WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour; that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat. In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles.
In December 2017, WorldCat contained over 400 million bibliographic records in 491 languages, representing over 2.6 billion physical and digital library assets, the WorldCat persons dataset included over 100 million people. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.
However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Open Library Research Libraries UK Blackman, Cathy. "WorldCat and SkyRiver: a comparison of record quantity and fullness". Library Resources & Technical Services. 58: 178–186. Doi:10.5860/lrts.58n3.178. Breeding, Marshall. "Library services platforms: a maturing genre of products". Library Technology Reports. 51: 1–38. Doi:10.5860/ltr.51n4. Matthews, Joseph R.. "An environmental scan of OCLC alternatives: a management perspective". Public Library Quarterly. 35: 175–187. Doi:10.1080/01616846.2016.1210440. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston: Suffolk University Law School.
Research paper 12-06. What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 1997. ISBN 1556532237. OCLC 37492023. Wilson, Kristen. "The knowledge base at the center of the universe". Library Technology Reports. 52: 1–35. Doi:10.5860/ltr.52n6. "WorldCat data licensing". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. See also: "Data licenses & attribution". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information about licensing of WorldCat records and some other OCLC data. Official website "WorldCat". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information on the OCLC website about WorldCat. "Bibliographic Formats and Standards". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. "WorldCat Identities". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31
Dagbladet is one of Norway's largest newspapers and has 1,400,000 daily readers on mobile and paper. The paper edition had a circulation of 46,250 copies in 2016, down from a peak of 228,834 in 1994; the editor in chief is Alexandra Beverfjord. Dagbladet is published six days a week and includes the additional feature magazine Magasinet every Saturday. Part of the daily newspaper is available at Dagbladet.no, more articles can be accessed through a paywall. The daily readership of Dagbladet's online newspaper was 1.24 million in 2016. Dagbladet was founded in 1869 by Anthon Bang. Hagbard Emanuel Berner served as its first editor in chief and the first issue was published on 2 January 1869. From 1884 to 1977, the newspaper was affiliated to the Liberal party. Since 1977, it has been politically neutral, though it has kept its position as a liberal newspaper incorporating some culturally radical stands in issues like the language struggle, church policies, intimate relationship, criminal care, etc.
The newspaper was in 1972 against Norway joining the EU, but had changed to pro in 1994. Dagbladet has played an important role in development of new editorial products in Norway. In 1990, the newspaper was the first in Norway to publish a Sunday edition in more than 70 years, in 1995, it became the first of the major Norwegian newspapers with an online edition. In 2007 it had a circulation of 204,850 copies; the actual first newspaper was a regional paper called Brønnøysunds Avis. Over the past few years, Dagbladet has had success with the Saturday supplement Magasinet, which reaches 25.3% of the adult population of Norway. Due to the declining of daily circulation, the newspaper has reduced the number of workers the last couple of years by a few hundred; because of this, the newspaper focused more on "simpler news", but recent years, the newspaper has chosen an editorial direction on hard news. Dagbladet was owned by the held company Berner Gruppen. Jens P. Heyerdahl was the largest owner and had effective control through several different companies.
DB Medialab AS owned 50% of the Norwegian web portal and ISP start.no and ran the online community Blink from 2002 to 2011. In June 2013, Dagbladet with online products was sold from Berner Gruppen to Aller Media for about 300 million Norwegian kroner; as of 2016, 99% of the shares of Dagbladet AS are formally owned by Berner Media Holding AS, which in turn is 100% owned by Aller Media. The remaining 1% of Dagbladet AS is owned by the foundation Dagbladets Stiftelse; the online edition of Dagbladet was launched on 8 March 1995 following Brønnøysunds Avis, a local newspaper. Dagbladet.no claims a readership of nearly 800,000 per day, 1,700,000 per week, which makes it amongst Europe's most successful web newspapers when measured against both population and readership of mother newspaper. In 1988, Dagbladet was criticised for the aggressive use of photographs of grieving next-of-kin in the aftermath of the Flight 710 air-disaster; this led to a self-imposed change of practice within the Norwegian press regarding the handling of such incidents.
On 10 November 1989, the day after the fall of the Berlin wall, Dagbladet made no reference to the fall on its front page and instead featured the headline "Let the children swear", a quote from child psychologist Magne Raundalen. This caused ridicule of the newspaper for being overly tabloid. Former Minister of Health, Tore Tønne, committed suicide following Dagbladet's investigations over alleged economic improprieties committed after the conclusion of his term in the Norwegian cabinet. Dagbladet was criticized by the Norwegian Press Association; the paper reprinted the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten's 12 Muhammad Cartoons in 2005. In May 2011, Dagbladet lost a libel case in Oslo District Court against ambulance driver Erik Schjenken for printing factual errors about the Paramedics incident in Oslo 2007, was ordered to pay a compensation of 1 million Nkr. In 2013, Dagbladet lost the appeal case in Borgarting Court of Appeal, but the legal ruling was changed and the compensation reduced to 200,000 Nkr.
In May 2013, Dagbladet appealed the case to the Supreme Court of Norway. The newspaper encountered criticism over a cartoon published in November 2011 that equated the Holocaust with the situation in the Gaza Strip. In 2013, Abraham Cooper of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, Jewish communities, human rights organizations claimed that a cartoon depicting the Jewish tradition of circumcision as barbaric was anti-semitic. Editor of the culture-and-opinion sections in Dagbladet Geir Ramnefjell dismissed the criticism of the 2013 drawing, stating that it was an "innocent ridicule of religious practice and nothing more than that". Dagbladet defended the caricature in an editorial 3 June 2013; the Norwegian Centre Against Racism and the Mosaic community in Norway filed a complaint about the caricature to the Norwegian Press Complaints Commission, which did not find Dagbladet at fault. Numbers from the Norwegian Media Businesses' Association, Mediebedriftenes Landsforening: List of Norwegian newspapers Dagbladet.no
A game show is a type of radio, television, or stage show in which contestants, individually or as teams, play a game which involves answering questions or solving puzzles for money or prizes. Alternatively, a gameshow can be a demonstrative program about a game. In the former, contestants may be invited from a pool of public applicants. Game shows reward players with prizes such as cash and goods and services provided by the show's sponsor prize suppliers. Game shows began to appear on television in the late 1930s; the first television game show, Spelling Bee, as well as the first radio game show, Information Please, were both broadcast in 1938. Q. a radio quiz show that began in 1939. Truth or Consequences was the first game, its first episode aired in 1941 as an experimental broadcast. Over the course of the 1950s, as television began to pervade the popular culture, game shows became a fixture. Daytime game shows would be played for lower stakes to target stay-at-home housewives. Higher-stakes programs would air in primetime.
During the late 1950s, high-stakes games such as Twenty-One and The $64,000 Question began a rapid rise in popularity. However, the rise of quiz shows proved to be short-lived. In 1959, many of the higher stakes game shows were discovered to be rigged and ratings declines led to most of the primetime games being canceled. An early variant of the game show, the panel game, survived. On shows like What's My Line?, I've Got A Secret, To Tell the Truth, panels of celebrities would interview a guest in an effort to determine some fact about them. Panel games had success in primetime until the late 1960s, when they were collectively dropped from television because of their perceived low budget nature. Panel games made a comeback in American daytime television in the 1970s through comedy-driven shows such as Match Game and Hollywood Squares. In the UK, commercial demographic pressures were not as prominent, restrictions on game shows made in the wake of the scandals limited the style of games that could be played and the amount of money that could be awarded.
Panel have continued to thrive. The focus on quick-witted comedians has resulted in strong ratings, combined with low costs of production, have only spurred growth in the UK panel show phenomenon. Game shows remained a fixture of US daytime television through the 1960s after the quiz show scandals. Lower-stakes games made a slight comeback in daytime in the early 1960s. Let's Make a Deal began in 1963 and the 1960s marked the debut of Hollywood Squares, The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game. Though CBS gave up on daytime game shows in 1968, the other networks did not follow suit. Color television was introduced to the game show genre in the late 1960s on all three networks; the 1970s saw a renaissance of the game show as new games and massive upgrades to existing games made debuts on the major networks. The New Price Is Right, an update of the 1950s-era game show The Price Is Right, debuted in 1972 and marked CBS's return to the game show format in its effort to draw wealthier, suburban viewers; the Match Game became "Big Money" Match Game 73, which proved popular enough to prompt a spin-off, Family Feud, on ABC in 1976.
The $10,000 Pyramid and its numerous higher-stakes derivatives debuted in 1973, while the 1970s saw the return of disgraced producer and host Jack Barry, who debuted The Joker's Wild and a clean version of the rigged Tic-Tac-Dough in the 1970s. Wheel of Fortune debuted on NBC in 1975; the Prime Time Access Rule, which took effect in 1971, barred networks from broadcasting in the 7–8 p.m. time slot preceding prime time, opening up time slots for syndicated programming. Most of the syndicated programs were "nighttime" adaptations of network daytime game shows; these game shows aired once a week, but by the late 1970s and early 1980s most of the games had transitioned to five days a week. Game shows were the lowest priority of television networks and were rotated out every thirteen weeks if unsuccessful. Most tapes were destroyed until the early 1980s. Over the course of the late 1980s and early 1990s, as fewer new hits were produced, game shows lost their permanent place in the daytime lineup. ABC transitioned out of the daytime game show format in the mid-1980s.
NBC's game block lasted until 1991, but the network attempted to bring them back in 1993 before cancelling its game show block again in 1994. CBS phased out most of its game shows, except for The Price Is Right, by 1993. To the benefit of the genre, the moves of Wheel of Fortune and a modernized revival of Jeopardy! to syndication in 1983 and 1984 was and remains successful. Cable television allowed for the debut of game shows such as Supermarket Sweep, Trivial Pursuit and Family Challenge, Double Dare, it opened up a underdeveloped ma