Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them. Most modern internal combustion engines are cooled by a closed circuit carrying liquid coolant through channels in the engine block and cylinder head, where the coolant absorbs heat, to a heat exchanger or radiator where the coolant releases heat into the air. Thus, while they are not cooled by the liquid, because of the liquid-coolant circuit they are known as water-cooled. In contrast, heat generated by an air-cooled engine is released directly into the air; this is facilitated with metal fins covering the outside of the Cylinder Head and cylinders which increase the surface area that air can act on. Air may be force fed with the use of a fan and shroud to achieve efficient cooling with high volumes of air or by natural air flow with well designed and angled fins. In all combustion engines, a great percentage of the heat generated escapes through the exhaust, not through either a liquid cooling system nor through the metal fins of an air-cooled engine.
About 8% of the heat energy finds its way into the oil, which although meant for lubrication plays a role in heat dissipation via a cooler. Many motorcycles use air cooling for the sake of reducing complexity. Few current production automobiles have air-cooled engines, but it was common for many high-volume vehicles. Examples of past air-cooled road vehicles, in chronological order, include: Franklin New Way - limited production run out from the "CLARKMOBILE" GM "copper-cooled" models of Chevrolet and Oakland Tatra all-wheel-drive military trucks. Tatra 11 and subsequent models Tatra T77 Tatra T87 Tatra T97 Tatra T600 Tatraplan Tatra T603 Tatra T613 Tatra T700 Crosley The East German Trabant Trabant 500 Trabant 600 Trabant 601 ZAZ Zaporozhets Fiat 500 Fiat 126 Porsche 356 VW-Porsche 914 Porsche 911 The Volkswagen Beetle, Type 2, SP2, Karmann Ghia, Type 3 all utilized the same air-cooled engine with various displacements. Volkswagen Type 2. Volkswagen Type 4 Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Corvair Citroën 2CV.
Citroën GS and GSA Honda 1300 NSU Prinz Royal Enfield Motorcycles: The 350cc and 500cc Twinspark motorcycle engines are air-cooled Oltcit_Club T13/653, G11/631 and VO36/630 Most aviation piston engines are air-cooled. While water cooled engines were used from the early days of flight, air cooled engines were the dominant choice in aircraft. Following the Second World War and jet turbine powered aircraft have come to dominate flight regimes where water cooled piston engines offered the advantage of reduced drag. Today, piston engines are used in slower general aviation aircraft where the greater drag produced by air cooled engines is not a major disadvantage. Therefore, most aero engines produced. Today, most of the engines manufactured by Lycoming and Continental and used by major manufacturers of light aircraft Cirrus, Cessna and so on. Other engine manufactures using air-cooled engine technology are ULPower and Jabiru, more active in the Light-Sport Aircraft and ultralight aircraft market.
Rotax uses a combination of liquid-cooled cylinder heads. Some small diesel engines, e.g. those made by Lister Petter are air-cooled. The only big Euro 5 truck air-cooled engine is being produced by Tatra. Stationary or portable engines were commercially introduced early in the 1900s; the first commercial production was by the New Way Motor Company of Lansing, Michigan, US. The company produced air-cooled engines in single and twin cylinders in both horizontal and vertical cylinder format. Subsequent to their initial production, exported worldwide, other companies took up the advantages of this cooling method in small portable engines. Applications include mowers, outboard motors, pump sets, saw benches and auxiliary power plants and more. Sloan, Alfred P. McDonald, John, ed. My Years with General Motors, Garden City, NY, USA: Doubleday, LCCN 64011306, OCLC 802024. Republished in 1990 with a new introduction by Peter Drucker. Biermann, A. E.. "The design of fins for air-cooled cylinders". Report Nº 726.
NACA. P V Lamarque, "The design of cooling fins for Motor-Cycle Engines". Report of the Automobile Research Committee, Institution of Automobile Engineers Magazine, March 1943 issue, in "The Institution of Automobile Engineers. Proceedings XXXVII, Session 1942-1943, pp 99-134 and 309-312. Julius Mackerle, "Air-cooled Automotive Engines", Charles Griffin & Company Ltd. London 1972
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,153,340. Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,423,912, it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City; the city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution that they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, at first encountered an arid, inhospitable valley that they extensively irrigated and cultivated, thereby establishing the foundation to sustain the area's present population.
Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on the north-south east-west grid plan developed by early church leaders, with the Salt Lake Temple constructed at the grid's starting point. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the church, mining booms, the construction of the first transcontinental railroad brought economic growth, the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West, it was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based on skiing, the city hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics, it is the industrial banking center of the United States. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. US Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The valley's first permanent settlements date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847, they had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the Eastern United States.
Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon train's arrival. They found. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple; the Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893; the temple serves as its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley; the pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, the name was shortened to Salt Lake City.
The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. Explorer and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City, he was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War.
A division of the United States Army, comman
A runabout is a car body style, popular in North America until about 1915. It was a single row of seats. Runabouts became indistinguishable from roadsters and the term fell out of use in the United States; the approach has evolved into the modern "city car". The runabout was a light, open car with basic bodywork and no windshield, top, or doors. Most runabouts had just a single row of seats; some had a rumble seat at the rear to provide optional seating for one or two more passengers. They differed from buggies and high wheelers by having smaller wheels. Early runabouts had their engines under the body toward the middle of the chassis; this sometimes made maintenance difficult, as on the Oldsmobile Curved Dash where the body had to be removed in order to access the engine. The Gale runabout dealt with this problem by hinging the body at the rear of the car such that it could be tilted to access the engine; some runabouts had the engine in what became the conventional position at the front of the car.
Runabouts were popular in North America from the late 19th century to about 1915. They were designed for light use over short distances. By the mid-1910s, they became indistinguishable from roadsters. Notable examples of runabouts include the Oldsmobile Curved Dash mentioned earlier, the first mass-produced car, the Cadillac runabout, which won the Dewar Trophy for 1908 by demonstrating its use of interchangeable parts; the 1964 GM Runabout was a three wheel concept car first exhibited at Futurama II, part of the 1964 New York World's Fair. The car was designed for housewives and had detachable shopping carts built into it; the term "runabout" is still in use in the UK, denoting a small car used for short journeys. Anderson, Sandra. "runabout". Collins Concise Dictionary & Thesaurus. Glasgow, UK: HarperCollins Publishers. P. 750. ISBN 978-0-00-722971-0. N. 1 a small car used for short journeys Clough, Albert L.. A dictionary of automobile terms; the Horseless Age Company. LCCN 13003001. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
Georgano, G. N. ed.. "Glossary". Encyclopedia of American Automobiles. New York, NY USA: E. P. Dutton. Pp. 215–217. ISBN 0-525-097929. LCCN 79147885. Runabout. A general term for a light two-passenger car of the early 1900s. Haajanen, Lennart W.. Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles. Illustrations by Bertil Nydén. Jefferson, NC USA: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1276-3. LCCN 2002014546. Posthumus, Cyril. "The Motoring Boom". The story of Veteran & Vintage Cars. John Wood, illustrator. London: Hamlyn / Phoebus. Pp. 36–49. ISBN 0-600-39155-8. Under RAC observation three cars from stock were dismantled, their parts intermixed, three new cars assembled, all working flawlessly — a feat that won Cadillac the coveted Dewar Trophy. Sedgwick, Michael. "Chapter One The Pioneer Days 1769 – 1904". Early Cars. London, UK: Octopus Books. ISBN 0-7064-0058-5; the Oldsmobile merits its niche in history as the first true example of mass-production, some 3,750 being turned out in 1903 alone... Despite the Oldsmobile's known reliability, the makers' handbook launches out on the first page of text with the alarming suggestion:'Let us first remove the body'!
Smith, Michael L.. "Making Time". In Fox, Richard Wightman; the Power of Culture: Critical Essays in American History. Chicago, IL US: University of Chicago. Pp. 222–243. ISBN 0-2262-5955-2
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle bicycles and motorcycles, it is used in a wide variety of machines besides vehicles. Most the power is conveyed by a roller chain, known as the drive chain or transmission chain, passing over a sprocket gear, with the teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the links of the chain; the gear is turned, this pulls the chain putting mechanical force into the system. Another type of drive chain is the Morse chain, invented by the Morse Chain Company of Ithaca, New York, United States; this has inverted teeth. Sometimes the power is output by rotating the chain, which can be used to lift or drag objects. In other situations, a second gear is placed and the power is recovered by attaching shafts or hubs to this gear. Though drive chains are simple oval loops, they can go around corners by placing more than two gears along the chain. By varying the diameter of the input and output gears with respect to each other, the gear ratio can be altered.
For example, when the bicycle pedals' gear rotate once, it causes the gear that drives the wheels to rotate more than one revolution. The oldest known application of a chain drive appears in the Polybolos, a repeating crossbow described by the Greek engineer Philon of Byzantium. Two flat-linked chains were connected to a windlass, which by winding back and forth would automatically fire the machine's arrows until its magazine was empty. Although the device did not transmit power continuously since the chains "did not transmit power from shaft to shaft, hence they were not in the direct line of ancestry of the chain-drive proper", the Greek design marks the beginning of the history of the chain drive since "no earlier instance of such a cam is known, none as complex is known until the 16th century." It is here that the flat-link chain attributed to Leonardo da Vinci made its first appearance."The first continuous and endless power-transmitting chain was depicted in the written horological treatise of the Song Dynasty Chinese engineer Su Song, who used it to operate the armillary sphere of his astronomical clock tower as well as the clock jack figurines presenting the time of day by mechanically banging gongs and drums.
The chain drive itself was given power via the hydraulic works of Su's water clock tank and waterwheel, the latter which acted as a large gear. Roller chain and sprockets is a efficient method of power transmission compared to belts, with far less frictional loss. Although chains can be made stronger than belts, their greater mass increases drive train inertia. Drive chains are most made of metal, while belts are rubber, urethane, or other substances. Drive belts can slip unless they have teeth, which means that the output side may not rotate at a precise speed, some work gets lost to the friction of the belt as it bends around the pulleys. Wear on rubber or plastic belts and their teeth is easier to observe, chains wear out faster than belts if not properly lubricated. One problem with roller chains is "the variation in speed, or surging, caused by the acceleration and deceleration of the chain as it goes around the sprocket link by link, it starts as soon as the pitch line of the chain contacts the first tooth of the sprocket.
This contact occurs at a point below the pitch circle of the sprocket. As the sprocket rotates, the chain is raised up to the pitch circle and is dropped down again as sprocket rotation continues; because of the fixed pitch length, the pitch line of the link cuts across the chord between two pitch points on the sprocket, remaining in this position relative to the sprocket until the link exits the sprocket. This rising and falling of the pitch line is what causes chordal effect or speed variation."In other words, conventional roller chain drives suffer the potential for vibration, as the effective radius of action in a chain and sprocket combination changes during revolution. If the chain moves at constant speed the shafts must accelerate and decelerate constantly. If one sprocket rotates at a constant speed the chain must accelerate and decelerate constantly; this is not an issue with many drive systems. Toothed belt drives are designed to avoid this issue by operating at a constant pitch radius.
Chains are narrower than belts, this can make it easier to shift them to larger or smaller gears in order to vary the gear ratio. Multi-speed bicycles with derailleurs make use of this; the more positive meshing of a chain can make it easier to build gears that can increase or shrink in diameter, again altering the gear ratio. However, some newer synchronous belts claim to have "equivalent capacity to roller chain drives in the same width". Both can be used to move objects by attaching buckets, or frames to them, it is not unusual for the systems to be used in combination. Drive shafts are another common method used to move mechanical power around, sometimes evaluated in comparison to chain drive.
The Fal-Car known as A Car Without A Name, was an American automobile manufactured from 1909 until 1914 by a company that identified itself in advertisements only as Department C, 19 North May Street, Chicago. The address had been the location where the Reliable-Dayton automobile had been built, it was advertised as "trim, classy and efficient". The idea behind the name, or lack thereof, was that it would allow its buyers of the generic vehicle to name the vehicle as they wished, without the expense or bother of setting up their own automobile concern; such practices in the early days of the automobile market were not uncommon, however most companies that were involved with such endeavors at least had publicly known names. The A Car Without A Name was equipped with a 30 hp engine, three-speed transmission, came in three body styles, priced below $1,700 per unit; because the car had no name, it is impossible to find a concrete production number for the period that builds were undertaken. By 1910, the Car was given an official name, the F.
A. L. or Fal-Car, derived by its backers last names of Fauntleroy and Lowe. The Fal-Car continued in production through 1914 at its factory in Chicago until its assets were liquidated at auction; the former business location became an empty lot. Burgess-Wise, David; the New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles. BookSales Inc. P. 559. ISBN 0-7858-1106-0. Kimes, Beverly R. Editor. Clark, Henry A.. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list p. 14. One-Hundred Makes. Editors of Collectible Automobile. Collectible Automobile Magazine. P. 58. Volume 17, Number 4. December, 2000
A farm is an area of land, devoted to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops. The name is used for specialised units such as arable farms, vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy and poultry farms, land used for the production of natural fibres and other commodities, it includes ranches, orchards and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, includes the farmhouse and agricultural buildings as well as the land. In modern times the term has been extended so as to include such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms, both of which can operate on land or sea. Farming originated independently in different parts of the world, as hunter gatherer societies transitioned to food production rather than, food capture, it may have started about 12,000 years ago with the domestication of livestock in the Fertile Crescent in western Asia, soon to be followed by the cultivation of crops. Modern units tend to specialise in the crops or livestock best suited to the region, with their finished products being sold for the retail market or for further processing, with farm products being traded around the world.
Modern farms in developed countries are mechanized. In the United States, livestock may be raised on rangeland and finished in feedlots and the mechanization of crop production has brought about a great decrease in the number of agricultural workers needed. In Europe, traditional family farms are giving way to larger production units. In Australia, some farms are large because the land is unable to support a high stocking density of livestock because of climatic conditions. In less developed countries, small farms are the norm, the majority of rural residents are subsistence farmers, feeding their families and selling any surplus products in the local market; the word in the sense of an agricultural land-holding derives from the verb "to farm" a revenue source, whether taxes, rents of a group of manors or to hold an individual manor by the feudal land tenure of "fee farm". The word is from the medieval Latin noun firma the source of the French word ferme, meaning a fixed agreement, from the classical Latin adjective firmus meaning strong, firm.
As in the medieval age all manors were engaged in the business of agriculture, their principal revenue source, so to hold a manor by the tenure of "fee farm" became synonymous with the practice of agriculture itself. Farming has been innovated at multiple different places in human history; the transition from hunter-gatherer to settled, agricultural societies is called the Neolithic Revolution and first began around 12,000 years ago, near the beginning of the geological epoch of the Holocene around 12,000 years ago. It was the world's first verifiable revolution in agriculture. Subsequent step-changes in human farming practices were provoked by the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century, the Green Revolution of the second half of the 20th century. Farming spread from the Middle East to Europe and by 4,000 BC people that lived in the central part of Europe were using oxen to pull plows and wagons. A farm may be owned and operated by a single individual, community, corporation or a company, may produce one or many types of produce, can be a holding of any size from a fraction of a hectare to several thousand hectares.
A farm may operate under a monoculture system or with a variety of cereal or arable crops, which may be separate from or combined with raising livestock. Specialist farms are denoted as such, thus a dairy farm, fish farm, poultry farm or mink farm; some farms may not use the word at all, hence vineyard, market garden or "truck farm". Some farms may be denoted by their topographical location, such as a hill farm, while large estates growing cash crops such as cotton or coffee may be called plantations. Many other terms are used to describe farms to denote their methods of production, as in collective, intensive, organic or vertical. Other farms may exist for research or education, such as an ant farm, since farming is synonymous with mass production, the word "farm" may be used to describe wind power generation or puppy farm. Dairy farming is a class of agriculture, where female cattle, goats, or other mammals are raised for their milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale There are many breeds of cattle that can be milked some of the best producing ones include Holstein, Norwegian Red, Brown Swiss, more.
In most Western countries, a centralized dairy facility processes milk and dairy products, such as cream and cheese. In the United States, these dairies are local companies, while in the southern hemisphere facilities may be run by large nationwide or trans-national corporations. Dairy farms sell male calves for veal meat, as dairy breeds are not satisfactory for commercial beef production. Many dairy farms grow their own feed including corn and hay; this is stored as silage for use during the winter season. Additional dietary supplements are added to the feed to improve milk production. Poultry farms are devoted to raising chickens, turkeys and other fowl for meat or eggs. A pig farm is one that specializes in raising pigs or hogs for bacon and other pork products and may be free range, intensive, or both. Farm control and ownership has traditionally been a key indicator of status and power in Medieval European agrarian