Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history. German is the mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages, before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany in 1990, Germans constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, roughly 80 million consider themselves Germans. Thus, the number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most often subscribe to their own national identities, the German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic language of the people. It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German, used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of a German emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century. The Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni and it was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century. The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects, while in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse, Finnish and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci, originally with a meaning foreigner, the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and later Tacitus. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century, the Germans are a Germanic people, who as an ethnicity emerged during the Middle Ages. Originally part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War and these states eventually formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe, the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was significantly increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe, during antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area that is now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, and had spread west into what is now Belgium and France. Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, in Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, and Roman, Germanic, and Christian traditions intermingled. The adoption of Christianity would later become an influence in the development of a common German identity
Alfred A. Knopf Sr.
Alfred Abraham Knopf Sr. was an American publisher of the 20th century, and founder of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. His contemporaries included the likes of Bennett Cerf and Donald Klopfer, Knopf paid special attention to the quality of printing, binding, and design in his books, and earned a reputation as a purist in both content and presentation. Asked how to say his name, Knopf told the Literary Digest, Sound the k, Knopf was born into a Jewish family in New York City. Alfred attended Columbia University, where he was a student and a member of the Peithologian Society. He began to show an interest in publishing during his senior year and his interest in publishing was allegedly fostered by a correspondence with British author John Galsworthy. After visiting Galsworthy in England, Knopf gave up his plans for a law career, after receiving his B. A. in 1912, Knopf worked as a clerk at Doubleday, then as an editorial assistant to Mitchell Kennerley. He founded his own publishing house in 1915, the company initially emphasized European, especially Russian, literature, hence the choice of the borzoi as a colophon. From 1924 to 1934, he published the literary magazine founded by Mencken and Nathan. He often developed a friendship with his authors. A prominent Republican until Watergate, Knopf often drew legislators into lengthy correspondence by mail and he was also a member of the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors from 1940 to 1946. Knopf himself was also an author and his writings include Some Random Recollections, Publishing Then and Now, Portrait of a Publisher, Blanche W. Knopf, July 30, 1894-June 4,1966, and Sixty Photographs. The problem was solved in 1960, when Knopf merged with Random House, Knopf retained complete editorial control for five years, and then gave up only his right to veto other editors manuscript selections. The editorial departments of the two remain separate, and Knopf, Inc. retains its distinctive character. Knopf called the merger a perfect marriage, Random House itself eventually became a division of Bertelsmann AG, a large multinational media company. The Knopf imprint remains in existence, Blanche Knopf died in June 1966. Alfred remarried in April of the year, to Helen Norcross Hedrick. He died of heart failure on August 11,1984, at his estate in Purchase. Knopf had little enthusiasm for most of the changes took place in the publishing industry during his lifetime
Fernand Edmond Jean Marie Khnopff was a Belgian symbolist painter. Fernand Khnopff was born to a family that was part of the high bourgeoisie for generations. Khnopffs ancestors had lived in the Vossenhoek area of Grembergen Flanders since the early 17th century but were of Austrian, most male members of his family had been lawyers or judges, and young Fernand was destined for a juridical career. In his early childhood, he lived in Bruges where his father was appointed Substitut Du Procureur Du Roi and his childhood memories of the medieval city of Bruges would play a significant role in his later work. In 1864, the moved to Brussels. In his childhood Khnopff spent part of his holidays in the hamlet of Tillet not so far from Bastogne in the Luxemburg province where his maternal grand parents owned an estate. He painted several views of this village, to please his parents, he went to law school at the Free University of Brussels when he was 18 years old. During this period, he developed a passion for literature, discovering the works of Baudelaire, Flaubert, Leconte de Lisle and other mostly French authors. Khnopff left University due to a lack of interest in his law studies and began to frequent the studio of Xavier Mellery, on 25 October 1876, he enrolled for the Cours De Dessin Après Nature at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. At the Académie, his most famous student was James Ensor. Between 1877 and 1880, Khnopff made several trips to Paris where he discovered the work of Delacroix, Ingres, Moreau, at the Paris World Fair of 1878 he became acquainted with the oeuvre of Millais and Burne-Jones. In 1881, he presents his works to the public for the first time at the Salon de lEssor in Brussels, the critics appraisal of his work is very harsh, with the exception of Emile Verhaeren who writes a commending review. Verhaeren would remain a supporter and would write the first monography of the painter. In 1883, he was one of the members of the group Le Groupe des XX. Khnopff exhibited regularly at the annual Salon organised by Les XX, in 1885, he met the French novelist Joséphin Péladan the future grandmaster of the Rosicrucian Ordre de la Rose + Croix. Péladan asked Khnopff to design the cover for his new book Le Vice suprême, the vehement reaction of La Caron on this occasion made a scandal in the Belgian and Parisian press and would help to establish Khnopffs name as an artist. Khnopff continued to design illustrations for the works of Péladan, most notably for Femmes honnêtes, on several occasions Khnopff was invited as guest of honour on the exhibitions of the Parisian Salon de la Rose + Croix organised by Péladan. In 1889, Khnopff laid his first contacts with England, where he would stay, British artists such as Hunt, Watts, Rossetti, Brown and Burne-Jones would become friends
A given name is a part of a persons personal name. It identifies a person, and differentiates that person from other members of a group, such as a family or clan. The term given name refers to the fact that the name usually is bestowed upon a person and this contrasts with a surname, which is normally inherited, and shared with other members of the childs immediate family. Given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner in informal situations. In more formal situations the surname is commonly used, unless it is necessary to distinguish between people with the same surname. The idioms on a basis and being on first-name terms allude to the familiarity of addressing another by a given name. The order given name – family name, commonly known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by Western Europe. The order family name – given name, commonly known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India. The order given name - fathers family name - mothers family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can also be changed legally in Spain using given name - mothers family name - fathers family name, under the common Western naming convention, people may have one or more forenames. If more than one, there is usually a main forename for everyday use, sometimes however two or more forenames may carry equal weight. There is no particular ordering rule for forenames – often the main forename is at the beginning, a childs given name or names are usually chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a ceremony, with family. In most jurisdictions, a name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate. In western cultures, people normally retain the same name throughout their lives. However, in some cases names may be changed by petitioning a court of law. People may also change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions, in France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, like in Sweden, restrict the spelling of names, parents may choose a name because of its meaning