Knox County, Indiana
Knox County is a county located in Indiana in the United States. It was one of two original counties created in the old Northwest Territory in 1790 and was reduced to its present size in 1817; as of 2010, the population was 38,440. The county seat is Vincennes. Knox County comprises the Vincennes, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area. In 1790, Winthrop Sargent, Secretary of Northwest Territory, organized the first Indiana county, Knox County, it was named for Major General Henry Knox, U. S. Secretary of War. Knox County was one of the original counties of the Northwest Territory and was created prior to the formation of the Indiana Territory; when it was created, Knox County extended to Canada and encompassed all or part of the present states of Indiana, Michigan and Ohio. When the Illinois Territory was formed in 1809, the portions of Knox County beyond the Wabash River became a part of Illinois. Many of Knox Country townships and lots were surveyed with the French system, which goes towards non-cardinal compass points.
Knox and Clark counties are the only ones laid out in this fashion. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 524.04 square miles, of which 516.03 square miles is land and 8.01 square miles is water. US 41 US 50 US 150 SR 58 SR 59 SR 61 SR 67 SR 159 SR 241 SR 358 SR 441 SR 550 George Rogers Clark National Historical Park Bicknell Vincennes Bruceville Decker Edwardsport Monroe City Oaktown Sandborn Wheatland Emison Freelandville Ragsdale WestphaliaFritchton Busseron Decker Harrison Johnson Palmyra Steen Vigo Vincennes Washington Widner In recent years, average temperatures in Vincennes have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.51 inches in February to 5.13 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code.
County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government. Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases; the judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association.
The judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county. Knox County is part of Indiana's 8th congressional district; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 38,440 people, 15,249 households, 9,725 families residing in the county. The population density was 74.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,038 housing units at an average density of 33.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.9% white, 2.6% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.5% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 26.9% were German, 19.9% were American, 13.0% were Irish, 9.1% were English. Of the 15,249 households, 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.5% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families, 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 38.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $51,534. Males had a median income of $40,553 versus $27,201 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,381. About 12.6% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. In 2005, Knox County had 16,240 jobs; the largest employing industry in the county was education and health services with 34 percent of total industry employment. Trade and utilities came in second with over 22 percent of total industry employment.
Manufacturing showed the most job growth and the largest percentage gain since 2001, increasing 316 jobs or 21 percent. The 2005 all industry earnings average for Knox County was $26,875, up $2,824 or 11.7 percent over the county's 2001 average. The m
Mercer County, Illinois
Mercer County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 16,434, its county seat is Aledo. Mercer County is included in IA-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Mercer County is named for Hugh Mercer, a physician and general during the American Revolution who died from wounds suffered at the Battle of Princeton. In May 1812, Congress passed an act which set aside lands in Arkansas and Illinois as payment to volunteer soldiers in the War of 1812. Mercer County was part of this "Military Tract." Seven years after Illinois became a state, Mercer County was founded. It was formed from unorganized territory near Pike County on January 13, 1825. Although the county had been created, its government was not organized for several years; the organization of the county government was completed in 1835, after a large influx of settlers following the Black Hawk War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 569 square miles, of which 561 square miles is land and 7.5 square miles is water.
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Aledo have ranged from a low of 11 °F in January to a high of 84 °F in July, although a record low of −30 °F was recorded in February 1905 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.27 inches in January to 4.43 inches in June. U. S. Highway 67 Illinois Route 17 Illinois Route 94 Illinois Route 135 Rock Island County - north Henry County - east Knox County - southeast Henderson County - south Warren County - south Des Moines County, Iowa - southwest Louisa County, Iowa - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,434 people, 6,734 households, 4,724 families residing in the county; the population density was 29.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,358 housing units at an average density of 13.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.3% white, 0.3% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.9% were German, 18.2% were Irish, 11.3% were English, 9.4% were Swedish, 7.4% were American. Of the 6,734 households, 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.8% were non-families, 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 43.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $50,909 and the median income for a family was $62,025. Males had a median income of $46,136 versus $30,392 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,332. About 8.2% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. Aledo Keithsburg New Boston Mercer County is divided into fifteen townships: Historically, Mercer County was a solidly Republican Yankee-influenced county, before the Republican Party existed a stronghold of the Whig Party.
The county never voted for a Democratic presidential candidate until Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 landslide over Barry Goldwater – the solitary break in Whig and Republican dominance occurring in 1912 when the GOP was mortally split and Progressive Theodore Roosevelt carried the county over conservative incumbent President William Howard Taft. After Johnson’s victory in the county, Mercer voted to being Republican between 1968 and 1984, but Reagan’s landslide in that election saw a swing to the Democrats, capitalized upon by Michael Dukakis to carry the county in 1988. Between and 2012, Mercer was solidly Democratic, but concern over declining economic opportunities in the “Rust Belt” caused a dramatic swing to populist Republican Donald Trump in 2016. Trump’s performance was the best by a Republican since Richard Nixon’s 3,000-plus-county landslide in 1972. Mercer County is located in Illinois's 17th Congressional District and is represented by Democrat Cheri Bustos. Within the Illinois House of Representatives, the county is located in the 74th district and is represented by Republican Daniel Swanson.
The county is located in the 37th district of the Illinois Senate, is represented by Republican Chuck Weaver. National Register of Historic Places listings in Mercer County, Illinois William C. Ives, "Abraham Lincoln in Mercer County, Illinois, 1832, 1834, 1858," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, vol. 101, pp. 329–347. History of Mercer and Henderson Counties, Together with Biographical Matter, Etc. Chicago: H. H. Hill and Company, 1882. Official website Illinois Ancestors Mercer County
Henry Knox was a military officer of the Continental Army and the United States Army, who served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794. Born and raised in Boston, Massachusetts, he owned and operated a bookstore there, cultivating an interest in military history and joining a local artillery company; when the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, he befriended General George Washington, rose to become the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army. In this role he accompanied Washington on most of his campaigns, had some involvement in many major actions of the war, he established training centers for artillerymen and manufacturing facilities for weaponry that were valuable assets to the fledgling nation. Following the adoption of the United States Constitution, he became President Washington's Secretary of War. In this role he oversaw the development of coastal fortifications, worked to improve the preparedness of local militia, oversaw the nation's military activity in the Northwest Indian War.
He was formally responsible for the nation's relationship with the Indian population in the territories it claimed, articulating a policy that established federal government supremacy over the states in relating to Indian nations, called for treating Indian nations as sovereign. Knox's idealistic views on the subject were frustrated by ongoing illegal settlements and fraudulent land transfers involving Indian lands, he retired to what is now Thomaston, Maine, in 1795, where he oversaw the rise of a business empire built on borrowed money. He died in 1806 from an infection he contracted after swallowing a chicken bone, leaving an estate, bankrupt. Henry Knox's parents and Mary, were of Scotch-Irish origin, his father was a ship builder who, due to financial reverses, left the family for Sint Eustatius in the West Indies where he died in 1762 of unknown causes. Henry was admitted to the Boston Latin School, where he studied Greek, Latin and European history. Since he was the oldest son still at home when his father died, he left school at the age of 12 and became a clerk in a bookstore to support his mother.
The shop's owner, Nicholas Bowes, became a surrogate father figure for the boy, allowing him to browse the shelves of the store and take home any volume that he wanted to read. The inquisitive future war hero, when he was not running errands, taught himself French, learned some philosophy and advanced mathematics, devoured tales of ancient warriors and famous battles, he immersed himself in literature from a tender age. However, Knox was involved in Boston's street gangs, becoming one of the toughest fighters in his neighborhood. Impressed by a military demonstration, at 18 he joined. On March 5, 1770 Knox was a witness to the Boston massacre. According to his affidavit, he attempted to defuse the situation, trying to convince the British soldiers to return to their quarters, he testified at the trials of the soldiers, in which all but two were acquitted. In 1771 he opened his own bookshop, the London Book Store, in Boston "opposite William's Court in Cornhill." The store was, in the words of a contemporary, a "great resort for the British officers and Tory ladies, who were the ton at that period."
Boasting an impressive selection of excellent English products and managed by a friendly proprietor, it became a popular destination for the aristocrats of Boston. As a bookseller, Knox built strong business ties with British suppliers and developed relationships with his customers, but he retained his childhood aspirations. Self-educated, he stocked books on military science, questioned soldiers who frequented his shop in military matters; the genial giant enjoyed reasonable pecuniary success, but his profits slumped after the Boston Port Bill and subsequent citywide boycott of British goods. In 1772 he cofounded the Boston Grenadier Corps as an offshoot of The Train, served as its second in command. Shortly before his 23rd birthday Knox accidentally discharged a gun, shooting two fingers off his left hand, he managed to reach a doctor, who sewed the wound up. Knox supported the Sons of Liberty, an organization of agitators against what they considered repressive British colonial policies, it is unknown if he participated in the 1773 Boston Tea Party, but he did serve on guard duty before the incident to make sure no tea was unloaded from the Dartmouth, one of the ships involved.
The next year he refused a consignment of tea sent to him by James Rivington, a Loyalist in New York. Henry married Lucy Flucker, the daughter of Boston Loyalists, on June 16, 1774, despite opposition from her father, due to their differing political views. Lucy's brother served in the British Army, her family attempted to lure Knox to service there. Despite long separations due to his military service, the couple were devoted to one another for the rest of his life, carried on an extensive correspondence. After the couple fled Boston in 1775, she remained homeless until the British evacuated the city in March 1776. Afterward, she traveled to visit Knox in the field, her parents left, never to return, with the British during their withdrawal from Boston after the Continental Army fortified Dorchester Heights, a success that hinged upon Knox's Ticonderoga expedition. When the war broke out with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, Knox and Lucy snuck out of Boston, Knox joined the militia army besieging the city.
His abandoned bookshop was looted and all of its stock stolen. He served under General Artemas Ward, putting his ac
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Galesburg is a city in Knox County, United States. The city is 45 miles northwest of Peoria; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 32,195. It is the county seat of Knox County and the principal city of the Galesburg Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Knox and Warren counties. Galesburg is home to Knox College, a private four-year liberal arts college, Carl Sandburg College, a two-year community college. A 496-acre section of the city is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Galesburg Historic District. Galesburg was founded by George Washington Gale, a Presbyterian minister from New York state who dreamed of establishing a manual labor college. A committee from New York purchased 17 acres in Knox County in 1835, the first 25 settlers arrived in 1836, they built temporary cabins in Log City near current Lake Storey, just north of Galesburg, having decided that no log cabins were to be built inside the town limits. Galesburg was home to the first anti-slavery society in Illinois, founded in 1837, was a stop on the Underground Railroad.
The city was the site of the fifth Lincoln–Douglas debate, on a temporary speaker's platform attached to Knox College's "Old Main" building on October 7, 1858. Knox College continues to use Old Main to this day. An Underground Railroad Museum and Lincoln-Douglas Debate Museum were built in Knox College's Alumni Hall after it had finished renovations. Galesburg was the home of Mary Ann "Mother" Bickerdyke, who provided hospital care for Union soldiers during the Civil War. After the war, Galesburg was the birthplace of poet and historian Carl Sandburg and artist Dorothea Tanning, former Major League Baseball star Jim Sundberg. Sandburg's boyhood home is now operated by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency as the Carl Sandburg State Historic Site; the site contains the cottage he was born in, a modern museum, the rock under which he and his wife Lilian are buried, a performance venue. Throughout much of its history, Galesburg has been inextricably tied to the railroad industry. Local businessmen were major backers of the first railroad to connect Illinois' two biggest cities—Chicago and Quincy—as well as a third leg terminating across the Mississippi River from Burlington, Iowa connecting to it via bridge and thence onward to the Western frontier.
The Chicago and Quincy Railroad sited major rail sorting yards here, including the first to use hump sorting. The CB&Q built a major depot on South Seminary Street, controversially torn down and replaced by a much smaller station in 1983; the yard is still used by the BNSF Railway. In the late 19th century, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway connected its service through to Chicago, it laid track through Galesburg and built its own railroad depot, it was not until 1996 that Amtrak closed the old Santa Fe depot and consolidated all passenger operations at the site of the former Burlington Northern depot. A series of mergers united both lines under the ownership of BNSF Railway, carrying an average of seven trains per hour between them; as of the closing of the Maytag plant in fall of 2004, BNSF is once again the largest private employer in Galesburg. In addition, Galesburg was home to the pioneering brass era automobile company Western, which produced the Gale, named for the town. Lombard College was located in Galesburg until 1930, is now the site of Lombard Middle School.
The Carr Mansion at 560 North Prairie Street in Galesburg was the site of a presidential cabinet meeting held in 1899 by U. S. President William McKinley and U. S. Secretary of State John Hay. Galesburg is located in western Knox County at 40°57′8″N 90°22′7″W. Interstate 74 runs through the east side of the city, leading southeast 47 miles to Peoria and north 36 miles to Interstate 80 near the Quad Cities area. According to the 2010 census, Galesburg has a total area of 17.928 square miles, of which 17.75 square miles are land and 0.178 square miles are water. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service from Chicago on four trains daily, it operates the California Zephyr, Carl Sandburg, Illinois Zephyr, Southwest Chief daily from Chicago Union Station to Galesburg station and points west. The Southwest Chief and the state-supported Carl Sandburg and Illinois Zephyr take passengers to Chicago or points west, but the Zephyr only discharges passengers on its eastbound run. Galesburg Transit provides bus service in the city.
There are four routes: Gold Express Loop, Green Central Loop, Red West Loop, Blue East Loop. BNSF operates a large hump yard 1.9 miles south of town. Galesburg is served by Interstate 74, whose route runs north to Moline in the Quad Cities region, to the southeast to Peoria and beyond; the Chicago–Kansas City Expressway known as Illinois Route 110, runs through Galesburg. To the southwest it passes through Macomb, the home of Western Illinois University, towards Quincy, before crossing into Missouri. Galesburg served is served by U. S. Routes 34 and 150. US 34 connects Galesburg with Burlington and Chicago, it is a freeway through its entire run in Galesburg, keeping its freeway status going west until Monmouth. It connects to Galesburg through three interchanges at West Main Street, North Henderson Street, North Seminary Street, along with an additional interchange at Interstate 74. US 150 runs through the heart of Galesburg, it enters the city as Grand Avenue from the southeast, runs through downtown as Main Street, exits the city as North Henderson Street.