Gazeta Wyborcza is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland. It covers the gamut of political and general news from a liberal perspective. Gazeta Wyborcza was first published on 8 May 1989, under the rhyming masthead motto, "Nie ma wolności bez Solidarności"; the founders were Aleksander Paszyński and Zbigniew Bujak. Its founding was an outcome of the Polish Round Table Agreement between the communist government of the People's Republic of Poland and political opponents centered on the Solidarity movement, it was owned by Agora SA. Cox Communications bought the daily; the company became American Company "Cox Enterprises" in 1993. The paper was to serve as the voice of Solidarity during the run-up to semi-free elections held on 4 June 1989; as such, it was the first legal newspaper published outside the communist government's control since its founding in the late 1940s. The paper's editor-in-chief, since its founding, has been Adam Michnik, he was appointed to the post by Lech Wałęsa. The paper is published in compact format.
According to the editors, the first edition was small and expensive due to the limited supplies of paper available from the state. A year and a half the daily run had reached 500,000 copies. In September 1990, during the acrimonious breakup of the Solidarity camp following the collapse of the communist government, Wałęsa revoked the paper's right to use the Solidarity logo on its masthead. Since Gazeta Wyborcza has been a independent newspaper which supports liberal values; the paper is a multi-section daily newspaper, it publishes daily local editions for the following cities: Warsaw, Białystok, Bydgoszcz, Częstochowa, Gdańsk, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Opole, Płock, Poznań, Rzeszów, Toruń, Wrocław, Zielona Góra. Gazeta Wyborcza had a circulation of 432,000 copies during the first three quarters of 1998; the circulation of the paper was 459,473 copies between January and February 2001. Its circulation was 542,000 copies in 2003, making it the second best selling newspaper in the country.
The 2004 circulation of the paper was 686,000 copies on weekends. The average circulation of the newspaper was peaked at 672,000 and it was the largest-selling newspaper in Poland, but by 2010, the circulation had declined by more than half, to 319,000, Fakt overtook Gazeta Wyborcza as Poland's leading newspaper; the decline continued in 2013 when circulation was down to 190,000 with a commensurate decrease in advertising revenue. In 2003, Lew Rywin, a prominent Polish film producer, was accused by Gazeta Wyborcza of attempted bribery when he solicited a bribe of $17.5 million from editor Adam Michnik in exchange for amendments to a media bill. The adoption of the bill in its original form proposed by the government would have prevented Agora S. A. from buying Polsat, one of Polish private TV stations. This case, called the Rywin affair, led to the establishment of an investigation commission by the Polish Parliament. Lew Rywin was sentenced for attempting to influence the parliamentary legislative process in a way that would enable a Polish media company to buy a television station.
Furthermore, the controversial draft act was rejected by the Polish Parliament. Gazeta Wyborcza has been criticized for distorted coverage of controversial issues such as post-communist vetting, Polish-Jewish relations and the Polish minority in Lithuania, it has received criticism for using its influence to whitewash former communists General Jaruzelski. After the fall of communism, the paper was criticized for taking part in an "intensive propaganda campaign" and for rigorously trying to revamp Jaruzelski's image. Gazeta Praca, Gazeta Sport, Gazeta Dom, Duży Format, Gazeta Telewizyjna, Gazeta Co Jest Grane, Gazeta Turystyka and Wysokie Obcasy, Wysokie Obcasy Extra; the online edition of Gazeta Wyborcza is one of the sections of the portal Gazeta.pl. The paid electronic version of the newspaper is an option; the website wyborcza.pl has been expanded through rankings of articles which are most read and commented on. It presents global history on most notable covers of Gazeta Wyborcza. Beside analogue sections from the paper edition, the website provides a feedback section which allows the readers to contact the editorial staff and express opinions).
The paper's website links to Gazeta's journalists' blogs, including the ones by: Ewa Milewicz, Dominika Wielowieyska, Jan Turnau, Bartosz Węglarczyk and Wojciech Orliński. The number of journalists who write blogs is increasing. Michnikowszczyzna. Zapis choroby List of newspapers in Poland Official website
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Aldous Leonard Huxley was an English writer and philosopher. He authored nearly fifty books—both novels and non-fiction works—as well as wide-ranging essays and poems. Born into the prominent Huxley family, he graduated from Balliol College with an undergraduate degree in English literature. Early in his career, he published short stories and poetry and edited the literary magazine Oxford Poetry, before going on to publish travel writing and screenplays, he spent the latter part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death. By the end of his life, Huxley was acknowledged as one of the foremost intellectuals of his time, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times and was elected Companion of Literature by the Royal Society of Literature in 1962. Huxley was a pacifist, he grew interested in philosophical mysticism and universalism, addressing these subjects with works such as The Perennial Philosophy —which illustrates commonalities between Western and Eastern mysticism—and The Doors of Perception —which interprets his own psychedelic experience with mescaline.
In his most famous novel Brave New World and his final novel Island, he presented his vision of dystopia and utopia, respectively. Huxley was born in Godalming, England, in 1894, he was the third son of the writer and schoolmaster Leonard Huxley, who edited Cornhill Magazine, his first wife, Julia Arnold, who founded Prior's Field School. Julia was the niece of the sister of Mrs. Humphry Ward. Aldous was the grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley, the zoologist and controversialist, his brother Julian Huxley and half-brother Andrew Huxley became outstanding biologists. Aldous had another brother, Noel Trevelyan Huxley, who committed suicide after a period of clinical depression; as a child, Huxley's nickname was "Ogie", short for "Ogre". He was described by his brother, Julian, as someone who " the strangeness of things". According to his cousin and contemporary, Gervas Huxley, he had an early interest in drawing. Huxley's education began in his father's well-equipped botanical laboratory, after which he enrolled at Hillside School near Godalming.
He was taught there by his own mother for several years. After Hillside he went on to Eton College, his mother died in 1908, when he was 14. He contracted the eye disease keratitis punctata in 1911; this "ended his early dreams of becoming a doctor." In October 1913, Huxley entered Balliol College, where he studied English literature. He volunteered for the British Army for the Great War, his eyesight partly recovered. He edited Oxford Poetry in 1916, in June of that year graduated BA with first class honours, his brother Julian wrote: I believe his blindness was a blessing in disguise. For one thing, it put paid to his idea of taking up medicine as a career... His uniqueness lay in his universalism, he was able to take all knowledge for his province. Following his years at Balliol, being financially indebted to his father, decided to find employment, he taught French for a year at Eton College, where Eric Blair and Steven Runciman were among his pupils. He was remembered as being an incompetent schoolmaster unable to keep order in class.
Blair and others spoke of his excellent command of language. Huxley worked for a time during the 1920s at Brunner and Mond, an advanced chemical plant in Billingham in County Durham, northeast England. According to the introduction to the latest edition of his science fiction novel Brave New World, the experience he had there of "an ordered universe in a world of planless incoherence" was an important source for the novel. Huxley completed his first novel at the age of 17 and began writing in his early twenties, establishing himself as a successful writer and social satirist, his first published novels were social satires, Crome Yellow, Antic Hay, Those Barren Leaves, Point Counter Point. Brave New World was his fifth novel and first dystopian work. In the 1920s he was a contributor to Vanity Fair and British Vogue magazines. During the First World War, Huxley spent much of his time at Garsington Manor near Oxford, home of Lady Ottoline Morrell, working as a farm labourer. There he met several Bloomsbury Group figures, including Bertrand Russell, Alfred North Whitehead, Clive Bell.
In Crome Yellow he caricatured the Garsington lifestyle. Jobs were scarce, but in 1919 John Middleton Murry was reorganising the Athenaeum and invited Huxley to join the staff, he accepted and married the Belgian refugee Maria Nys at Garsington. They lived with their young son in Italy part of the time during the 1920s, where Huxley would visit his friend D. H. Lawrence. Following Lawrence's death in 1930, Huxley edited Lawrence's letters. Works of this period included important novels on the dehumanising aspects of scientific progress, most famously Brave New World, on pacifist themes. In Brave New World, set in a dystopian London, Huxley portrays a society operating on the principles of mass production and Pavlovian conditioning. Huxley was influenced by F. Matthias Alexander, included him as a character in Eyeless in Gaza. Beginning in this period, Huxley began to write and edit non-fiction works on pacifist issues, i
A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may identify hidden similarities between two ideas. Antithesis, hyperbole and simile are all types of metaphor. One of the most cited examples of a metaphor in English literature is the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It: This quotation expresses a metaphor because the world is not a stage. By asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world and the behavior of the people within it; the Philosophy of Rhetoric by rhetorician I. A. Richards describes a metaphor as having two parts: the tenor and the vehicle; the tenor is the subject. The vehicle is the object. In the previous example, "the world" is compared to a stage, describing it with the attributes of "the stage". Other writers employ the general terms figure to denote the tenor and the vehicle.
Cognitive linguistics uses source, respectively. Psychologist Julian Jaynes contributed the terms metaphrand, metaphier and paraphier to the understanding of how metaphors evoke meaning thereby adding two additional terms to the common set of two basic terms. Metaphrand is equivalent to metaphor theory terms tenor and ground. Metaphier is equivalent to metaphor theory terms vehicle and source. Paraphier is any attribute, characteristics, or aspect of a metaphier, whereas any paraphrand is a selected paraphier which has conceptually become attached to a metaphrand through understanding or comprehending of a metaphor. For example, if a reader encounters this metaphor: "Pat is a tornado," the metaphrand is "Pat," the metaphier is "tornado." The paraphiers, or characteristics, of the metaphier "tornado" would include: storm, wind, danger, destruction, etc. However, the metaphoric use of those attributes or characteristics of a tornado is not one-for-one; the English metaphor derived from the 16th-century Old French word métaphore, which comes from the Latin metaphora, "carrying over", in turn from the Greek μεταφορά, "transfer", from μεταφέρω, "to carry over", "to transfer" and that from μετά, "after, across" + φέρω, "to bear", "to carry".
Metaphors are most compared with similes. It is said, for instance, that a metaphor is'a condensed analogy' or'analogical fusion' or that they'operate in a similar fashion' or are'based on the same mental process' or yet that'the basic processes of analogy are at work in metaphor', it is pointed out that'a border between metaphor and analogy is fuzzy' and'the difference between them might be described as the distance between things being compared'. A simile is a specific type of metaphor. A metaphor asserts the objects in the comparison are identical on the point of comparison, while a simile asserts a similarity. For this reason a common-type metaphor is considered more forceful than a simile; the metaphor category contains these specialized types: Allegory: An extended metaphor wherein a story illustrates an important attribute of the subject. Antithesis: A rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences. Catachresis: A mixed metaphor, sometimes by accident.
Hyperbole: Excessive exaggeration to illustrate a point. Metonymy: A figure of speech using the name of one thing in reference to a different thing to which the first is associated. In the phrase "lands belonging to the crown", the word "crown" is metonymy for monarch. Parable: An extended metaphor told as an anecdote to illustrate or teach a moral or spiritual lesson, such as in Aesop's fables or Jesus' teaching method as told in the Bible. Pun: Similar to a metaphor, a pun alludes to another term. However, the main difference is that a pun is a frivolous allusion between two different things whereas a metaphor is a purposeful allusion between two different things. Metaphor, like other types of analogy, can be distinguished from metonymy as one of two fundamental modes of thought. Metaphor and analogy work by bringing together concepts from different conceptual domains, while metonymy uses one element from a given domain to refer to another related element. A metaphor creates new links between otherwise distinct conceptual domains, while a metonymy relies on the existing links within them.
A dead metaphor is a metaphor. The phrases "to grasp a concept" and "to gather what you've understood" use physical action as a metaphor for understanding; the audience does not need to visualize the action. Some distinguish between a dead metaphor and a cliché. Others use "dead metaphor" to denote both. A mixed metaphor is a metaphor that leaps from one identification to a second inconsistent with the first, e.g.: I smell a rat but I'll nip him in the bud"-Irish politician Boyle Roche This form is used as a parody of metaphor itself: If we can hit that bull's-eye the rest of the dominoes will fall like a house of cards... Checkmate. An extended metaphor, or conceit, sets up a principal subject wit
Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist and critic, whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, outspoken support of democratic socialism. Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry and polemical journalism, he is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. His non-fiction works, including The Road to Wigan Pier, documenting his experience of working class life in the north of England, Homage to Catalonia, an account of his experiences on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War, are acclaimed, as are his essays on politics, literature and culture. In 2008, The Times ranked him second on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Orwell's work continues to influence popular and political culture and the term "Orwellian"—descriptive of totalitarian or authoritarian social practices—has entered the language together with many of his neologisms, including "Big Brother", "Thought Police", "Hate week", "Room 101", "memory hole", "newspeak", "doublethink", "proles", "unperson" and "thoughtcrime".
Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903 in Motihari, British India. His great-grandfather, Charles Blair, was a wealthy country gentleman in Dorset who married Lady Mary Fane, daughter of the Earl of Westmorland, had income as an absentee landlord of plantations in Jamaica, his grandfather, Thomas Richard Arthur Blair, was a clergyman. Although the gentility passed down the generations, the prosperity did not, his father, Richard Walmesley Blair, worked in the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service. His mother, Ida Mabel Blair, grew up in Moulmein, where her French father was involved in speculative ventures. Eric had two sisters: Marjorie, five years older; when Eric was one year old, his mother his sisters to England. His birthplace and ancestral house in Motihari has been declared a protected monument of historical importance. In 1904 Ida Blair settled with her children at Henley-on-Thames in Oxfordshire. Eric was brought up in the company of his mother and sisters, apart from a brief visit in mid-1907, the family did not see their husband or father, Richard Blair, until 1912.
His mother's diary from 1905 describes a lively round of artistic interests. Before the First World War, the family moved to Shiplake, Oxfordshire where Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family their daughter Jacintha; when they first met, he was standing on his head in a field. On being asked why, he said, "You are noticed more if you stand on your head than if you are right way up." Jacintha and Eric read and wrote poetry, dreamed of becoming famous writers. He said. During this period, he enjoyed shooting and birdwatching with Jacintha's brother and sister. Aged five, Eric was sent as a day-boy to a convent school in Henley-on-Thames, which Marjorie attended, it was a Roman Catholic convent run by French Ursuline nuns, exiled from France after religious education was banned in 1903. His mother wanted him to have a public school education, but his family could not afford the fees, he needed to earn a scholarship. Ida Blair's brother Charles Limouzin recommended St Cyprian's School, East Sussex.
Limouzin, a proficient golfer, knew of the school and its headmaster through the Royal Eastbourne Golf Club, where he won several competitions in 1903 and 1904. The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, made a private financial arrangement that allowed Blair's parents to pay only half the normal fees. In September 1911, Eric arrived at St Cyprian's, he boarded at the school for the next five years. During this period, while working for the Ministry of Pensions, his mother lived at 23 Cromwell Crescent, Earls Court, he knew nothing of the reduced fees, although he "soon recognised that he was from a poorer home". Blair hated the school and many years wrote an essay "Such, Such Were the Joys", published posthumously, based on his time there. At St Cyprian's, Blair first met Cyril Connolly. Many years as the editor of Horizon, Connolly published several of Orwell's essays. While at St Cyprian's, Blair wrote two poems that were published in the Henley and South Oxfordshire Standard.
He came second to Connolly in the Harrow History Prize, had his work praised by the school's external examiner, earned scholarships to Wellington and Eton. But inclusion on the Eton scholarship roll did not guarantee a place, none was available for Blair, he chose to stay at St Cyprian's until December 1916. In January, Blair took up the place at Wellington. In May 1917 a place became available as a King's Scholar at Eton. At this time the family lived at Notting Hill Gate. Blair remained at Eton until December 1921, when he left midway between his 19th birthday. Wellington was "beastly", Orwell told his childhood friend Jacintha Buddicom, but he said he was "interested and happy" at Eton, his principal tutor was A. S. F. Gow, Fellow of Trinity College, who gave him advice in his career. Blair was taught French by Aldous Huxley. Steven Runciman, at Eton with Blair, noted that he and his contemporaries appreciated Huxley's linguistic flair. Cyril Connolly followed Blair to Eton, but because they were in separate years
A space station known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, designed to remain in space for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock. A space station is distinguished from other spacecraft used for human spaceflight by lack of major propulsion or landing systems. Instead, other vehicles transport people and cargo to and from the station; as of 2018, one functioning space station is in Earth orbit: the International Space Station. Various other components of future space stations, such as Japan's space elevator and U. S. inflatable modules, are being tested in orbit. Previous stations include the Almaz and Salyut series, Skylab and Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2. China, the U. S. as well as a few private companies are all planning other stations for the coming decades. Today's space stations are research platforms, used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body as well as to provide platforms for greater number and length of scientific studies than available on other space vehicles.
Each crew member stays aboard the station for weeks or months, but more than a year. Since the ill-fated flight of Soyuz 11 to Salyut 1, all human spaceflight duration records have been set aboard space stations; the duration record for a single spaceflight is 437.7 days, set by Valeriy Polyakov aboard Mir from 1994 to 1995. As of 2016, four cosmonauts have completed single missions of over a year, all aboard Mir. Space stations have been used for both military and civilian purposes; the last military-use space station was Salyut 5, used by the Almaz program of the Soviet Union in 1976 and 1977. Space stations have been envisaged since at least as early as 1869 when Edward Everett Hale wrote "The Brick Moon"; the first to give serious consideration to space stations were Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in the early 20th century and Hermann Oberth about two decades later. In 1929 Herman Potočnik's The Problem of Space Travel was published, the first to envision a "rotating wheel" space station to create artificial gravity.
During the Second World War, German scientists researched the theoretical concept of an orbital weapon based on a space station. Pursuing Oberth's idea of a space-based weapon, the so-called "sun gun" was a concept of a space station orbiting Earth at a height of 8,200 kilometres, with a weapon, to utilize the sun's energy. In 1951, in Collier's Weekly, Wernher von Braun published his design for a rotating wheel space station, which referenced Potočnik's idea – however these concepts would never leave the concept stage during the 20th century. During the same time as von Braun pursued Potočnik's ideas, the Soviet design bureaus – chiefly Vladimir Chelomey's OKB-52 – were pursuing Tsiolkovsky's ideas for space stations; the work by OKB-52 would lead to the Almaz programme and to the first space station: Salyut 1. The developed hardware laid the ground for the Salyut and Mir space stations, is today a considerable part of the ISS space station; the first space station was Salyut 1, launched by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.
Like all the early space stations, it was "monolithic", intended to be constructed and launched in one piece, inhabited by a crew later. As such, monolithic stations contained all their supplies and experimental equipment when launched, were considered "expended", abandoned, when these were used up; the earlier Soviet stations were all designated "Salyut", but among these there were two distinct types: civilian and military. The military stations, Salyut 2, Salyut 3, Salyut 5, were known as Almaz stations; the civilian stations Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 were built with two docking ports, which allowed a second crew to visit, bringing a new spacecraft with them. This allowed for a crew to man the station continually. Skylab was equipped with two docking ports, like second-generation stations, but the extra port was never utilized; the presence of a second port on the new stations allowed Progress supply vehicles to be docked to the station, meaning that fresh supplies could be brought to aid long-duration missions.
This concept was expanded on Salyut 7, which "hard docked" with a TKS tug shortly before it was abandoned. The Salyuts may reasonably be seen as a transition between the two groups. Unlike previous stations, the Soviet space station Mir had a modular design; this method allows for greater flexibility in operation, as well as removing the need for a single immensely powerful launch vehicle. Modular stations are designed from the outset to have their supplies provided by logistical support, which allows for a longer lifetime at the cost of requiring regular support launches. Future modules are still based on initial design and capabilities; the first module of the International Space Station, was launched in 1998. The ISS is divided into the Russian Orbital Segment and the US Orbital Segment. USOS modules were brought to the station by the Space Shuttle and manually attached to the ISS by crews during EVAs. Connections are made manually for electrical power, data and cooling fluids; this results in a single piece, not designed for disassembly.
The Russian Orbital Segment's modules are able to launch and dock themselves without human intervention usin