The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. The barrier range has a northeast–southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia; the Alleghenies comprise the rugged western-central portion of the Appalachians. They rise to 4,862 feet in northeastern West Virginia. In the east, they are dominated by a steep escarpment known as the Allegheny Front. In the west, they slope down into the associated Allegheny Plateau, which extends into Ohio and Kentucky; the principal settlements of the Alleghenies are Altoona, State College, Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The name is derived from the Allegheny River, which drains only a small portion of the Alleghenies in west-central Pennsylvania.
The meaning of the word, which comes from the Lenape Indians, is not definitively known but is translated as "fine river". A Lenape legend tells of an ancient tribe called the "Allegewi" who lived on the river and were defeated by the Lenape. Allegheny is the early French spelling, Allegany is closer to the early English spelling; the word "Allegheny" was once used to refer to the whole of what are now called the Appalachian Mountains. John Norton used it around 1810 to refer to the mountains in Georgia. Around the same time, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In 1861, Arnold Henry Guyot published the first systematic geologic study of the whole mountain range, his map labeled the range as the "Alleghanies", but his book was titled On the Appalachian Mountain System. As late as 1867, John Muir—in his book A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf—used the word "Alleghanies" in referring to the southern Appalachians. There was no general agreement about the "Appalachians" versus the "Alleghanies" until the late 19th century.
From northeast to southwest, the Allegheny Mountains run about 400 miles. From west to east, at their widest, they are about 100 miles. Although there are no official boundaries to the Allegheny Mountains region, it may be defined to the east by the Allegheny Front. To the west, the Alleghenies grade down into the dissected Allegheny Plateau; the westernmost ridges are considered to be the Laurel Highlands and Chestnut Ridge in Pennsylvania, Laurel Mountain and Rich Mountain in West Virginia. The mountains to the south of the Alleghenies—the Appalachians in westernmost Virginia, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee—are the Cumberlands; the Alleghenies and the Cumberlands both constitute part of the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachians. The eastern edge of the Alleghenies is marked by the Allegheny Front, sometimes considered the eastern terminus of the Allegheny Plateau; this great escarpment follows a portion of the Eastern Continental Divide in this area. A number of impressive gorges and valleys drain the Alleghenies: to the east, Smoke Hole Canyon, to the west the New River Gorge and the Blackwater and Cheat Canyons.
Thus, about half the precipitation falling on the Alleghenies makes its way west to the Mississippi and half goes east to Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic seaboard. The highest ridges of the Alleghenies are just west of the Front, which has an east/west elevational change of up to 3,000 feet. Absolute elevations of the Allegheny Highlands reach nearly 5,000 feet, with the highest elevations in the southern part of the range; the highest point in the Allegheny Mountains is Spruce Knob, on Spruce Mountain in West Virginia. Other notable Allegheny highpoints include Thorny Flat on Cheat Mountain, Bald Knob on Back Allegheny Mountain, Mount Porte Crayon, all in West Virginia. There are few sizable cities in the Alleghenies; the four largest are: Altoona, State College and Cumberland. In the 1970s and'80s, the Interstate Highway System was extended into the northern portion of the Alleghenies, the region is now served by a network of federal expressways—Interstates 80, 70/76 and 68. Interstate 64 traverses the southern extremity of the range, but the Central Alleghenies have posed special problems for highway planners owing to the region's rugged terrain and environmental sensitivities This region is still served by a rather sparse secondary highway system and remains lower in population density than surrounding regions.
In the telecommunications field, a unique impediment to development in the central Allegheny region is the United States National Radio Quiet Zone, a large rectangle of land—about 13,000 square miles —that straddles the border area of Virginia and West Virginia. Created in 1958 by the Federal Communications Commission, the NRQZ restricts all omni
Battle Mountain (Virginia)
Battle Mountain is an igneous mountain in Rappahannock County, Virginia. The eastern slope is considered to reside in the unincorporated town of Amissville, Virginia while the western slope is considered to be within Castleton, Virginia; the entire mountain including the summit lies within private property at an elevation of 1,162 ft. It is an extinct volcano dating to the Neoproterozoic and is 704 million years old as dated using the U-Pb zircon crystal geochronology method, it is a unit of the Robertson River Igneous Suite and is located within the Blue Ridge anticlinorium. This volcanic formation was a result of crustal extensional rifting of the eastern Laurentian margin of the supercontinent Rodinia; this was the beginning of a chain of events that gave birth to the precursor Atlantic, the Iapetus Ocean at 550 Ma during the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition. The volcano is composed of alkali feldspar granitic rock of the Robertson River Igneous Suite; this includes felsic complex material such as biotite, hornblende-biotite and alkali granitic rock including rhyolite on the eastern slopes of Battle Mountain and the adjacent Little Battle Mountain.
A unique geological feature of Battle Mountain is that the western slope outcrops are composed of alkalai feldspar granite, while the eastern slope up to and including the summit is rhyolitic. This provides strong evidence of a theorized lateral explosive eruption event centered on the eastern slope at 704 Ma as proposed by Woolman. Further mathematical geology evidence which supports this theory includes a paleaogeographic reconstruction of the mountain by Woolman utilizing artificial neural networks and Markov chain geostatistical models including period climate condition-based soil erosion rates, Kirkby's hillslope movement evolution equations and recursive biogeochemical soil erosion rates in felsic granitic conditions; the result was the digital reconstruction image shown on the left, indicating what Battle Mountain may have looked like 704 million years ago on the western slope. Battle Mountain and Little Battle Mountain are the only mountains in Rappahannock County which are known to be volcanic in origin, are among the oldest visibly intact extinct volcanoes in Virginia.
White quartz boulders and smaller fragments are common on and around Battle Mountain, a result of molten silica, contained in the rhyolite lava and granitic magma that formed the volcano. As quartz is hard relative to feldspar granite and rhyolite, it tends to remain present on the surface while the softer granite it was embedded in wears away into the soil; the nearest unincorporated town is Amissville, Virginia at 4 miles away. Access to the mountain and the summit must be negotiated with local landowners first as the mountain, including all portions of the July 1863 battlefield exists on private property
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Page County, Virginia
Page County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,042, its county seat is Luray. Page County was formed in 1831 from Shenandoah and Rockingham counties and was named for John Page, Governor of Virginia from 1802 to 1805. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 314 square miles, of which 311 square miles is land and 3.2 square miles is water. The highest point in Page County is Hawksbill Mountain, located along the border with Madison County within Shenandoah National Park. Shenandoah County – northwest Warren County – north Rappahannock County – east Madison County – southeast Greene County – southeast Rockingham County – south George Washington National Forest Shenandoah National Park As of the census of 2000, there were 23,177 people, 9,305 households, 6,634 families residing in the county; the population density was 74 people per square mile. There were 10,557 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.65% White, 2.61% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. 1.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,305 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.80% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.00% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 25.30% from 45 to 64, 15.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,359, the median income for a family was $39,005.
Males had a median income of $27,199 versus $19,821 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,321. About 10.10% of families and 12.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.00% of those under age 18 and 14.70% of those age 65 or over. US 211 US 340 Skyline Drive Luray Shenandoah Stanley Arthur William Aleshire was a U. S. Representative from Ohio. Edward Mallory "Ned" Almond was a controversial United States Army general best known as the commander of the Army's X Corps during the Korean War. Floyd Wilson Baker was a third baseman in Major League Baseball who played for the St. Louis Browns, Chicago White Sox, Washington Senators, Boston Red Sox and Philadelphia Phillies. William Randolph Barbee was an American sculptor recognized for creating idealized, sentimental classical figures. Herbert Barbee was an American sculptor. Peter Bouck Borst was an active participant in the mid-19th century development of Page County, serving as a lawyer, county delegate to Virginia's Secession Convention of 1861, president of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad.
Patrick Henry Brittan was quartermaster general of Alabama and 10th Secretary of State for Alabama. Wayne Comer is a former Major League Baseball player. Charles Frederick Crisp was a United States political figure. A Democrat, he was elected as a Congressman from Georgia in 1882, served until his death in 1896. From 1890 until his death, he was leader of the Democratic Party in the House, as either the House Minority Leader or the Speaker of the House, he was the father of Charles R. Crisp who served in Congress. William Alexander Harris, Sr. was a U. S. Representative from Virginia, father of William A. Harris. William Alexander Harris was Senator from Kansas. Benjamin Franklin Huffman was a catcher in Major League Baseball. Thomas Jordan was a Confederate general and major operative in the network of Confederate spies during the American Civil War. A West Point graduate and career soldier in the armies of three nations, he fought in numerous wars and rebellions in the United States and Cuba. Jordan was a newspaper editor and author.
Donald Edward Keyhoe was an American Marine Corps naval aviator, writer of many aviation articles and stories in a variety of leading publications, manager of the promotional tours of aviation pioneers of Charles Lindbergh. Robert Franklin Leedy was a lawyer and Virginia state legislator. William Milnes, Jr. was a nineteenth-century congressman and industrialist from Virginia and Pennsylvania. George Quaintance was an artist from Virginia. Kenneth R. Plum is a member of the Virginia House of Delegates. Henry Ruffner was an educator and Presbyterian minister, who served as president of Washington College. Bethany Veney known as Aunt Betty, was an African-American sl
The Ragged Mountains are a small chain of rugged hills—an offshoot of the Blue Ridge Mountains—southwest of Charlottesville, Virginia. 980 acres have been preserved as the Ragged Mountain Natural Area. The region provided the atmospheric setting for Edgar Allan Poe's short story, "A Tale of the Ragged Mountains", which described it as a "chain of wild and dreary hills." Poe was familiar with the area from his days as a student at the University of Virginia. The Ragged Mountain Natural Area was established in 1997 and opened to the public in 1999, it encompasses a reservoir for the city of Charlottesville and the surrounding watershed, forested with oak and yellow poplar. Ragged Mountain Natural Area "A Tale of the Ragged Mountains by Edgar Allan Poe" "A Tale of the Ragged Mountains"
Old Rag Mountain
Old Rag Mountain is a 3,284 feet mountain near Sperryville in Madison County, Virginia. A part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, the peak is located within Shenandoah National Park and is the most popular hiking destination within the park. In contrast to most mountains of the Blue Ridge, Old Rag has an exposed summit. Old Rag Mountain is underlain by Old Rag Granite, named for its ubiquitous exposure on the mountain, formed during the Grenville Orogeny about a billion years ago. About 400 million years after the Grenville orogeny during the Catoctin Formation, deposition of basaltic magma occurred during the formation of the Iapetus Ocean, forming a layer of greenstone over the granite; this was followed by the Weverton Formation, Harpers Formation, Antietam formation in which sand and rock sedimented on the ocean floor forming quartzite and sandstone deposits. A period of sedimentation of shells and skeletons of foraminifera resulted in deposition of a layer of limestone. 700 million years after the Greenville Orogeny, the Iapetus Ocean began to close resulting in the Alleghenian Orogeny when the Old Rag Granite and layers of rock deposited upon it were transported westward and thrust up over the limestone bed around it, forming Old Rag and the Blue Ridge Mountains.
The summit of Old Rag is accessible via a system of trails in Shenandoah National Park. The shorter, most common way is from a parking area in Nethers near the end of Madison County's SR 601, off Virginia State Route 231, at the base of the mountain. A 9-mile circuit hike or a 5.4-mile out-and-back hike to the summit can be made. The circuit hike makes use of the Ridge Trail which ascends the mountain 1.6 miles to the first false summit. The trail turns into a rock scramble, which can be strenuous for inexperienced hikers, for 1.1 miles to the summit and intersection with the Saddle Trail which descends 1.9 miles down the saddle of the ridge past Byrds Nest #1 shelter and Old Rag shelter to the junction with Weakley Hollow Fire Road. The Fire Road descends 2.5 miles to the Old Rag parking area. The upper Old Rag parking area was closed to public vehicles in 2010. Parking is now limited to the lower field parking area; the summit can be reached from Skyline Drive by following Old Rag Fire Road from the drive at milepost 43 to its eastern terminus with the Saddle Trail and follow that trail to the summit.
Old Rag is a unique destination for rock climbing in the mid-Atlantic region. Its large granite exposures offer rock climbers an experience similar to that provided by the granite rocks of the Sierra Nevada, North Carolina, New Hampshire, it boasts splitter cracks and crystal pinching slabs. The climbs are between 50 and 100 feet in length, range in difficulty from beginner to expert. Old Rag has a rather underdeveloped bouldering section. However, because Old Rag has an exposed surface, bouldering challenges exist all along the trail. "Shenandoah National Park". National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-11-29. "Old Rag Mountain, VA". LocalHikes.com. Retrieved 2008-11-29. "Old Rag Mountain - SNP, Virginia". Shenandoah National Park. HikingUpward.com. Retrieved 2008-11-29. "Climber's Guide to Old Rag Mountain - SNP, Virginia". Old-rag-guide.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-04-23
Hawksbill Mountain is a mountain with an elevation of 4,050 feet. Marking the border between Madison County and Page County in Virginia, the summit of Hawksbill Mountain is the highest point in Shenandoah National Park, as well as the highest point in both Madison and Page counties; the north face of Hawksbill Peak is a 2,500-foot drop into Timber Hollow, the largest elevation change in the park. The summit is one of the few places in Shenandoah National Park where one can find balsam fir, a tree more typical of northern New England and southeast Canada The National Park Service has constructed a stone observation platform at the summit. Byrd's Nest No. 2, one of a series of shelters built in the park by Senator Harry Byrd, is nearby. Hawksbill peak is the site of a peregrine falcon restoration project; the summit of Hawksbill Mountain can be reached by a short hike from a trailhead located at the Upper Hawksbill parking area, just off of Skyline Drive in Shenandoah National Park. A number of other hiking trails lead to the summit of Hawksbill, while the Appalachian Trail goes around and about 500 ft in elevation below the summit.
List of mountains in Virginia Media related to Hawksbill Mountain at Wikimedia Commons Shenandoah National Park TopoQuest Quad map