Eklutna is a native village within the Municipality of Anchorage in the U. S. state of Alaska. The Tribal Council estimates the population at 70. Eklutna lies 24 miles northeast of Anchorage near the intersection of Mi. 142 of the Alaska Railroad and the Mile 26 of the Glenn Highway 2 miles from the mouth of the Eklutna River at the head of the Knik Arm of Cook Inlet, at 61°27′30″N 149°21′44″W in the Anchorage Recording District. The Dena'ina Athabascan village of Eklutna is the last of eight villages that existed before construction of the Alaska Railroad brought an influx of American colonists around 1915. First settled more than 800 years ago, it is the oldest inhabited location in the Anchorage area, its Dena'ina name is Idlughet. Russian Orthodox missionaries arrived in the 1840s; the melding of Orthodox Christianity and native practices resulted in the brightly colored spirit houses which can be seen at the Eklutna Cemetery, in use since 1650 and now a historical park. The cemetery is the most photographed graveyard in Alaska, overshadowing other features of the village.
An Alaska Railroad siding and station house were built near the village Eklutna in 1918. The federal government operated a boarding school for native children near the village before World War II; the U. S. Army established a facility nearby in the mid-20th century. In 2014, a 160-acre homestead acquired in 1924 was donated to the Native Village of Dena’ina Athabascan country, where Alaska Native people have lived for thousands of years. For the most part, the land has remained untouched — and under a conservation easement, it will be maintained as a refuge for wildlife and protected from real estate development. All residents of the Eklutna Village are either Alaska Native or part Native. For employment, most Tribal Members commute to work in Anchorage, nearby Eagle River, or the Matanuska-Susitna Valley. Eklutna first appeared on the 1930 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village. Of its 158 residents, 61 were Native, 49 were Creole, 47 were White, 1 was Asian, it continued to report on the census until 1970 and was annexed into Anchorage in 1975.
Eklutna Annie, a known but unidentified victim of serial killer Robert Hansen, found in 1980 Kari, James. Shem Pete's Alaska: The Territory of the Upper Cook Inlet Dena'ina. University of Alaska Press. Pp. 320–322. ISBN 1-889963-57-7. Alaska Division of Community Advocacy - Community Information Summary Eklutna, Inc. Native Village of Eklutna
Tract housing known colloquially in the United States and Canada as cookie-cutter housing, is a type of housing development in which multiple similar homes are built on a tract of land, subdivided into individual small lots. Tract housing developments are found in world suburb developments that were modeled on the "Levittown" concept and sometimes encompass large areas of dozens of square miles. Tract housing development makes use of few architectural designs, labor costs are reduced because workers need to learn the skills and movements of constructing only those designs rather than repeat the learning curve. In addition, as all homes in the development will be built at the same time, the cost of purchasing and transporting building supplies may be reduced due to economies of scale. Components such as roof trusses, plumbing and stair systems are prefabricated in factories and installed on-site; this allows builders to offer lower prices, which in turn can make homes affordable to a larger percentage of the population.
Early tract homes were identical, but many tracts since the late 20th century have several designs and other variations in footprint, roof form, materials, along with options such as garage bays, for a more diverse appearance. The concept of tract housing is mocked in North American popular culture as the basis of suburbia, it is often critiqued by city planners and architects, as its construction tends to overlook required elements of successful community building, instead creating a homogeneous residential neighborhood with no local employment, services, or attractions within close commuting distance. This leads to a heavy reliance on automobile travel, as residents are unable to address any of these needs locally. In Europe, the majority of subdivided landstrips are built in the type of row housing development areas; the model of tract housing had been used in the history of land reclamation in the 17th to 19th century in the Netherlands and inner-European bogs. Modern tract housing had been used for company towns in the 19th to 20th century in the areas of coal mining that attracted a large number of workers.
A tract housing area of this type is colloquially known in German as a " Kolonie", in Flemish Dutch and French as a "cité"/ or "coron". Housing estate List of house styles List of house types Railroad apartment Shotgun house
Southcentral Alaska is the portion of the U. S. state of Alaska consisting of the shorelines and uplands of the central Gulf of Alaska. Most of the population of the state lives in this region, concentrated in and around the city of Anchorage; the area includes Cook Inlet, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, the Kenai Peninsula, Prince William Sound, the Copper River Valley. Tourism and petroleum production are important economic activities; the major city is Anchorage. Other towns include Palmer, Kenai, Homer, Seward and Cordova; the climate of Southcentral Alaska is subarctic. Temperatures range from an average high of 65°F in July to an average low of 10°F in December; the hours of daylight per day varies from 20 hours in June and July to 6 hours in December and January. The coastal areas consist of temperate rainforests and alder shrublands; the interior areas are covered by boreal forests. The terrain of Southcentral Alaska is shaped by six mountain ranges: Alaska Range Talkeetna Mountains Wrangell Mountains Chugach Mountains Kenai Mountains Tordrillo Mountains Aleutian RangeSouthcentral Alaska contains several dormant and active volcanoes.
The Wrangell Volcanoes are older, lie in the East, include Mount Blackburn, Mount Bona, Mount Churchill, Mount Drum, Mount Gordon, Mount Jarvis, Mount Sanford, Mount Wrangell. The Cook Inlet volcanoes, located in the Tordrillo Mountains and in the north end of the Aleutian Range, are newer, lie in the West, include Mount Redoubt, Mount Iliamna, Hayes Volcano, Mount Augustine, Fourpeaked Mountain and Mount Spurr. Most Augustine and Fourpeaked erupted in 2006, Mount Redoubt erupted in March 2009, resulting in airplane flight cancellations. Anchorage Metropolitan Area Matanuska-Susitna Valley Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race
The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race is an annual long-distance sled dog race run in early March from Anchorage to Nome within the US state of Alaska. Mushers and a team of 14 dogs, of which at least 5 must be on the towline at the finish line, cover the distance in 8–15 days or more; the Iditarod began in 1973 as an event to test the best sled dog mushers and teams but evolved into today's competitive race. A record, the second fastest winning time was recorded in 2016 by Dallas Seavey with a time of 8 days, 11 hours, 20 minutes, 16 seconds; as of 2012, Dallas Seavey was the youngest musher to win the race at the age of 25. In 2017, at the age of 57, Dallas's father, Mitch Seavey, is the oldest and fastest person to win the race, crossing the line in Nome in 8 days, 3 hours, 40 minutes and 13 seconds. Dallas finished two hours and 44 minutes behind. Teams race through blizzards causing whiteout conditions, sub-zero temperatures and gale-force winds which can cause the wind chill to reach −100 °F.
A ceremonial start occurs in the city of Anchorage and is followed by the official restart in Willow, a city 80 mi north of Anchorage. The restart was in Wasilla through 2007, but due to little snow, the restart has been at Willow since 2008; the trail runs from Willow up the Rainy Pass of the Alaska Range into the sparsely populated interior, along the shore of the Bering Sea reaching Nome in western Alaska. The trail is through a harsh landscape of tundra and spruce forests, over hills and mountain passes, across rivers. While the start in Anchorage is in the middle of a large urban center, most of the route passes through separated towns and villages, small Athabaskan and Iñupiat settlements; the Iditarod is regarded as a symbolic link to the early history of the state and is connected to many traditions commemorating the legacy of dog mushing. The race is a important and popular sporting event in Alaska, the top mushers and their teams of dogs are local celebrities. While the yearly field of more than fifty mushers and about a thousand dogs is still Alaskan, competitors from fourteen countries have completed the event including the Swiss Martin Buser, who became the first foreign winner in 1992.
The Iditarod received more attention outside of the state after the 1985 victory of Libby Riddles, a long-shot who became the first woman to win the race. The next year, Susan Butcher became the second woman to win the race and went on to win three more years. Print and television journalists and crowds of spectators attend the ceremonial start at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and D Street in Anchorage and in smaller numbers at the checkpoints along the trail; the race's namesake is the Iditarod Trail, designated as one of the first four US National Historic Trails in 1978. The trail in turn is named for the town of Iditarod, an Athabaskan village before becoming the center of the Inland Empire's Iditarod Mining District in 1910, becoming a ghost town at the end of the local gold rush; the name Iditarod may be derived from the Athabaskan iditarod, meaning "far distant place". Portions of the Iditarod Trail were used by the Native Alaskan Eskimo Inupiaq and Athabaskan peoples hundreds of years before the arrival of Russian fur traders in the 1800s, but the trail reached its peak between the late 1880s and the mid-1920s as miners arrived to dig coal and gold after the Alaska gold rushes at Nome in 1898, at the "Inland Empire" along the Kuskokwim Mountains between Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, in 1908.
The primary communication and transportation link to the rest of the world during the summer was the steamship. Roadhouses where travelers could spend the night sprang up every 14 to 30 miles until the end of the 1920s, when the mail carriers were replaced by bush pilots flying small aircraft and the roadhouses vanished. Dog sledding persisted in the rural parts of Alaska, but was driven into extinction by the spread of snowmobiles in the 1960s. During its heyday, mushing was a popular sport during the winter, when mining towns shut down; the first major competition was the tremendously popular 1908 All-Alaska Sweepstakes, started by Allan "Scotty" Alexander Allan, ran 408 miles from Nome to Candle and back. The event introduced the first Siberian huskies to Alaska in 1910, where they became the favored racing dog, replacing the Alaskan malamute and mongrels bred from imported huskies and other large breeds, like setters and pointers. In 1914, the Norwegian immigrant Leonhard Seppala first appeared, went on to win the race in 1915, 1916, 1917, before the race was discontinued in 1918 during World War I The most famous event in the history of Alaskan mushing is the 1925 serum run to Nome known as the "Great Race of Mercy."
It occurred. Because Nome's supply of antitoxin had expired, Dr. Curtis Welch refused to use it and instead sent out telegrams seeking a fresh supply of antitoxin; the nearest antitoxin was found to be in Anchorage, nearly one thousand miles away. The only way to get the antitoxin to Nome was by sled dog as planes could not be used and ships would be too slow. Governor Scott Bone approved a safe route and the 20-pound cylinder of serum was sent by train 298 miles from the southern port of Sewa