Decker is a town in Johnson Township, Knox County, United States. The population was 249 at the 2010 census, it was founded 1869 by Isaac Decker. Decker is near the White River, is well known for the watermelon and cantaloupe produced in the surrounding rural area; the school at Decker provided all grades until 1967, when the middle and high school grades were consolidated into South Knox High School. The school continued to provide grades K-5 until 1999, when those grades were consolidated; the school mascot was the'Aces,' which referred to wartime airplane pilots, on to the aces in playing cards. Decker is located at 38°31′6″N 87°31′26″W. According to the 2010 census, Decker has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 249 people, 92 households, 68 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,383.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 109 housing units at an average density of 605.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.6% White, 1.2% African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.4% from two or more races.
There were 92 households of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.0% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 26.1% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.16. The median age in the town was 39.3 years. 24.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 52.2% male and 47.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 283 people, 107 households, 80 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,081.0 people per square mile. There were 120 housing units at an average density of 458.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.65 % 0.35 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.35% of the population. There were 107 households out of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.3% were non-families.
23.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.05. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $24,821, the median income for a family was $28,750. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $15,714 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,482. About 14.3% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 20.6% of those sixty five or over
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Vincennes is a city in and the county seat of Knox County, United States. It is located on the lower Wabash River in the southwestern part of the state, nearly halfway between Evansville and Terre Haute. Founded in 1732 by French fur traders, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes for whom the Fort was named, Vincennes is the oldest continually-inhabited European settlement in Indiana and one of the oldest settlements west of the Appalachians. According to the 2010 census, its population was 18,423, a decrease of 1.5% from 18,701 in 2000. Vincennes is the principal city of the Vincennes, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area, which comprises all of Knox County and had an estimated 2017 population of 38,440; the vicinity of Vincennes was inhabited for thousands of years by different cultures of indigenous peoples. During the Late Woodland period, some of these peoples used local loess hills as burial sites. In historic times, prominent local Indian groups who drove these people out were the Shawnee and the Miami tribe.
The first European settlers were French, when Vincennes was founded as part of the French colony of New France. On, it would be transferred to the colony of Louisiana. Several years France lost the French and Indian War, as result ceded territory east of the Mississippi River, including Vincennes, to the victorious British. Once the area was under British rule, it was associated with the Province of Quebec, until after the American Revolution, it became part of the Illinois Country of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. Next it became part of Knox County in the Northwest Territory, it was included in the Indiana Territory. Vincennes served as capital of the Indiana Territory from 1800 until 1813, when the government was moved to Corydon; the first trading post on the Wabash River was established by Sieur Juchereau, Lieutenant General of Montréal. With thirty-four Canadiens, he founded the company post on October 28, 1702 to trade for Buffalo hides with American Indians; the exact location of Juchereau's trading post is not known, but because the Buffalo Trace crosses the Wabash at Vincennes, many believe it was here.
The post was a success. When Juchereau died, the post was abandoned; the French-Canadian settlers left what they considered hostile territory for Mobile the capital of Louisiana. The oldest European town in Indiana, Vincennes was established in 1732 as a second French fur trading post in this area; the Compagnie des Indes commissioned a Canadian officer, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, to build a post along the Wabash River to discourage local nations from trading with the British. De Vincennes founded the new trading post near the meeting points of the Wabash and White rivers, the overland Buffalo Trace. De Vincennes, who had lived with his father among the Miami tribe, persuaded the Piankeshaw to establish a village at his trading post, he encouraged Canadien settlers to move there, started his own family to increase the village population. Because the Wabash post was so remote, Vincennes had a hard time getting trade supplies from Louisiana for the native nations, who were being courted by British traders.
The boundary between the French colonies of Louisiana and Canada, although inexact in the first years of the settlement, was decreed in 1745 to run between Fort Ouiatenon and Vincennes. In 1736, during the French war with the Chickasaw nation, de Vincennes was captured and burned at the stake near the present-day town of Fulton, Mississippi, his settlement on the Wabash was renamed Poste Vincennes in his honor. Louisiana Governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville next appointed Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive to command Poste Vincennes; as the French colonials pushed north from Louisiana and south from Canada, the British colonists to the east continued to push west. In addition, British traders lured away many of Indians; this competition escalated in the Ohio Country until 1754 and the eruption of the French and Indian War On February 10, 1763, when New France was ceded to the British Empire at the conclusion of the French and Indian War, Vincennes fell under the dominion of Great Britain.
British Lt. John Ramsey came to Vincennes in 1766, he took a census of the settlement, built up the fort, renamed it Fort Sackville. The population grew in the years that followed, resulting in a unique culture of interdependent Native Americans and British colonials and traders. Vincennes was far from centers of colonial power. In 1770 and 1772 General Thomas Gage, the commander in chief of Britain's North American forces, received warnings that the residents of Vincennes were not remaining loyal, were inciting native tribes along the river trade routes against the British; the British Colonial Secretary, the Earl of Hillsborough, ordered the residents to be removed from Vincennes. Gage delayed while the residents responded to the charges against them, claiming to be "peaceful settlers, cultivating the land which His Most Christian Majesty granted us." The issue was resolved by Hillsborough's successor, Lord Dartmouth, who insisted to Gage that the residents were not lawless vagabonds, but English subjects whose rights were protected by the King.
In 1778, residents at Poste Vincennes received word of the French alliance with the American Second Continental Congress from Father Pierre Gibault
The Indiana Territory was created by a congressional act that President John Adams signed into law on May 7, 1800, to form an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1800, to December 11, 1816, when the remaining southern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Indiana. The territory contained 259,824 square miles of land, but its size was decreased when it was subdivided to create the Michigan Territory and the Illinois Territory; the Indiana Territory was the first new territory created from lands of the Northwest Territory, organized under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. William Henry Harrison, the territory's first governor, oversaw treaty negotiations with the native inhabitants that ceded tribal lands to the U. S. government, opening large parts of the territory to further settlement. In 1809 the U. S. Congress established a bicameral legislative body for the territory that included a popularly-elected House of Representatives and a Legislative Council.
In addition, the territorial government began planning for a basic transportation network and education system, but efforts to attain statehood for the territory were delayed due to war. At the outbreak of Tecumseh's War, when the territory was on the front line of battle, Harrison led a military force in the opening hostilities at the Battle of Tippecanoe and in the subsequent invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. After Harrison resigned as the territorial governor, Thomas Posey was appointed to the vacant governorship, but the opposition party, led by Congressman Jonathan Jennings, dominated territorial affairs in its final years and began pressing for statehood. In June 1816 a constitutional convention was held at Corydon, where a state constitution was adopted on June 29, 1816. General elections were held in August to fill offices for the new state government, the new officeholders were sworn into office in November, the territory was dissolved. On December 11, 1816, President James Madison signed the congressional act that formally admitted Indiana to the Union as the nineteenth state.
When the Indiana Territory was formed in 1800 its original boundaries included the western portion the Northwest Territory. This encompassed an area northwest of a line beginning at the Ohio River, on the bank opposite to the mouth of the Kentucky River, extending northeast to Fort Recovery, in present-day western Ohio, north to the border between the United States and Canada along a line 84 degrees 45 minnutes West longitude; the territory included most of the present-day state of Indiana, all of present-day states of Illinois and Wisconsin, fragments of present-day Minnesota that were east of the Mississippi River, nearly all of the Upper Peninsula the western half of the Lower Peninsula of present-day Michigan, a narrow strip of land in present-day Ohio, northwest of Fort Recovery. This latter parcel became part of Ohio when it attained statehood in 1803; the Indiana Territory's southeast boundary was shifted in 1803, when Ohio became a state, to the mouth of the Great Miami River from its former location opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River.
In addition, the eastern part of present-day Michigan was added to the Indiana Territory. The territory's geographical area was further reduced in 1805 with the creation of the Michigan Territory to the north, in 1809, when the Illinois Territory was established to the west; the Indiana Territory's government passed through a non-representative phase from 1800 to 1804. Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance, during the non-representative phase of territorial government the U. S. Congress, after 1789, the president with congressional approval, appointed a governor and three judges to govern each new territory. Local inhabitants did not elect these territorial officials. During the second, or semi-legislative phase of government, the territory's adult males who owned at least fifty acres of land elected representatives to the lower house of the territorial legislature. In addition, the Congress, the president with congressional approval, appointed five adult males who owned at least five hundred acres of land to the upper house of the territorial legislature from a list of ten candidates that the lower house submitted for consideration.
In the semi-legislative phase of government, the upper and lower houses could legislate for the territory, but the territorial governor retained absolute veto power. When the territory reached a population of 60,000 free inhabitants, it entered the final phase that included its successful petition to Congress for statehood. In 1803, when the Indiana Territory was formed from the remaining Northwest Territory after Ohio attained statehood, the requirement for proceeding to the second or semi-legislative phase of territorial government was modified. Instead of requiring the territory's population to reach 5,000 free adult males, the second phase could be initiated when the majority of territory's free landholders informed the territorial governor that they wanted to do so. In 1810 the requirement for voters to be landholders was replaced with a law granting voting rights to all free adult males who paid county or territorial taxes and had resided in the territory for at least a year; because of William Henry Harrison's leadership in securing passage of the Land Act of 1800 and his help in forming the Indiana Terri
Indiana's 8th congressional district
Indiana's 8th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Indiana. Based in southwest and west central Indiana, the district is anchored in Evansville and includes Jasper, Terre Haute and Washington. Referred to as "The Bloody Eighth" at the local levels, it was a notorious swing district. However, due to a political realignment similar to contemporary realignment happening in the Deep South and Appalachia, it has in recent elections become a safe Republican district; as of 2013. 13 Crawford County exists in both the 9th Congressional Districts. Within Crawford County, two whole townships. Evansville - 117,429 Terre Haute - 60,785 Vincennes - 18,423 Jasper - 15,038 Washington - 11,509 Greencastle - 10,326 Princeton - 8,644 Brazil - 7,912 Tell City - 7,272 Mt. Vernon - 6,687 Boonville - 6,246 Linton - 5,413 Clinton - 4,893 North Terre Haute - 4,305 Sullivan - 4,249 Newburgh - 3,325 Fort Branch - 2,771 Bicknell - 2,892 Based in Evansville, the 8th Congressional District was widened when Indiana lost a seat after the 2000 U.
S. Census to include much of 7th Congressional Districts. At that time, Bloomington was moved into the 9th Congressional District, while the 8th Congressional District was extended northward to include much of the former 7th Congressional District in west-central Indiana, including Terre Haute; as a result of this expansion, the district is the largest in area in Indiana with all or part of 18 counties. The district has been nicknamed "The Bloody Eighth" because of a series of hard-fought campaigns and political reversals. Unlike most other districts in the state, which give their representatives long tenures in Washington, the 8th Congressional District has a reputation for ousting its incumbents. Voters in the district ousted six incumbents from 1966 to 1982; the election in 1984 was so close that the House of Representatives itself determined which of two candidates to sit, accepting the recommendation of a Democratically controlled House task force sent to Indiana to count the ballots, with the winner holding a margin of four votes out of 233,000 cast.
Although Southern Indiana is ancestrally Democratic, the Democrats in this area are nowhere near as liberal as their counterparts in the rest of the state. The district has a strong tint of social conservatism. In 2000, a New York Times reporter said of the district: "With a populist streak and a conservative bent, this district does not cotton to country club Republicans or to social-engineering liberals," and said, "More than 95 percent white and about 41 percent rural, the region shares much of the flavor of the Bible Belt."The district was represented by Brad Ellsworth, a moderate Democrat. As a result of Ellsworth's landslide defeat of 12-year incumbent John Hostettler, it was the first district picked up by the Democrats on Election Night 2006. Ellsworth ran unsuccessfully for U. S. Senate in 2010 and was succeeded by Republican Larry Bucshon in the same election cycle. In 2013, the district shifted away from Northern Indiana and more towards Evansville, losing Fountain and Warren Counties, gaining Dubois and Spencer Counties, a portion of Crawford County, uniting southwestern Indiana under one district.
As of January 2019, four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Indiana's 8th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was H. Joel Deckard on September 6, 2016; the most serving representative to die was Frank McCloskey on November 2, 2003. Note: There has been another change since the "most recent" image, reflected on the'Indiana districts' page. Indiana's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressman Larry Bucshon Official House Site39°N 87°W
United States Secretary of War
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War", had been appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and Henry Knox held the position; when Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving as Secretary of War. The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department. At first, he was responsible including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, the scope of responsibility for this office was reduced to the affairs of the United States Army. From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tem of the Senate and the Secretary of State.
In 1947, with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, the Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet subordinates under the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Army's office is considered the direct successor to the Secretary of War's office although the Secretary of Defense took the Secretary of War's position in the Cabinet, the line of succession to the presidency; the office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britain's Secretary at War, William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, at the time of the American Revolution. The office of Secretary at War was meant to replace both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia; the Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, Adjutant General served on the Secretary's staff. However, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men.
Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Confederate States Secretary of War Bell, William Gardner. Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005: Portraits and Biographical Sketches. Washington, D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet 1789-2010. Armenia, New York: Greyhouse Publishing. King, Archibald. Command of the Army. Military Affairs. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Judge Advocate General's School, U. S. Army
Sandborn is a town in Vigo Township, Knox County, United States. The population was 415 at the 2010 census, it is the home of the annual Black Creek Festival. Its only business is a gas station known as the Blue Jay Junction. Sandborn was laid out in 1868, it was named for a railroad official. The Sandborn post office was established in 1869. Sandborn is located at 38°53′46″N 87°11′7″W; the town lies in northwestern Knox County, just south of the Knox-Greene county line. Indiana State Road 59 traverses Sandborn, connecting the town with Linton and the Greene-Sullivan State Forest to the north. State Road 67 passes through the northwestern limits of Sandborn, connecting the town with the Vincennes area to the southwest. According to the 2010 census, Sandborn has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 415 people, 174 households, 114 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,064.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 202 housing units at an average density of 517.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 98.6% White, 0.2% African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.2% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 174 households of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.5% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the town was 42.1 years. 22.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 451 people, 193 households, 132 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,127.5 people per square mile. There were 214 housing units at an average density of 535.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 97.34% White, 0.44% African American, 1.11% Native American, 1.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.44% of the population. There were 193 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.88. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,000, the median income for a family was $47,031.
Males had a median income of $38,594 versus $25,417 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,878. About 7.9% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Sandborn has a branch of the Bicknell-Vigo Township Public Library. John R. Gregg - 2012 and 2016 Democratic nominee for Governor of Indiana. Lou Lowdermilk - Major League baseball pitcher for the St. Louis Cardinals. Media related to Sandborn, Indiana at Wikimedia Commons