Fallopia is a genus of about 12–15 species of flowering plants in the buckwheat family included in a wider treatment of the related genus Polygonum in the past. The genus is native to subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere; the genus includes herbaceous perennial plants, herbaceous vines, woody vines. The genus is named after Italian botanist Gabriello Fallopio, or Fallopius, the superintendent of the botanical garden at Padua, he was an acclaimed anatomist, being considered a founder of modern anatomy along with Vesalius and Eustachius. Fallopia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora therinella. Fallopia is placed in the tribe Polygoneae of the subfamily Polygonoideae. Within the tribe, it is most related to the genera Reynoutria and Muehlenbeckia, forming the so-called "RMF clade"; as of March 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted 12 species. Fallopia aubertii Holub – silver lace vine. Löve – black-bindweed. Fallopia cristata Holub – eastern and central United States Fallopia cynanchoides Haraldson – western China Fallopia dentatoalata Holub – Eastern Asia Fallopia dumetorum Holub – copse bindweed, small-flower knotweed.
U. Oh & J. G. Kim – Korean knotweed; some synonyms are listed below. Fallopia × bohemica → Reynoutria × bohemica, Bohemian knotweed. Fallopia ciliinodis Holub – fringed black bindweed → Polygonum ciliinode Fallopia denticulata Holub → Pteroxygonum denticulatum Fallopia japonica Houtt. – Japanese knotweed → Reynoutria japonica Fallopia sachalinensis – giant knotweed → Reynoutria sachalinensis Crosses between Japanese knotweed and giant knotweed have occurred where the two species grow in close proximity. The hybrid, ×Reyllopia conollyana Galasso is called railway-yard knotweed. Japanese Knotweed Alliance Recipes "Wildman" Steve Brill Strategies for the Eradication of Japanese Knotweed. Knotweed page on KnottyBits.com Cornwall Knotweed Forum
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the lect used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population. It is distinguished from national, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area, it is native spoken informally rather than written and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It can be regional dialect, sociolect or an independent language. In the context of language standardization, the term "vernacular" is used to refer to nonstandard dialects of a certain language, as opposed to its prestige normative forms. Usage of the word "vernacular" is not recent. In 1688, James Howell wrote: Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country. Here, mother language and dialect are in use in a modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster, "vernacular" was brought into the English language as early as 1601 from the Latin vernaculus, in figurative use in Classical Latin as "national" and "domestic", having been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave born in the house rather than abroad.
The figurative meaning was broadened from vernacula. Varro, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, "termes de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as opposed to foreign words. In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different vernaculars not understood by each other may communicate. For instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, serving as a lingua franca. Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular; the Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian and French, respectively. In Europe, Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin. In religion, Protestantism was a driving force in the use of the vernacular in Christian Europe, the Bible being translated from Latin into vernacular languages with such works as the Bible in Dutch: published in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.
In Catholicism, vernacular bibles were provided, but Latin was used at Tridentine Mass until the Second Vatican Council of 1965. Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass. In Eastern Orthodox Church, four Gospels translated to vernacular Ukrainian language in 1561 are known as Peresopnytsia Gospel. In India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular. In science, an early user of the vernacular was Galileo, writing in Italian c. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin. A example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose 1704 Opticks was in English. Latin continues to be used in certain fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics use vernacular. In diplomacy, French displaced Latin in Europe in the 1710s, due to the military power of Louis XIV of France. Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, with two used examples being Arabic and Chinese: see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language.
In the 1920s, due to the May Fourth Movement, Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular Chinese. The vernacular is often contrasted with a liturgical language, a specialized use of a former lingua franca. For example, until the 1960s, Roman Rite Catholics held Masses in Latin rather than in vernaculars. In Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit or in Tamil in Tamil country. Sanskrit was a lingua franca among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits, began to diverge from it in different regions. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages: Hindi, Kannada and many others. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; these circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant used by the same speakers
Polygonum is a genus of about 130 species of flowering plant in the buckwheat and knotweed family Polygonaceae. Common names include knotweed, bistort, mile-a-minute and several others. In the Middle English glossary of herbs Alphita, it was known as ars-smerte. There have been various opinions about. For example, buckwheat has sometimes been included in the genus as Polygonum fagopyrum. Former genera such as Polygonella have been subsumed into Polygonum; the genus grows in northern temperate regions. The species are diverse, ranging from prostrate herbaceous annual plants to erect herbaceous perennial plants and perennial woody vines growing high in trees. Several are aquatic. Polygonum species are eaten by humans, are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species – see list. Most species are considered weedy in moist soils in the USA; the species are diverse, ranging from prostrate herbaceous annual plants under 5 cm high to erect herbaceous perennial plants growing up to 3–4 m tall to perennial woody vines growing up to 20–30 m high in trees.
Several are aquatic. The smooth-edged leaves range from 1–30 cm long, vary in shape between species from narrow lanceolate to oval, broad triangular, heart-shaped, or arrowhead forms; the stems are reddish or red-speckled. The small flowers are pink, white, or greenish, forming in summer in dense clusters from the leaf joints or stem apices; the genus name is from the Greek poly = "many" and gonu = "knee" or "joint", in reference to the swollen jointed stem. Polygonum is placed in the tribe Polygoneae of the subfamily Polygonoideae. Within the tribe, it is most related to the genera Duma and Atraphaxis, forming the so-called "DAP clade". Between 65 and 300 species have been recognised at various times, depending on the circumscription of the genus. A number of species, included in Polygonum have been moved into several other genera, including Bistorta, Fallopia, Koenigia and Reynoutria. Other genera, such as Polygonella, have been subsumed into Polygonum; as of February 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted 129 species.
Many species placed in Polygonum have been moved to other genera in the subfamily Polygonoideae. Some synonyms are listed below. Polygonum amplexicaule → Bistorta amplexicaulis Polygonum bistorta – bistort → Bistorta amplexicaulis Polygonum bistortoides Pursh – American bistort, western bistort, smokeweed or mountain meadow knotweed → Bistorta bistortoides Polygonum tenuicaule Bisset & S. Moore → Bistorta tenuicaulis Polygonum viviparum – alpine bistort → Bistorta vivipara Polygonum fagopyrum L. – buckwheat → Fagopyrum esculentum Polygonum aubertii L. Henry → Fallopia aubertii Polygonum baldschuanicum Regel – Russian vine → Fallopia baldschuanica Polygonum convolvulus L. – black bindweed, wild buckwheat → Fallopia convolvulus Polygonum dumetorum L. → Fallopia dumetorum Polygonum scandens L. → Fallopia scandens Polygonum alpinum → Koenigia alpina Polygonum campanulatum – lesser knotweed, bellflower smartweed → Koenigia campanulata Polygonum davisiae W. H. Brewer ex A. Gray and Polygonum newberryi Small → Koenigia davisiae Polygonum molle → Koenigia mollis Polygonum polystachyum Wall.
Ex Meisn. → Koenigia polystachya Polygonum alatum → Persicaria nepalensis Polygonum amphibium – amphibious bistort, longroot smartweed, water smartweed → Persicaria amphibia Polygonum capitatum – pinkhead smartweed → Persicaria capitata Polygonum chinense L. → Persicaria chinensis Polygonum coccineum Muhl. Ex Willd. → Persicaria amphibia Polygonum filiforme Thunb. → Persicaria filiforme Polygonum hydropiper – water-pepper → Persicaria hydropiper Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. – swamp smartweed → Persicaria hydropiperoides Polygonum lapathifolium – pale persicaria or nodding smartweed → Persicaria lapathifolia Polygonum longisetum → Persicaria longiseta Polygonum minus – small water-pepper → Persicaria minor Polygonum mite Schrank – tasteless water-pepper → Persicaria mitis Assenov Polygonum nepalense → Persicaria nepalensis Polygonum odoratum Lour. – Vietnamese coriander → Persicaria odorata Polygonum orientale → Persicaria orientalis Polygonum pensylvanicum – Pennsylvania smartweed or pink knotweed or pinkweed → Persicaria pensylvanica Polygonum persicaria – redshank or persicaria or lady's thumb → Persicaria maculosa Polygonum punctatum Elliott – dotted smartweed → Persicaria punctata Polygonum runcinatum → Persicaria runcinata Polygonum sagittatum – arrowleaf tearthumb, American tear-thumb or scratchgrass → Persicaria sagittata Polygonum tinctorium → Persicaria tinctoria Polygonum virginianum L. → Persicaria virginiana Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.
→ Reynoutria multiflora Polygonum cuspidatum Zucc. – Japanese knotweed → Reynoutria japonica Polygonum sachalinense F. Schmidt – giant knotweed → Reynoutria sachalinensis Polygonum vaccinifolium Wall. Is an unresolved species name. Persicaria vaccinifolia may be a synonym. Several species can be eaten cooked, for example during famines; the species Polygonum cognatum, known locally as "madimak", is consumed in central parts of Turkey. In Chinese medicine, a Polygonum extract called Rèlínqīng Kēlì is used to treat urinary tract infections. Chinese medicine uses a Reynoutria multiflora extract called Fo-Ti. Care should be taken not to confuse Polygonum with Polygonatum – an different genus of plants. In The Man Who Laughs Victor Hugo wrote of the Comprachicos who created artificial dwarfs, formed "by anointing babies' s
Persicaria is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the knotweed family, Polygonaceae. Plants of the genus are known as knotweeds or smartweeds, it has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species occurring nearly worldwide. The genus was segregated from Polygonum; the genus includes annual and perennial herbs with taproots or fibrous root systems, or with rhizomes or stolons. The stems are erect but may be prostrate along the ground, some species are prickly; the stems are twining and climbing. The leaves are alternately arranged and variously shaped; the brownish or reddish ochrea may be leathery to papery. The inflorescence may be a spikelike or headlike arrangement of fascicles of flowers; the flower is white, reddish, or purple, with the tepals fused together along the bases. The fruit is an achene which can take a number including a disc or a sphere; as of February 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted the following species
The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants known informally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States. The name is based on the genus Polygonum, was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum; the name refers to the many swollen nodes. It is derived from Greek; the Polygonaceae comprise about 1200 species distributed into about 48 genera. The largest genera are Eriogonum, Coccoloba and Calligonum; the family is most diverse in the North Temperate Zone. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals. A few species of Triplaris provide lumber; the fruit of the sea grape is eaten, in Florida, jelly is made from it and sold commercially. The seeds of two species of Fagopyrum, known as buckwheat, provide grain; the petioles of rhubarb are a food item. The leaves of the common sorrel are eaten as a leaf vegetable. Polygonaceae contain some of the worst weeds, including species of Persicaria and Polygonum, such as Japanese knotweed.
Polygonaceae are well-defined and have long been universally recognized. In the APG III system, the family is placed in the order Caryophyllales. Within the order, it lies outside of the large clade known as the core Caryophyllales, it is sister to the family Plumbaginaceae. The last comprehensive revision of the family was published in 1993 by John Brandbyge as part of The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Brandbyge followed earlier systems of plant classification in dividing Polygonaceae into two subfamilies and Polygonoideae. Since 1993, the circumscriptions of these two subfamilies have been changed in light of phylogenetic studies of DNA sequences. Genera related to Coccoloba and Triplaris were moved from Polygonoideae to Eriogonoideae; the genus Symmeria does not belong to either of these subfamilies because it is sister to the rest of the family. Afrobrunnichia might constitute a new subfamily as well. Brandbyge wrote descriptions for 43 genera of Polygonaceae in 1993. Since a few more genera have been erected, some segregates of Brunnichia and Persicaria have been given generic status in major works.
Some of the genera were found not to be monophyletic and their limits have been revised. These include Ruprechtia, Chorizanthe, Aconogonon, Polygonum and Muehlenbeckia. Most Polygonaceae are perennial herbaceous plants with swollen nodes, but trees and vines are present; the leaves of Polygonaceae are simple, arranged alternately on the stems. Each leaf has a peculiar pair of sheathing stipules known as an ochrea; those species that do not have the nodal ocrea can be identified by their possession of involucrate flower heads. The flowers are bisexual and actinomorphic, with a perianth of three to six sepals. After flowering, the sepals become thickened and enlarged around the developing fruit. Flowers lack a corolla and in some, the sepals are petal-like and colorful; the androecium is composed of three to eight stamens that are free or united at the base. The ovary consists of three united carpels; the ovary is superior with free-central placentation. The gynoecium terminates in 1 to 3 styles; as of March 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted 56 genera: Aconogonon Rchb. – now included in Koenigia Homalocladium L.
H. Bailey – now included in Muehlenbeckia Parapteropyrum A. J. Li – now included in Fagopyrum Polygonella Michx. – now included in Polygonum Rubrivena M. Král – now included in Koenigia The following phylogenetic tree is based on two papers on the molecular phylogenetics of Polygonaceae. Polygonaceae In: FNA volume 5 In: Family List In: Flora of North America At: eFloras Polygonaceae In: Genera Plantarum At: Genera Plantarum At: Search At: Botanicus.org List of Genera in Polygonaceae At: Polygonaceae At: Caryophyllales At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website At: Missoure Botanical Garden Website List of genera in family Polygonaceae At: Dicotyledons At: List Genera within a Family At: Vascular Plant Families and Genera At: About the Checklist At: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families At: Data Sources At: ePIC At: Scientific Databases At: Kew Gardens List of genera At: Polygonaceae At: List of families At: Families and Genera in GRIN At: Queries At: GRIN taxonomy for plants non-core Caryophyllales At: Caryophyllales At: Root of the Tree At: Tree of Life web project Polygonaceae In: Flowering Plants Polygonaceae in L. Watson and M.
J. Dallwitz; the families of flowering plants: descriptions, identification, information retrieval. Http://delta-intkey.com Family Polygonaceae Flowers in Israel Polygonaceae of Mongolia in FloraGREIF
Reynoutria japonica, synonyms Fallopia japonica and Polygonum cuspidatum, is a large species of herbaceous perennial plant of the knotweed and buckwheat family Polygonaceae. It is known as Asian knotweed or Japanese knotweed, it is native to East Asia in Japan and Korea. In North America and Europe, the species has established itself in numerous habitats and is classified as an invasive species in several countries. Japanese knotweed has hollow stems with distinct raised nodes that give it the appearance of bamboo, though it is not related. While stems may reach a maximum height of 3–4 m each growing season, it is typical to see much smaller plants in places where they sprout through cracks in the pavement or are cut down; the leaves are broad oval with a truncated base, 7–14 cm long and 5–12 cm broad, with an entire margin. The flowers are small, cream or white, produced in erect racemes 6–15 cm long in late summer and early autumn. Related species include giant Russian vine. Other English names for Japanese knotweed include fleeceflower, Himalayan fleece vine, monkey fungus, Hancock's curse, elephant ears, pea shooters, donkey rhubarb, sally rhubarb, Japanese bamboo, American bamboo, Mexican bamboo.
In Chinese medicine, it is known as huzhang, which translates to "tiger stick". There are regional names, it is sometimes confused with sorrel. In Japanese, the name is itadori. Japanese knotweed flowers are valued by some beekeepers as an important source of nectar for honeybees, at a time of year when little else is flowering. Japanese knotweed yields a monofloral honey called bamboo honey by northeastern U. S. beekeepers, like a mild-flavoured version of buckwheat honey. The young stems are edible as a spring vegetable, with a flavour similar to sour rhubarb. In some locations, semi-cultivating Japanese knotweed for food has been used as a means of controlling knotweed populations that invade sensitive wetland areas and drive out the native vegetation, it is eaten in Japan as wild foraged vegetable. It is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine to treat various disorders through the actions of resveratrol, although there is no high-quality evidence from clinical research for any medical efficacy.
Extracts of resveratrol from R. japonica roots are higher in content than those from stems or leaves, have highest levels at the end of the growing season. The plant is known as itadori; the kanji expression is from the Chinese meaning "tiger stick". One interpretation of the Japanese name is that it comes from "remove pain", though there are other etymological explanations offered, it grows throughout Japan and is foraged as a wild edible vegetable, though not in sufficient quantities to be included in statistics. They are called by such regional names as tonkiba, itazura, sashi, sukanpo. Young leaves and shoots, which look like asparagus, are used, they are sour. Places in Shikoku such as central parts of Kagawa Prefecture pickle the peeled young shoots by weighting them down in salt mixed with 10% nigari. People in Kochi rub these cleaned shoots with coarse salt-nigari blend, it is said. It is listed by the World Conservation Union as one of the world's worst invasive species; the invasive root system and strong growth can damage concrete foundations, flood defences, paving, retaining walls and architectural sites.
It can reduce the capacity of channels in flood defences to carry water. It is a frequent colonizer of temperate riparian ecosystems and waste places, it forms thick, dense colonies that crowd out any other herbaceous species and is now considered one of the worst invasive exotics in parts of the eastern United States. The success of the species has been attributed to its tolerance of a wide range of soil types, pH and salinity, its rhizomes can survive temperatures of −35 °C and can extend 7 metres horizontally and 3 metres deep, making removal by excavation difficult. The plant is resilient to cutting, vigorously resprouting from the roots. Identification of Japanese knotweed is not always easy. Many other plants are suspected of being knotweed, due to the similar appearance of leaves and stems. Dogwood, Houttuynia, ornamental Bistorts such as Red Bistort, lesser knotweed, Himalayan Balsam, Broadleaved Dock, bamboo, Himalayan Honeysuckle, Russian Vine have been suspected of being Reynoutria japonica.
New leaves of Reynoutria japonica are 1 to 4 cm long. Mature R. japonica forms 2-to-3-metre tall dense thickets.