Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn; the same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electronics Engineers. The knot is a non-SI unit. Worldwide, the knot is used in meteorology, in maritime and air navigation—for example, a vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels one minute of geographic latitude in one hour. Etymologically, the term derives from counting the number of knots in the line that unspooled from the reel of a chip log in a specific time. 1 international knot = 1 nautical mile per hour, 1852.000 metres per hour, 0.51444 metres per second, 1.15078 miles per hour, 20.25372 inches per second 1.68781 feet per second. The length of the internationally agreed nautical mile is 1852 m; the US adopted the international definition in 1954, having used the US nautical mile. The UK adopted the international nautical mile definition in 1970, having used the UK Admiralty nautical mile; the speeds of vessels relative to the fluids in which they travel are measured in knots.

For consistency, the speeds of navigational fluids are measured in knots. Thus, speed over the ground and rate of progress towards a distant point are given in knots; until the mid-19th century, vessel speed at sea was measured using a chip log. This consisted of a wooden panel, attached by line to a reel, weighted on one edge to float perpendicularly to the water surface and thus present substantial resistance to the water moving around it; the chip log was cast over the stern of the line allowed to pay out. Knots placed at a distance of 47 feet 3 inches from each other, passed through a sailor's fingers, while another sailor used a 30-second sand-glass to time the operation; the knot count would be used in the sailing master's dead reckoning and navigation. This method gives a value for 1.85166 km/h. The difference from the modern definition is less than 0.02%. Derivation of knots spacing: 1 kn = 1852 m/h = 0.5144 m/s, so in 28 seconds, 14.40 metres per knot. Although the unit knot does not fit within the SI system, its retention for nautical and aviation use is important because the length of a nautical mile, upon which the knot is based, is related to the longitude/latitude geographic coordinate system.

As a result, nautical miles and knots are convenient units to use when navigating an aircraft or ship. Standard nautical charts are on the Mercator projection and the horizontal scale varies with latitude. On a chart of the North Atlantic, the scale varies by a factor of two from Florida to Greenland. A single graphic scale, of the sort on many maps, would therefore be useless on such a chart. Since the length of a nautical mile, for practical purposes, is equivalent to about a minute of latitude, a distance in nautical miles on a chart can be measured by using dividers and the latitude scales on the sides of the chart. Recent British Admiralty charts have a latitude scale down the middle to make this easier. Speed is sometimes incorrectly expressed as "knots per hour", which would mean "nautical miles per hour per hour" and thus would refer to acceleration. Prior to 1969, airworthiness standards for civil aircraft in the United States Federal Aviation Regulations specified that distances were to be in statute miles, speeds in miles per hour.

In 1969, these standards were progressively amended to specify that distances were to be in nautical miles, speeds in knots. The following abbreviations are used to distinguish between various measurements of airspeed: KTAS is "knots true airspeed", the airspeed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed air KIAS is "knots indicated airspeed", the speed shown on an aircraft's pitot-static airspeed indicator KCAS is "knots calibrated airspeed", the indicated airspeed corrected for position error and instrument error KEAS is "knots equivalent airspeed", the calibrated airspeed corrected for adiabatic compressible flow for the particular altitudeThe indicated airspeed is close to the true airspeed only at sea level in standard conditions and at low speeds. At 11000 m, an indicated airspeed of 300 kn may correspond to a true airspeed of 500 kn in standard conditions. Beaufort scale Hull speed, which deals with theoretical estimates of practical maximum speed of displacement hulls Knot count Knotted cord Metre per second Orders of magnitude Rope

Territorial police force

The phrase territorial police force varies in precise meaning according to the country to which it is related distinguishing a force whose area of responsibility is defined by sub-national boundaries from others which deal with the entire country or a restricted range of crime. In countries organized as federations, police responsible for individual sub-national jurisdictions are called state or provincial police; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is contracted to act as the territorial police force in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories in addition to being the federal police force in those Canadian territories. The RCMP provides provincial policing in all provinces other than Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec. A separate Sahrawi indigenous unit serving the Spanish colonial government was the Policia Territorial; this gendarmerie corresponded to the Civil Guard in metropolitan Spain. It included Spanish personnel of all ranks. In the United Kingdom the phrase is gaining increased official use to describe the collection of forces responsible for general policing in areas defined with respect to local government areas.

The phrase "Home Office Police" is used but this is inaccurate or inadequate as the words exclude forces outside England and Wales, but include some special police forces over which the Home Secretary has some power. The police forces referred to as "territorial" are those whose police areas are defined by: Police Act 1996 – England and Wales legislation matched the Metropolitan Police District to the boundary of Greater London Police and Fire Reform Act 2012 – Scotland Police Act 2000 – Northern Ireland Members of territorial police forces have jurisdiction in one of the three distinct legal systems of the United Kingdom - either England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. A police officer of one of the three legal systems has all the powers of a constable throughout their own legal system but limited powers in the other two legal systems. Certain exceptions where full police powers cross the border with the officer are when officers are providing planned support to another force such as the G8 Conference in Scotland in 2005, officers of the Metropolitan Police who are on protection duties anywhere in the United Kingdom and when taking a person to or from a prison.

The United Nations has operated territorial police forces in those parts of countries which have been under U. N. control from time to time. These were formed from police personnel on loan from member countries. A recent example is the use of such a force in East Timor in substitution for Indonesian National Police; the Police in Scotland


The Spanish Association for Standardization and Certification is an entity dedicated to the development of standardization and certification in all Spanish industrial and service sectors. Aenor is a private, non-profit-making Spanish institution which contributes through standardization and certification to improve technology produced by companies, it was created by order of the Ministry of Industry and Energy on 26 February 1986, in accordance with the Royal Decree 1614/1985 and was recognized as a standardization organization and as an entity of certification by Royal decree 2200/1995, following the law 21/1992 of industry. The functions of AENOR are: Standardization: AENOR is the organization responsible of development and diffusion of technical standards in Spain. Certification: AENOR certificates are one the most valued in the international ambit, since it has emitted certificates in over 60 countries. Therefore, AENOR is situated between the ten most important certificators in the world.

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Until that date, standardization work was the responsibility of the Institute for Rationalization and Standardization. In the first year 24 technical standards committees were created. A year AENOR assumed the representation of Spain before the European organizations and international. Nowadays, AENOR has more than 200 technical standards committees involving nearly 6,000 experts in the field. Aenor contributes to improving the quality of companies, their products and services while protecting the environment and the welfare of society, their commitments are five: They intend to involve all interested parties in the elaboration of Spanish technical standards. Contributing to products and companies a differential competitive value certifying them to promote international cooperation and trade relations. To obtain guarantees of a competitive development through the orientation of the management to the satisfaction of our clients, the active participation and with total quality criteria. To spread a culture related to quality and that identifies Aenor as a support for those who look for excellence.

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The General Assembly is the supreme body. Its function is to elect the Board of Directors, responsible for the representation and management of the Association; the Board of Directors consists of a maximum of 70 members representing the different classes of members and the interested pa