hedrick, son-in-law of Governor Ross S. Sterling, was the architect of all campus PWA projects. Military training was conducted at the college as early as 1925, but formal Reserve Officers' Training Corps training did not start until 1936. By 1939, the school's enrollment had grown to 3,890. Although enrollment declined during World War II, Texas Tech trained 4,747 men in its armed forces training detachments.
Following the war, in 1946, the college saw its enrollment leap to 5,366 from a low of 1,696 in 1943. By the 1960s, the school had expanded its offerings to more than just technical subjects; the Faculty Advisory Committee suggested changing the name to "Texas State University", feeling the phrase "Technological College" did