Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
Abraham Schell House
The Abraham Schell House is a historic two-story house located in Knights Ferry, California. It was first built out of sandstone in 1856 for Abraham and Catherine Schell, owners of the Rancho del Río Estanislao. Presently, it stands the same as it did 154 years ago
Julia Boggs Dent Grant, was the First Lady of the United States and wife of Ulysses S. Grant, her time as First Lady marked a turning point in her life. Julia Boggs Dent was born on January 1826 at White Haven plantation west of St. Louis, Missouri, her parents were Ellen Wrenshall Dent, a slaveholding planter and merchant. Frederick owned about thirty enslaved Africans and refused to consider freeing them on moral ground, doing so only when compelled by law of emancipation, she was distantly related to Confederate general James Longstreet. Julia was the fifth of eight children. In her memoirs, Julia described her childhood as "one long summer of sunshine and smiles…"Around 1831–1836, Julia attended the Gravois School, a co-educational one room schoolhouse in St. Louis. From age 10 to age 17, Julia attended the Misses Mauros' boarding school in St. Louis with the daughters of other affluent parents. Julia returned home to White Haven on weekends; the Dent family was social with visitors coming from among the elite class of Cincinnati and Pittsburgh.
William Clark and politician Alexander McNair were family friends. As a young woman, Julia was a skilled pianist, an expert horsewoman and a voracious reader of novels. Julia was born with strabismus; when she was younger, one of the best surgeons in the country offered to perform the simple operation that would fix them. Julia wasn't keen on surgery and declined. After her husband became president, Julia reconsidered surgery. "I never had the courage to consent, but now that my husband had become so famous I thought it behooved me to try to look as well as possible." Ulysses objected: "Did I not see you and fall in love with you with these same eyes? I like them just as they are, now, you are not to interfere with them, they are mine, let me tell you, Mrs. Grant, you had better not make any experiments, as I might not like you half so well with any other eyes."Because her strabismus was never corrected, Julia always posed in profile for portraits. While a student at West Point Academy, Fred Dent wrote his sister Julia about how impressed he was with a fellow student, Ulysses S. Grant.
"I want you to know him, he is pure gold." In 1844, Ulysses S. Grant began visiting the Dent family. At one point her pet canary died, Ulysses crafted a small yellow coffin and summoned eight fellow officers for an avian funeral service. In April of that year, Ulysses asked Julia to wear his class ring, as a sign of their exclusive affection. Eighteen-year-old Julia demurred. Grant's regiment was ordered to Louisiana, in preparation for service in the Mexican War. Distraught at their separation, Julia had an intense dream, which she detailed to several people, that Grant would somehow return within days, wearing civilian clothes and state his intention of staying for a week. Despite the unlikeliness of the dream, Ulysses did return just as Julia had predicted and the two became engaged. In July 1848, after they had been apart for four years, Grant's regiment returned to the United States, he took leave so that he could make wedding arrangements in St. Louis. Grant's father, Jesse Grant, refused to attend their wedding, objecting not to Julia, but to her family's owning slaves.
After the Grants were married, Ulysses returned to the Army. Julia gave birth to Frederick Dent Grant in 1850 and Ulysses Simpson Grant in 1852 while her husband was dispatched to the West Coast for several years. Unhappy to be so far from his family, Ulysses resigned from the Army in 1854 and the Grants moved to a small farm called "Hardscrabble" in St. Louis. At one point, Ulysses purchased a slave from Julia's brother his old West Point roommate, yet without explanation, when he was in debt and able to put food on his family's table, Grant appeared in court on March 20, 1859, emancipated his slave rather than selling him. Ulysses was unable to run his farm; the family moved in with Julia's parents in White Haven. Once he recovered, he took a job collecting rents for a real estate firm in St. Louis, but could not earn enough money. By 1860, Grant was out of options, he asked his father for help, he was offered a job in the family leather business. Earning $600 a year, he could go a long way toward getting his family out of debt, so he moved Julia and the children to Illinois.
At the beginning of the Civil War, Ulysses helped organize volunteers and he soon took command of the Illinois troops. He was promoted to brigadier general and major general. Lonely without his wife, Ulysses sent for Julia, she left the children with relatives and over the course of the Civil War she stayed with Ulysses during campaigns at Memphis, Vicksburg and Virginia. Julia covered more than 10,000 miles in four years – and nearly 4,000 in just the first year – to be with her husband. At one point, Julia lived at an Antebellum mansion in Holly Springs, Mississippi; when Confederate General Earl Van Dorn raided the house, he was not permitted by the pro-Union owner to enter before she went outside. Julia's presence buoyed his confidence. In 1864, when Lincoln appointed Grant commander of the Union armies, the president sent for Julia to join her husband, aware of the positive effect she had on him; the Grants had a daughter: Frederick Dent Grant -- soldier, public official. Ulysses Simpson Grant, Jr. known as "Buck" —lawyer.
Ellen Wrenshall Grant known as "
Ceres is a city in Stanislaus County, California. The population was 45,417 at the 2010 U. S. Census, up from 34,609 at the 2000 U. S. Census, it is part of the Modesto Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ceres is located in the San Joaquin Valley along State Route 99, south of Modesto and north of Turlock in Stanislaus County. Ceres is named after the Roman goddess of agriculture; the newspaper in Ceres is called The Ceres Courier. It has been in publication since 1910; the offices of the Ceres Courier were relocated from an address in downtown Ceres in 2012. It has since combined day-to-day operations with its sister paper, The Turlock Journal, in Turlock, CA. Jeff Benziger was appointed Editor in 1987. There is a Spanish-language paper. Ceres hosts annual events at different times of the year. Spring brings the Ceres Street Faire on the first weekend in May. Concert in the Park is a regular summer event. Halloween Fun Festival marks the Fall followed by the colorful, much-attended, Christmas Tree Lane opening ceremony.
The first non-native families that inhabited Ceres were those of John Service, Cassius Warner, Daniel Whitmore in the year 1867. Daniel C. Whitmore is considered the first founder of Ceres, he built his home in the Whitmore Mansion at 2928 5th Street. That home still stands restored by the city and the Ceres Historical Society. In the early 1890s, the outlaws Chris Evans and John Sontag robbed a Southern Pacific Railroad train at Ceres and several other area locations. In the late 1930s, a labor camp was developed within the city of Ceres; the history of Ceres is recounted in Arcadia Publishing Company's Images of America series entitled, "Ceres, by Jeff Benziger. It was released on August 23, 2010. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Ceres has a total area of 8.0 sq mi, 99.9% of it land and 0.1% of it water. The formation of alluvial fans in the San Joaquin Valley has led to a rather flat regional geography. There are no known active earthquake fault traces in the project vicinity. Hydrological feature mapping of the Ceres area has been conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey.
As of the 2000 U. S. Census, there were 34,609 people, 10,435 households, 8,535 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,988.6 people per square mile. There were 10,773 housing units at an average density of 1,552.8 per square mile. The ethnic makeup of the city was 64.5% White, 2.8% African American, 1.4% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 20.4% from other races, 5.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37.9% of the population. There were 10,435 households out of which 48.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.2% were non-families. 14.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.31 and the average family size was 3.62. In the city, the population was spread out with 34.4% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,736, the median income for a family was $43,587. Males had a median income of $35,109 versus $24,317 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,420. About 10.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. The 2010 U. S. Census reported that Ceres had a population of 45,417; the population density was 5,663.2 people per square mile. The ethnic makeup of Ceres was 26,217 White, 1,185 African American, 609 Native American, 3,093 Asian, 346 Pacific Islander, 11,463 from other races, 2,504 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25,436 persons; the Census reported that 45,064 people lived in households, 293 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 60 were institutionalized. There were 12,692 households, out of which 6,876 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 7,311 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,211 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,053 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 976 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 76 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,586 households were made up of individuals and 628 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.55. There were 10,575 families; the population was spread out with 14,623 people under the age of 18, 5,108 people aged 18 to 24, 12,506 people aged 25 to 44, 9,667 people aged 45 to 64, 3,513 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. There were 13,673 housing units at an average density of 1,704.9 per square mile, of which 8,010 were owner-occupied, 4,682 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.5%. 27,776 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 17,288 people lived in rental housing units. In the California State Legislature, Ceres is in the 12th Senate District, represe
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis