United States National Grassland
National Grassland is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States authorized by Title III of the Bankhead–Jones Farm Tenant Act of 1937. For administrative purposes, they are identical to United States National Forests, except that grasslands are areas consisting of prairie. Like National Forests, National Grasslands may be open for hunting, mineral extraction and other uses. Various National Grasslands are administered in conjunction with nearby National Forests. All but three National Grasslands are at the edge of the Great Plains; those three are in southeastern Idaho, northeastern California, central Oregon. The three National Grasslands in North Dakota, together with one in northwestern South Dakota, are administered jointly as the Dakota Prairie Grasslands. National Grasslands are much smaller than National Forests. Whereas a typical National Forest would be about 1,000,000 acres, the average Grassland size is 191,914 acres; the largest National Grassland, the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota, covers 1,028,784 acres, the median size of a National Forest.
As of September 30, 2007, the total area of all 20 National Grasslands was 3,838,280 acres. The catastrophic Dust Bowl of the 1930s led to the creation of the Soil Conservation Service in 1933; this and subsequent federal laws paved the way for establishing national grasslands. Grassland Prairie Temperate grasslands and shrublands List of U. S. National Forests Wilderness preservation systems in the United States
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
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Interstate 84 (Oregon–Utah)
Interstate 84 is an Interstate Highway in the northwestern United States. The highway runs from Oregon, to a junction with I-80 near Echo, Utah; the sections running through Oregon and Idaho are known as the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Highway. The highway served as a fork of I-80 to serve the Pacific Northwest, was numbered Interstate 80N; the highway serves and connects Portland and Salt Lake City. Seattle, Washington is indirectly served by I-84 via a connection with I-82. With the connection to I-80, I-84 connects these cities to points east. I-80N was built along the corridor of U. S. Route 30 and US 30S, which themselves followed the Oregon Trail; the highway was signed with the I-84 designation in 1980, when a 1977 change in guidelines took effect that discouraged highway numbers with directional suffixes. The renumbering resulted in two highways being numbered I-84, with the other located in the Northeastern United States. In the Portland metropolitan area, I-84 is sometimes referred to as the "Banfield Freeway" or "the Banfield", although the official name is the Banfield Expressway.
This freeway is named after Thomas H. "Harry" Banfield, the chairman of the Oregon Transportation Commission from 1943 to 1950. As I-84 heads east, but before leaving Portland, there is a junction with I-205. After leaving Portland I-84 runs east along the south bank of the Columbia River for nearly 150 miles, passing through the cities of Hood River, The Dalles and Boardman before heading southeast to the junction with southern end of I-82 southeast of the Umatilla Chemical Depot near Hermiston. From the junction it continues southeast on to Pendleton. East of Pendleton, I-84 climbs a 6 % grade, into the Blue Mountains; the westbound lanes switchback twice on its descent into Pendleton. Eastbound lanes feature the tightest curves allowed on the Interstate Highway system though those curves are on the uphill direction; this grade is well known because of the distance between eastbound and westbound lanes, nearly 2 miles between the opposite directions of travel at some points. The road summits at 4,193 feet above sea level before descending to the Grand Ronde River and La Grande.
It passes through the Burnt River canyon. Around Huntington, it crosses into the Mountain Time Zone briefly follows the southwest bank of the Snake River continues to Ontario before crossing the Snake River into Idaho. I-84 enters Idaho by crossing the Snake River at Oregon. From there, it continues on to the major cities of the Treasure Valley including Caldwell, Nampa and Boise. From Boise, I-84 continues southeast passing near several small cities on its way to Twin Falls. Just east of Jerome, I-84 passes within five miles of Twin Falls, but does not cross the Snake River Canyon or into Twin Falls County. Access to Twin Falls is afforded by an intersection with US 93 at Exit 173. After Twin Falls, I-84 continues through Heyburn. Seven miles east of Declo in rural Cassia County, I-84 meets the western terminus of the western section of I-86. While I-86 heads east northeast to American Falls and Pocatello, I-84 heads southeast to the border with Utah. In 2014, the speed limit on rural sections of I-84 in Idaho was raised to 80 miles per hour.
From Idaho, I-84 enters Utah at a point 7 miles from Snowville in Box Elder County. It proceeds southeast through Rattle Snake Pass towards Brigham City where I-84 joins I-15 for its next 40 miles. Just north of Brigham City, at Corinne, Utah, I-84 joins the route of the First Transcontinental Railroad which the highway follows to its terminus. I-15/I-84 heads south passing through several smaller communities and the west side of Ogden before I-84 separates from I-15 and follows the Weber River east; as the freeway ascends through Weber Canyon it passes through several small farming communities, including Morgan, where the Browning Arms Company headquarters can be seen from the freeway. Visible in the canyon is Devil's Slide, an unusual rock formation just off the freeway. Farther up the canyon is the Thousand Mile Tree, planted by Union Pacific Railroad workers to mark 1,000 miles from the railroad's origin in Omaha, Nebraska; the freeway ends at Echo, a near ghost town that before served as a stopover for the railroad, at a junction with Interstate 80.
Near the junction are Echo Reservoir and Echo Dam. The Utah sections of I-84 that are not concurrent with Interstate 15 are defined at Utah Code Annotated § 72-4-114; the Portland to Utah corridor was proposed as one of the national "toll superhighways" in a 1939 report by the Bureau of Public Roads. It was formally included in the Interstate Highway System, created in 1956, was proposed to be numbered as Interstate 82; the freeway was assigned the designation of I-80N in the 1958 plan, in part to correspond with US 30. The Portland segment of then-I-80N was proposed to run on the Mount Hood Freeway. Plans for thi
Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area
The Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area is located on the Oregon Coast, stretching 40 miles north of the Coos River in North Bend to the Siuslaw River in Florence, adjoining Honeyman State Park on the west. It is administered by the United States Forest Service; the Oregon Dunes are a unique area of windswept sand. They are the largest expanse of coastal sand dunes in North America and one of the largest expanses of temperate coastal sand dunes in the world, with some dunes reaching 500 feet above sea level, they are the product of millions of years of erosion by rain on the Oregon Coast. The Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area provides numerous recreational activities, including off-highway vehicle use, photography, canoeing, horseback riding, camping; the Carter Dunes Trail and Oregon Dunes Day Use provide forest access for the disabled. Frank Herbert's science-fiction novel Dune was inspired by the author's research and fascination with the area; the Oregon Dunes are over 100,000 years old and stretch 40 miles.
The youngest dunes, which are the closest to the ocean, began forming about 7,000 years ago. Studies of individual sand grains show that these sands were carried down from the mountains by the Umpqua and other smaller rivers. In 1963, Congressman Robert B. Duncan introduced a bill to establish a national seashore at the Oregon Dunes. Senator Wayne Morse opposed provisions of the bill that increased environmental protections by restricting property uses. In 1972 Congress set aside 32,186 acres of the total dune area as the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area; the actual dunes are managed by the U. S. Forest Service, while the remaining area is private or county land; the sand dunes were formed by water over time. The dune formation is dependent on the wind. In the summer the wind blows from the northwest at 12 -- 16 miles per hour. Mountain barriers near the coast deflect the wind currents, forming the sand into many different shapes. In the winter the winds are much slower, coming from southwest.
These winds move large amounts of sand. Water plays a role in dune formation. Waves and tides dredge sand from the ocean floor and deposit it onto the beaches, where the wind takes over; the water currents create marshy areas where standing water is several feet deep. Upward pressure causes the sand grains to float; this process results in quicksand. Quicksand is found in the unvegetated areas between the dunes; the barrage lakes are the largest lakes in Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area. They were formed when streams flowing west from the Coast Range foothills were dammed up by the developing dunes. Stable native plant species are vital to the success of the dunes ecosystem. Several native plants and plant groups have been identified as crucial and are part of active management and conservation efforts; these plants include red fescue, Port Orford cedar, evergreen huckleberry, seashore bluegrass, shore pine, hairy manzanita, bog blueberry, tufted hairgrass, slough sedge, Sitka spruce, skunk cabbage.
Original native plant species were drastically reduced over the years due to the planting of European beachgrass, Scotch broom and shore pine for sand stabilization that occurred from 1910 through 1979. Many species of birds live in the varied habitats of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area; the South Jetty area includes beach and coastal wetlands where the tundra swan, marsh wren, Canada goose, yellow-rumped warbler, red-tailed hawk, long-billed curlew and least sandpiper make their home. The great blue heron, American bittern, green heron, Virginia rail, cinnamon teal, common yellowthroat, common merganser, belted kingfisher, snowy plover, bald eagle, osprey live along the Siticoos area by the Waxmyrtle Trail; the Eel Creek area includes many shore pines and provides shelter to the pine siskin, chestnut-backed chickadee, Swainson's thrush, northern flicker, red crossbill, olive-sided flycatcher, Anna's hummingbird. The white-tailed kite, northern harrier, violet-green swallow, downy woodpecker, orange-crowned warbler, yellow warbler, black-throated gray warbler, Townsend’s warbler, hermit warbler, great horned owl, great egret have been sighted in the Horsefalls area.
The western snowy plover uses the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area as a nesting site. In 1993, it was identified as a "threatened" species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, with only 68 birds remaining in Oregon. Multiple agencies used a multi-pronged approach to increase their numbers. Techniques included restoring the plover habitat along the sand dunes by removing invasive beach grasses and maintaining the appropriate structures optimal for nest building. Protection of nesting sites is achieved by education and beach restrictions during the nesting season from March 15 through September 15; when necessary, these restrictions are enforced by police officers. Other techniques include removal of accurate population monitoring; as of 2012, the number of plovers had increased to 403 birds. The Oregon Dunes Restoration Collaborative is an organization that works with numerous government entities to preserve and restore the dunes; the group, formed in 2014, is engaged in efforts to combat the spread of invasive plant species that consume a large portion of the dunes.
The invasive species seen today are a result of a twentieth-century effort by land managers to stabilize the du
Columbia River Gorge
The Columbia River Gorge is a canyon of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Up to 4,000 feet deep, the canyon stretches for over 80 miles as the river winds westward through the Cascade Range forming the boundary between the State of Washington to the north and Oregon to the south. Extending from the confluence of the Columbia with the Deschutes River in the east down to the eastern reaches of the Portland metropolitan area, the water gap furnishes the only navigable route through the Cascades and the only water connection between the Columbia River Plateau and the Pacific Ocean, it is thus the route of Washington State Route 14, Interstate 84, U. S. Route 30, railroad tracks on both sides; the gorge holds federally protected status as a National Scenic Area called the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area and is managed by the Columbia River Gorge Commission and the US Forest Service. The gorge is a popular recreational destination; the Columbia River, Klamath River in Northern California, Pit River in Northern California, Fraser River in Southern British Columbia are the only four rivers connecting the east-side watersheds of the Cascade Mountain Range to the Pacific Ocean.
Each river has created a gorge through the Cascade Mountain Range. The Columbia River Gorge marks the state line between Washington; the wide range of elevation and precipitation makes the Columbia River Gorge an diverse and dynamic place. Ranging from 4,000 feet to sea level, transitioning from 100 inches of precipitation to only 10 inches in 80 miles, the Gorge creates a diverse collection of ecosystems from the temperate rain forest on the western end—with an average annual precipitation of 75 to 100 inches —to the eastern grasslands with average annual precipitation between 10 and 15 inches, to a transitional dry woodland between Hood River and The Dalles. Isolated micro-habitats have allowed for many species of endemic plants and animals to prosper, including at least 13 endemic wildflowers; the Gorge transitions between temperate rainforest to dry grasslands in only 80 miles, hosting a dramatic change in scenery while driving down Interstate 84. In the western, temperate rainforest areas, forests are marked by bigleaf maples, Douglas fir, Western hemlock, all covered in epiphytes.
In the transition zone, vegetation turns to Oregon white oak, Ponderosa pine, cottonwood. At the eastern end, the forests make way for expansive grasslands, with occasional pockets of lodgepole and Ponderosa pine. Atmospheric pressure differentials east and west of the Cascades create a wind tunnel effect in the deep cut of the gorge, generating 35 mph winds that make it a popular windsurfing and kitesurfing location, it creates the right conditions for snow and ice storms during the winter months which draws cold east winds at the mouth of the gorge on the west end. The Gorge is a popular destination for hiking, sight-seeing and watersports; the area is known for its high concentration of waterfalls, with over 90 on the Oregon side of the Gorge alone. Many are along the Historic Columbia River Highway, including the notable 620-foot -high Multnomah Falls. Trails and day use sites are maintained by the Forest Service and many Oregon and Washington state parks; the Columbia River Gorge began forming as far back as the Miocene, continued to take shape through the Pleistocene.
During this period the Cascades Range was forming, which moved the Columbia River's delta about 100 miles north to its current location. Although the river eroded the land over this period of time, the most drastic changes took place at the end of the last Ice Age when the Missoula Floods cut the steep, dramatic walls that exist today, flooding the river as high up as Crown Point; this quick erosion left many layers of volcanic rock exposed. The gorge has supported human habitation for over 13,000 years. Evidence of the Folsom and Marmes people, who crossed the Bering land bridge from Asia, were found in archaeological digs. Excavations near Celilo Falls, a few miles east of The Dalles, show humans have occupied this salmon-fishing site for more than 10,000 years; the gorge has provided a transportation corridor for thousands of years. Native Americans would travel through the Gorge to trade at Celilo Falls, both along the river and over Lolo Pass on the north side of Mount Hood. In 1805, the route was used by the Clark Expedition to reach the Pacific.
Early European and American settlers subsequently established steamboat lines and railroads through the gorge. Today, the BNSF Railway runs freights along the Washington side of the river, while its rival, the Union Pacific Railroad, runs freights along the Oregon shore; until 1997, Amtrak's Pioneer used the Union Pacific tracks. The Portland segment of the Empire Builder uses the BNSF tracks; the Columbia River Highway, built in the early 20th century, was the first major paved highway in the Pacific Northwest. Shipping was simplified after Bonneville Dam and The Dalles Dam submerged the gorge's major rapids such as Celilo Falls, a major salmon fishing site for local Native Americans until the site's submergence in 1957. In November 1986, Congress made it the second U. S. National Scenic Area and established the Columbia River Gorge Commission as part of an interstate compact; the experimental designation came in lieu of being recognized as a national park, which would require the existing industries in towns along the river to relocate.
Malheur National Forest
The Malheur National Forest is a National Forest in the U. S. state of Oregon. It contains more than 1.4 million acres in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. The forest consists of high desert grasslands, juniper, pine and other tree species. Elevations vary from about 4,000 feet to the 9,038-foot peak of Strawberry Mountain; the Strawberry Mountains extend east to west through the center of the forest. U. S. Route 395 runs south to north through the forest, while U. S. Route 26 runs east to west; the forest was established by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 13, 1908, is named after the Malheur River, from the French, meaning "misfortune". It is managed by the United States Forest Service for timber extraction, cattle grazing, gold mining and wilderness use. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. In descending order of land area, the forest is located in parts of Grant, Harney and Malheur counties. There are three ranger districts in the forest, with offices in John Day, Prairie City, Hines.
The Malheur National Forest contains the largest known organism in the world: an Armillaria solidipes that spans 2,200 acres. There are two wilderness areas in the Malheur National Forest. Strawberry Mountain Wilderness at 68,700 acres Monument Rock Wilderness at 19,620 acres, located within the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest Vinegar Hill-Indian Rock Scenic Area, a high-elevation scenic area in the northeast portion of the forest Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, a federally protected refuge to the south of the forest Malheur National Forest home page Cedar Grove Botanical Area