Known Space is the fictional setting of about a dozen science fiction novels and several collections of short stories written by Larry Niven. It has become a shared universe in the spin-off Man-Kzin Wars anthologies. ISFDB catalogs all works set in the fictional universe that includes Known Space under the series name Tales of Known Space, the title of a 1975 collection of Niven's short stories; the first-published work in the series, Niven's first published piece was "The Coldest Place", in the December 1964 issue of If magazine, edited by Frederik Pohl. This was the first-published work in the 1975 collection; the stories span one thousand years of future history, from the first human explorations of the Solar System to the colonization of dozens of nearby systems. Late in the series, Known Space is an irregularly shaped "bubble" about 60 light-years across. Within the Tales of Known Space, the epithet "Known Space" refers to a small region in the Milky Way galaxy, one centered on Earth. In the future that the series depicts, spanning the third millennium, humans have explored this region and colonized many of its worlds.
Contact has been made with other species, such as the two-headed Pierson's Puppeteers and the aggressive felinoid Kzinti. Stories in the Known Space series include events and places outside of the region called "Known Space" such as the Ringworld, the Pierson's Puppeteers' Fleet of Worlds and the Pak homeworld; the Tales were conceived as two separate series, the Belter stories set from 2000 to 2350 CE and the Neutron Star / Ringworld stories set in 2651 CE and later. The earlier, Belter period features solar-system colonization and slower-than-light travel with fusion-powered and Bussard ramjet ships; the Neutron Star period features faster-than-light ships using "hyperdrive". Niven implicitly joined the two settings as a single fictional universe in the short story "A Relic of the Empire", by using background elements of the Slaver civilization from the Belter series as a plot element in the faster-than-light setting. In the late 1980s—having written no Tales of Known Space in more than a decade—Niven opened the 300-year gap in the Known Space timeline as a shared universe, the stories of the Man-Kzin Wars volumes fill in that history, bridging the two settings.
One aspect of the Known Space universe is that most of the early human colonies are on planets suboptimal for Homo sapiens. During the first phase of human interstellar colonization, simple robotic probes were sent to nearby stars to assess their planets for habitation; the programming of these probes was flawed: they sent back a "good for colonization" message if they found a habitable point, rather than a habitable planet. Sleeper ships containing human colonists were sent to the indicated star systems. Too those colonists had to make the best of a bad situation. Earth, the human homeworld, is oppressively ruled by the United Nations, which wields its power by means of the ARM, a global police force. For centuries, due to the perfection of organ transplant technology, all state executions were done in hospitals to provide organ transplants, to maximize their availability nearly all crimes carried the death penalty, including such offenses as multiple traffic tickets or tax evasion; this period ended when Jack Brennan, who had consumed the Tree-of-Life root and become a human version of the Pak Protector, used his superior intelligence to engineer social change in medical technology and social attitudes that reduced the use of organ banks to reasonable levels.
Part of Brennan's manipulation was the development of a science known as "psychistry". Psychistry was used to "correct" all forms of "mental aberration" - the populace is docile. To combat overpopulation, a license is required to procreate, only available after exhaustive testing has determined that a prospect is free of "abnormalities"; this policy, in addition to the existence of the transfer booth and a one-world language and economy, has led to the populace becoming genetically homogeneous. To prevent the development of new WMDs, all scientific research is regulated by the government and dangerous technology is suppressed. Due to such suppression, Earth has had fewer real breakthroughs in science. A common title for people born on Earth is "Flatlander"; the Moon is a separate entity, with its own distinct culture but is under the control of the same government as Earth. Humans native to the Moon are called "Lunies", tend toward tall, lean body types reaching eight feet in height, they are referred to as looking much like Tolkien's Elves due to their physiques and alien allure.
Mars, fourth planet in our solar system and the first planetary colony in Known Space. Native "Martians" were exterminated by the Brennan genocide. No one goes there, as resources are easier to mine in Jovian moons. Earth colonized Mars to study the descent landing pod used by Phssthpok the Pak in 2124 AD and the research colony was still in existence in 2183 when the Martians were exterminated by Brennan; the colony expanded during the first Man-Kzin war 2367-2433. The Sol Belt possesses an abundance of valuable ores, which are accessible due to the low to negligible gravity of the rocks containing them. A harsh frontier under U. N. control, the Belt declared independence after creating Confinement Aster
Noel Kelehan was an Irish musician, former conductor of the RTÉ Concert Orchestra and former musical director of Radio Telefís Éireann. He retired as conductor in 1998; as well as being an accomplished jazz pianist, he was most famous for being the conductor of many Irish entries to the Eurovision Song Contest, beginning in 1966 and ending in 1998. He conducted five winning Irish entries, in 1980, 1987, 1992, 1993, 1996. In 1994, the winning song was performed without orchestral accompaniment. However, an entry rated second that year, "To nie ja!" Performed by Edyta Górniak from Poland, was conducted by Kelehan. He conducted entry from Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1993. In total, Kelehan conducted 24 of them Irish. In 1999, after Kelehan retired, the use of an orchestra was discontinued at the Contest, he died in Dublin on 6 February 2012, after a long illness. His funeral took place in Dublin on 9 February 2012. Kelehan had several records to his credit. In 1984 he wrote the string arrangements for U2's album The Unforgettable Fire
The Battle of Guastalla or Battle of Luzzara was a battle fought on 19 September 1734 between Franco-Sardinian and Austrian troops as part of the War of the Polish Succession. Following the death in February 1733 of King Augustus II of Poland, European powers exerted diplomatic and military influence in the selection of his successor. Competing elections in August and October 1733 elected Stanisław Leszczyński and Frederick August, Elector of Saxony to be the next king. Stanisław was supported by France, while Frederick August was supported by Russia and the Habsburg Emperor Charles VI. On October 10, France declared war on Austria and Saxony to draw military strength away from Poland, shortly thereafter invaded both the Rhineland and the Habsburg territories in what is now northern Italy; the Italian campaign was conducted in conjunction with King Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia, to whom France had promised the Duchy of Milan in the Treaty of Turin, signed in September 1733. The Franco-Sardinian allies marched on Milan in October 1733, occupied Lombardy without significant losses.
In the spring of 1734 the Austrians responded in force, but suffered a bloody defeat in the Battle of San Pietro, won by the French under de Coigny and de Broglie. Following the victory, reluctance on the part of Charles Emmanuel to pursue the retreating Austrians led to little action throughout the summer of 1734. In September Field Marshal Dominik von Königsegg-Rothenfels, who replaced Florimund Mercy, renewed the Austrian offensive, winning a small victory near Quistello when his troops raided de Broglio's headquarters on September 14, taking 1,500 prisoners and capturing Charles Emmanuel's silver service and campaign warchest; as the Austrians pursued the allies, they surrounded additional pockets of soldiers, taking another 3,000 prisoners. The allies fell back toward Guastalla, where they fortified a position between the Crostolo and Po rivers. After pausing to reprovision on September 16, Königsegg continued the pursuit, reaching Luzzara on September 18; the allied leadership that evening decided to force a battle at Guastalla as revenge for the action at Quistello.
The area between Guastalla and Luzzara included two small dams, numerous other landworks, including hedges and low stone walls, that were useful as cover for defending troops. To the west of Guastalla was a plain dotted with copses of trees, extending to the Po, where the allies had a boat-bridge to facilitate the movement of troops across the river. Between the bridgehead and the fortified town of Guastalla they erected a series of defensive works between the two dams, anchored by a large redoubt about halfway between the town and the bridge; the allied line extended from the village of Piave, south of Guastalla, around to the east and north of the town, ending with battalions of cavalry on the plains in front of the defensive line between the town and the bridge. Overall command was given to Charles Emmanuel, who led the center, with de Coigny leading the right flank and de Broglie the left. On the morning of September 19 Charles Emmanuel sent three regiments across the Po to guard against possible Austrian flanking maneuvers that could bypass his army and gain access to Milanese territory.
Demonstrations by Austrian troops on the left bank of the Po on September 18 reinforced his concern over this possibility. When Königsegg learned of this latter movement, he decided the time had come to attack the allied position at Guastalla, hoping for a decisive defeat, forcing the allies to retreat either across the Po or the Crostolo; because he had been unable to reconnoiter the enemy position, reports indicated no significant massings of enemy troops, Königsegg concluded that the bulk of the allied troops had been withdrawn across the Po. Hoping to isolate the remaining enemy troops, he directed the bulk of his forces toward the bridgehead on the allied left. Königsegg ordered the first companies to move out early on September 19, without explicitly telling the commanding generals that battle was to be expected; when the leading edges of his army reached the allied positions, reconnaissance indicated that there were as few as 5,000 infantry in the field, that the enemy's cavalry appeared to be in retreat.
Convinced that he was facing the rear guard of the allied army, Königsegg ordered a single line of troops forward at about 10 am to flush out the defenders. While this met with limited success, he was forced to commit more resources to the battle as it picked up in intensity about 11 am. Around noon Charles Emmanuel directed troops from the allied right to come around to assist in the defense of the left flank, where a large portion of the Austrian army was engaged in between the two dams. About 1 pm Königsegg's second, Prince Frederick Louis of Württemberg-Winnental was killed while leading a cavalry charge. While the battle waged incessantly, Austrian grenadiers came up the river by boat and landed just behind the allied cavalry position. In response, Charles Emmanuel ordered the left flank to retreat toward the bridgehead, called on most of the remaining troops from the right for support; some troops from the right flank marched to the aid of the center without orders to do so, which helped the center hold when Königsegg threw his reserves into the battle there around 2 pm.
The battle continued, with neither side able to gain ground against the other, without further reserves to bring in, until about 4 pm. By that time, both sides were running low on ammunition, Königsegg ordered the Austrians to withdraw back to Luzzara. While the allies held the field of battle, both sides suffered significant casualties; the Austrians
The Jamieson Film Company, a Texas film production company, was one of the crucial players in the emergence of Dallas as a center for commercial film production in the U. S. Founded by Hugh Jamieson in 1916, the Jamieson Film Company is most remembered for producing the first copies of the Abraham Zapruder film that captured the assassination of JFK. However, the Company’s involvement with the Zapruder film represents just a single episode in over a half-century in the film processing and production business. During its lifespan, the Jamieson Film Company produced industrial films, television programs and advertisements for clients across Texas and the U. S. patented film processing equipment, became a training ground for many individuals in the Texas film industry. Hugh Jamieson was born in Kansas in 1889 and attended Baker University in Baldwin, where he studied engineering. Using a $150 loan, Jamieson bought his first motion picture camera, operated using a hand crank, he financed his education by opening a movie theater and upon graduation, got a job at Thomas Edison’s company selling Kinetoscopes in the Missouri area.
After a fire at Edison in 1914, Hugh decided to set off to produce his own films. Before arriving in Dallas, Hugh traveled from town to town making community or itinerant films featuring community landmarks, businesses and, most local residents—particularly children. From 1914 to 1916, Jamieson filmed several versions of Won from the Flames, processing films in his hotel room and screening them in the local theater. No copies of the films have been found. In 1916, Jamieson opened his film business at 2212 Live Oak Street. In the business’s early days, Hugh filmed a number of community events and created advertising films that ran in theaters prior to feature screenings. During this time, he made and patented his first film processing machines and built his own sound equipment. Jamieson was called upon by major newsreel companies associated with Universal, Paramount, RKO to cover many Dallas events, he produced newsreels documenting the funeral of aviator Wiley Post and the sentencing of George “Machine Gun” Kelly.
Jamieson was known to have filmed the New London school disaster. When Hugh joined the federal War Production Advisory Committee for advertising and industrial film producers and distributors in 1942, his company took on a pivotal role in the production of many military films. Jamieson was contracted to shoot films for non-military governmental projects; the company worked with the Federal Security Agency and the United States Office of Education to produce a 1944 industrial film called “Hardness Testing,” which trains workers to test the strength of metal airplane parts. Between 1941 and 1947, African American filmmaker Spencer Williams worked with the Jamieson Company to process and edit his films for the Dallas-based Sack Amusement Company. Working with Alfred R. Sack, Williams directed nine films in the area, including The Blood of Jesus and Juke Joint. In 1947, Jamieson moved the company's headquarters to 3825 Bryan Street, which provided space for sound stages, recording studios and animation facilities, color processing labs.
His sons and Hugh Jr. became involved in their father’s business and took over leadership of the company in 1953. Under the direction of Hugh’s two sons, Jamieson Film Company grew and developed into a studio concept business with cameramen, editors, a lab. Although government and military contracts continued, the company was working on numerous corporate films and television productions. With the rise of TV, the company became involved in the production of commercials and programs for television. Jamieson provided support for the growing broadcast industry, creating special news coverage for NBC and building a small 16mm motion picture processing machine TV stations could use to process their own news film coverage. In the early 1950s, Jamieson Film Company produced a weekly thirty-minute news magazine television show, Texas in Review, sponsored by the Humble Oil & Refining Company. Bruce Jamieson was in charge of this program, he wrote and produced the show, as well as the commercials. Texas in Review ran fifty-two weeks for four years.
The archives of this show are held by Texas Tech University. The Jamieson team worked with the advertising agency TracyLocke on the production of numerous television commercials in the 1950s and ’60s. In the immediate aftermath of the JFK assassination in November 1963, Abraham Zapruder worked with Jamieson to produce prints of the Kodochrome film on which he recorded his now-famous footage of the shooting. By the late 1960s, Jamieson had an impressive roster of local and national accounts, had helped to foster several individuals who had opened production businesses in the Dallas area; the Jamieson Film Company was dismantled in 1972 into a film manufacturing division. The Jamieson Film Company served as a training ground for many figures in the film industry in Dallas and beyond. Former employees include: Bill Stokes: Owner of Bill Stokes Associates known as The Stokes Group, a Dallas-based production company that made industrial and promotional films for a range of clients, including Mary Kay, the City of Dallas, the United States Navy.
Robert Redd: Owner of Producers Services Incorporated and co-owner of TelePrint Inc. Gordon Yoder: Founder of Professional Cine Products. Spencer Williams: Worked with the Jamieson Company to process and edit his films for the Sack Amusement Company in the 1940s, including The Blood of Jesus (1941
The Charmed literary franchise is a series of novels and short stories based on the eponymous television show, which aired from 1998 to 2006. The franchise consists of forty-three novels and eleven short stories released in two anthologies, with ten guide books. Scholarly essay collections on the show were published; the first work in the series, The Power of Three, published in November 1999, is a novelization of the series pilot "Something Wicca This Way Comes". Writers of the novels had to obtain approval from Paramount Pictures or CBS Consumer Products to ensure that they followed the canon established for the television series. Writers Paul Ruditis and Pat Shand have discussed these regulations through their official Tumblr accounts. Between 1999 and 2008, forty-one novels were published by Simon & Schuster and were set during the same period as the events of the television series. A majority of the novels are original stories revolving around their allies. Ten novels are set between the show's first and third season, feature the Charmed Ones – Prue and Phoebe Halliwell – as the most powerful witches of all time.
Thirty-one novels are set after Prue's death in "All Hell Breaks Loose", starting with the novelization of the season four premiere "Charmed Again", include Piper and Phoebe's half-sister Paige Matthews. Two works, Seasons of the Witch and The Warren Witches, are anthologies of short stories. Various authors have written works in the series, including Diana G. Gallagher and Paul Ruditis, who co-authored two guidebooks, The Book of Three in 2004 and 2006. In 2015, HarperCollins acquired the rights to publish a second series of Charmed novels from CBS Consumer Products which owns the rights to the franchise; the first novel in this series, The War on Witches, was published in May 2015, the continuity of the narrative fits between the events of Charmed: Season 9 and Season 10 in the comic book series. Writers of all licensed Charmed literature must obtain studio approval of the content of the works – from Paramount Pictures until CBS Consumer Products acquired the rights to the franchise – in order to adhere to the conventions of the Charmed canon established by the television series.
According to Paul Ruditis, authors of Charmed novels and comics must maintain "the rules for playing in that universe" and "the studio still has to approve the direction we take" as writers. Following these regulations, authors are given creative license but "couldn't go and rewrite history, killing off established characters or creating romantic pairings that we'd never see on the show". Pat Shand, the writer of Charmed: Season 10, considered the novels and comics part of the Charmed canon and continuity; the comics reference the novels. While Michaels had first appeared in the season four episode "Lost and Bound", Ruditis had portrayed Tyler in the novel The Brewing Storm, Shand wanted to avoid inconsistencies or "retreading". Charmed comics List of television series made into books Simonandschuster.co.uk Official website for the novels
In mathematics, the Liouvillian functions comprise a set of functions including the elementary functions and their repeated integrals. Liouvillian functions can be recursively defined as integrals of other Liouvillian functions. More explicitly, it is a function of one variable, the composition of a finite number of arithmetic operations, constants, solutions of algebraic equations, antiderivatives; the logarithm function does not need to be explicitly included. It follows directly from the definition that the set of Liouvillian functions is closed under arithmetic operations and integration, it is closed under differentiation. It is not closed under limits and infinite sums. Liouvillian functions were introduced by Joseph Liouville in a series of papers from 1833 to 1841. All elementary functions are Liouvillian. Examples of well-known functions which are Liouvillian but not elementary are the nonelementary integrals, for example: The error function, e r f = 2 π ∫ 0 x e − t 2 d t, The exponential and Fresnel integrals.
All Liouvillian functions are solutions of algebraic differential equations, but not conversely. Examples of functions which are solutions of algebraic differential equations but not Liouvillian include: the Bessel functions. Examples of functions which are not solutions of algebraic differential equations and thus not Liouvillian include all transcendentally transcendental functions, such as: the gamma function. Closed-form expression Picard–Vessiot theory Differential Galois theory Davenport, J. H.. "What Might'Understand a Function' Mean". In Kauers, M.. Towards Mechanized Mathematical Assistants. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer. Pp. 55–65. ISBN 3-540-73083-4