Koblenz, spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle. Koblenz was established as a Roman military post by Drusus around 8 B. C, its name originates in the Latin cōnfluentēs. The actual confluence is today known as the "German Corner", a symbol of German reunification that features an equestrian statue of Emperor William I; the city celebrated its 2000th anniversary in 1992. After Mainz and Ludwigshafen am Rhein, it is the third-largest city in Rhineland-Palatinate, with a population of around 112,000. Koblenz lies in the Rhineland. Around 1000 BC, early fortifications were erected on the Festung Ehrenbreitstein hill on the opposite side of the Moselle. In 55 BC, Roman troops commanded by Julius Caesar reached the Rhine and built a bridge between Koblenz and Andernach. About 9 BC, the "Castellum apud Confluentes", was one of the military posts established by Drusus. Remains of a large bridge built in 49 AD by the Romans are still visible.
The Romans built two castles as protection for the bridge, one in 9 AD and another in the 2nd century, the latter being destroyed by the Franks in 259. North of Koblenz was a temple of Rosmerta, which remained in use up to the 5th century. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city was conquered by the Franks and became a royal seat. After the division of Charlemagne's empire, it was included in the lands of his son Louis the Pious. In 837, it was assigned to Charles the Bald, a few years it was here that Carolingian heirs discussed what was to become the Treaty of Verdun, by which the city became part of Lotharingia under Lothair I. In 860 and 922, Koblenz was the scene of ecclesiastical synods. At the first synod, held in the Liebfrauenkirche, the reconciliation of Louis the German with his half-brother Charles the Bald took place; the city was sacked and destroyed by the Norsemen in 882. In 925, it became part of the eastern German Kingdom the Holy Roman Empire. In 1018, the city was given by the emperor Henry II to the archbishop-elector of Trier after receiving a charter.
It remained in the possession of his successors until the end of the 18th century, having been their main residence since the 17th century. Emperor Conrad II was elected here in 1138. In 1198, the battle between Philip of Swabia and Otto IV took place nearby. In 1216, prince-bishop Theoderich von Wied donated part of the lands of the basilica and the hospital to the Teutonic Knights, which became the Deutsches Eck. In 1249–1254, Koblenz was given new walls by Archbishop Arnold II of Isenburg; the city was a member of the league of the Rhenish cities. The Teutonic Knights founded the Bailiwick of Koblenz in or around 1231. Koblenz attained great prosperity and it continued to advance until the disaster of the Thirty Years' War brought about a rapid decline. After Philip Christopher, elector of Trier, surrendered Ehrenbreitstein to the French, the city received an imperial garrison in 1632. However, this force was soon expelled by the Swedes, who in their turn handed the city over again to the French.
Imperial forces succeeded in retaking it by storm in 1636. In 1688, Koblenz was besieged by the French under Marshal de Boufflers, but they only succeeded in bombing the Old City into ruins, destroying among other buildings the Old Merchants' Hall, restored in its present form in 1725; the city was the residence of the archbishop-electors of Trier from 1690 to 1801. In 1786, the last archbishop-elector of Trier, Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony assisted the extension and improvement of the city, turning the Ehrenbreitstein into a magnificent baroque palace. After the fall of the Bastille in 1789, the city became, through the invitation of the archbishop-elector's chief minister, Ferdinand Freiherr von Duminique, one of the principal rendezvous points for French émigrés; the archbishop-elector approved of this because he was the uncle of the persecuted king of France, Louis XVI. Among the many royalist French refugees who flooded into the city were Louis XVI's two younger brothers, the Comte de Provence and the Comte d'Artois.
In addition, Louis XVI's cousin, Prince Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé, arrived and formed an army of young aristocrats willing to fight the French Revolution and restore the Ancien Régime. The Army of Condé joined with an allied army of Prussian and Austrian soldiers led by Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand of Brunswick in an unsuccessful invasion of France in 1792; this drew down the wrath of the First French Republic on the archbishop-elector. In 1814, it was occupied by the Russians; the Congress of Vienna assigned the city to Prussia, in 1822, it was made the seat of government for the Prussian Rhine Province. After World War I, France occupied the area once again. In defiance of the French, the German populace of the city insisted on using the more German spelling of Koblenz after 1926. During World War II it was the location of the command of German Army Group B and like many other German cities, it was bombed and rebuilt afterwards. Between 1947 and 1950, it served as the seat of government of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Rhine Gorge was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002, with Koblenz marking the northern end
Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany covering an area of 19,846 km2 and a population of 4.05 million inhabitants, the seventh-most populous German state. Mainz is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Trier and Worms. Rhineland-Palatinate is surrounded by the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, it borders three foreign countries: France and Belgium. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II from territory of the separate regions of the Free State of Prussia, People's State of Hesse, Bavaria, by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate has since developed its own identity built on its natural and cultural heritage, including the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, its picturesque landscapes, many castles and palaces.
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War on 30 August 1946. It was formed from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province, from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz; the Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland; the present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier of the old Prussian Rhine Province, those parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse west of the River Rhine and belonging to the People's State of Hesse, parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld. On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French.
To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Palatinate. The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig. It was called Rhenish-Palatinate; the provisional French government at that time wanted to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, had led the way with the establishment of German federal states, the French came under increasing pressure and followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz.
On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly took place there, a draft constitution was drawn up. Local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government. Adolf Süsterhenn submitted a draft constitution to the Advisory State Assembly, passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against it. One of the reasons for this was that the draft constitution made provision for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947, the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted by 53% of the electorate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate. On the same date, the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month Peter Altmeier succeeded him; the constitutional bodies, the Government, the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, established their provisional sea
Pilsner is a type of pale lager. It takes its name from the Czech city of Pilsen, where it was first produced in 1842 by Bavarian brewer Josef Groll from local ingredients; the world’s first blond lager, the original Pilsner Urquell, is still produced there today. The city of Pilsen began brewing in 1295, but until the mid-1840s, most Bohemian beers were top-fermented; the taste and standards of quality varied and in 1838, consumers dumped whole barrels to show their dissatisfaction. The officials of Pilsen founded a city-owned brewery in 1839, called Měšťanský pivovar Plzeň, to brew beer in the pioneering Bavarian style. Brewers had begun aging beer made with cool fermenting yeasts in caves, which improved the beer's clarity and shelf-life. Part of this research benefited from the knowledge expounded on in a book, written by Czech brewer František Ondřej Poupě from Brno; the Pilsen brewery recruited the Bavarian brewer Josef Groll who, using new techniques and paler malts, presented his first batch of pale lager on 5 October 1842.
The combination of brighter malt prepared by English technology, Pilsen's remarkably soft water, local Saaz noble hops from nearby Žatec and Bavarian-style lagering produced a clear, golden beer, regarded as a sensation. Groll returned to Vilshofen three years in 1845, there inherited his father's brewery. Emergence of efficient glass manufacturing in Europe, around the same time, lowered glass prices; this allowed the general population to purchase glass drinking vessels for the first time. These former luxury items showcased the visually pleasing golden clarity of the beer, further influencing the Pilsner's rapid dissemination. In 1853, the beer was available in 35 pubs in Prague. In 1856, it came in 1862 to Paris. Improving transport and communications meant that this new beer was soon available throughout Europe, the Pilsner style of brewing was soon imitated. In 1859, “Pilsner Bier” was registered as a brand name at the Chamber of Commerce and Trade in Pilsen. In 1898, the Pilsner Urquell trade mark was created to put emphasis on being the original brewery.
Some beers are labeled Urtyp Pilsener meaning that they are brewed according to the original process, although many breweries use this accolade for their top beer. The introduction to Germany of modern refrigeration by Carl von Linde in the late 19th century eliminated the need for caves for beer storage, enabling the brewing of cool fermenting beer in many new locations; until the Pilsner Urquell brewery fermented its beer using open barrels in the cellars beneath their brewery. This changed in 1993 with the use of large cylindrical tanks. Small samples are still brewed in a traditional way for taste comparisons. A modern pale lager termed a Pilsner may have a light, clear colour from pale to golden yellow, with varying levels of hop aroma and flavour; the alcohol strength of beers termed Pilsner vary but are around 4.5%–5%. There are categories such as "European-Style Pilsner" at beer competitions such as the World Beer Cup. Pilsen style lagers are marketed internationally by larger conglomerates.
A study utilizing blind taste-testing has found that several common mass-produced lagers have indistinguishable tastes to the average consumer. German-style Pilsner Light straw to golden colour with more bitter or earthy taste – Beck's, Flensburger, Fürstenberg, Jever, König, Radeberger, St. Pauli Girl, Warsteiner, WernesgrünerCzech-style Pilsner Golden, full of colours, with high foaminess and lighter flavour – Budweiser, Kozel, Pilsner Urquell, Staropramen, SvijanyEuropean-style Pilsner Has a sweet taste, can be produced from other than barley malt – Dutch: Amstel, Heineken or Belgian: Jupiler, Stella ArtoisAmerican-style Pilsner American Pilsners Imperial Pilsners, tend to have more of a robust maltiness than their European counterparts and have an alcohol content between 6.5% and 9% alcohol by volume. On the whole, they tend to be a little darker and sweeter with a certain spiciness when compared to Czech and German variants. Canadian-style Pilsner Hoppy lager-like beer originating from the west-coast of Canada.
Beer by region Gesellschaft für Geschichte des Brauwesens e. V. Die Kunst des Bierbrauens
Nette (Middle Rhine)
The Nette is a small river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a left tributary of the Rhine. It rises in the Eifel, south of Nürburg; the Nette flows east through Mayen before reaching the Rhine between Andernach. The Nette has otherwise no strategical importance, it is used among other things, as a supply of the local paper industry. It gives its name to the beer Nette Edel Pils brewed in Weißenthurm, the Clinic Nette-Gut of Forensic Psychiatry at Weißenthurm. List of rivers of Rhineland-Palatinate
Beer is one of the oldest and most consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most from malted barley, though wheat and rice are used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation; some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.
Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is commonly available on draught in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries; the strength of modern beer is around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume, although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above. Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared drinks; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000 year old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. There is evidence; the earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.
It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back further — to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer. During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment, crucial to the pyramids' construction; some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice. Any substance containing sugar can undergo alcoholic fermentation, it is that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer.
Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. Xenophon noted. Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, it was brewed on a domestic scale; the product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, numerous types of plants and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as, a addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water and barley-malt. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries.
During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. In 1912, the use of brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States; this innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer. As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ran
20th Century Press Archives
The 20th Century Press Archives comprises about 19 million of newspaper clippings, organized in folders about persons, wares and topics. It originates from the Hamburg Kolonialinstitut founded in 1908. Within the Hamburg Institute of International Economics it turned into a unique public press archives. In 2007 it was absorbed by the German National Library of Economics and merged with the Wirtschaftsarchiv of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, founded in 1914. Article collection was discontinued by end of 2005. After a few years, the "Zentralstelle" of the Kolonialinstitut was transformed from a free information center for colonial issues into a comprehensive archive of global political and economic topics, which supported Hamburg's merchants. After the breakdown of the German colonial empire in World War I, the renaming to "Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv" in 1919 sealed this reorientation; the staff of HWWA reflected its importance and grew from 54 in 1919 to 183 permanent or temporary employees in 1958 - a state that seems to have remained stable until the late 1990s.
Founded shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the Kiel Economic Archive and its library were linked to the scientific work of the IfW, which focused on global economic contexts and their practical use. In 1966, the library of the IfW was given the function of a central library for economics by the German Research Foundation in the Federal Republic of Germany, in 1993, the department was renamed accordingly. During the First and the Second World War both archives were intensively involved in the foreign and wartime planning of the empire and the Nazi state. Starting in 1936, "Confidential Reports from the Foreign Press" provided selected economic leaders and Nazi departments with "largely unfiltered information and comments on economic issues from foreign media and represented a unique feature in Nazi media policy". By acting with the informal means of a foreign cultural and information policy supplementing the military expansion policy, HWWA and IfW dedicated their services to the Nazi regime.
In 1996, a closer cooperation between HWWA and ZBW / Wirtschaftsarchiv began with the aim of merging the two archives. Since the beginning of 2001, the articles were indexed according to a new common classification system and made retrievable via a reference database, "EconPress". Following a recommendation from the evaluation within the Leibniz Association in 2003, the current press documentation was finished at the end of 2005 and the materials were frozen at the level reached; the existence of the HWWA ended in 2007 with the integration of its press documentation and library into the ZBW as a newly formed foundation under public law. Today, the press archive belongs to the infrastructures of the Leibniz Association. By 1919 at the latest, the Hamburg archive collected "press clippings on a global scale"; the archive was subdivided in four sections: The Sacharchiv with subject matter "from all countries and the whole world". For the individual countries and regions, which constituted the primary order criterion, up to 1200 individual topics were recorded.
Further special folders were created for individual events or questions "such as the Boer War, the issue of slavery or the Suez Canal". Since the late 1990s, collecting had focused on "domestic and international economic issues"; the Warenarchiv with national and international raw materials, semi-finished and finished products. The product names are subdivided into 980 upper and 3400 sub-terms. Here and regions represent the secondary order criterion; the Firmenarchiv with business reports, anniversary publications and press clippings of c. 36,000 domestic and foreign companies. In addition, material on several hundred institutions and international organizations and research institutes has been collected; the Personenarchiv with dossiers of about 16,000 people from business, science and society. More than 1400 sources have been evaluated for the press archives, their broad international distribution provides access to the history of political thought and receptive history of the covered topics.
The collected publications go back as far as 1826. While the persons archive was only available in paper form until its partial digitization, the holdings of the topics and companies archives have been saved every ten years on roll film or microfiche since the 1960s and the paper clippings were pulped; the holdings of the Kiel Wirtschaftsarchiv are less comprehensively documented. They are subdivided into a topics archive, which served the research and teaching of the IfW and, microfilmed up to 1945, a personal archive, only in paper form, which contains publications of these persons, a home archive with publications about the IfW itself in paper; the archive on corporate bodies, which in 1958 comprised 4800 companies and more than 5600 German and international scientific and cultural societies and institutions, political parties and trade associations. And represented "one of the most complete collections for twentieth-century business history" is not mentioned any more in the archive's profile.
The "war archive" of 1914-1918, which comprehended one million clippings, was destroyed by a bomb strike in 1942. For 1958, when six scientific experts and more than 30 employees in total were collecting and organizing the material, the total extent of the archive was estimated a
Karlsberg is one of the largest breweries in Germany. It is called Karlsbräu outside of Germany to differentiate it from the Danish brewing company Carlsberg. Established 1878 in the town of Homburg, the brewery was named after the nearby hill and castle. Karlsberg's ownership has been handed down through generations; the current owner, Richard Weber, is the great-grandson of the brewery's founder. Karlsberg's brands include Karlsberg, Beckers and Kasteel which includes Kasteel Cru, a lager brewed in Saverne using champagne yeast; the Karlsberg Group owns and distributes other beer brands, among them the German brewery Königsbacher and the French brewery Brasserie de Saverne. The juice producers Merziger and Niehoffs Vaihinger belong to the company. In 2001 Karlsberg acquired controlling interest in the Mineralbrunnen Überkingen-Teinach company from Nestlé, including Afri-Cola and the mineral water brands Staatlich Fachingen and Hirschquelle from the Black Forest. Alcohol-free drinks today make up more than 50% of the company's turnover.
Beer in France List of brewing companies in Germany Karlsberg.org Karlsberg.de MiXery.de