Donald C. "Donny" Olson is a Democratic member of the Alaska Senate, representing the T district since 2001. He was appointed to the Alaska State Medical Board by Governor Tony Knowles in 1995 where he would serve until he was sworn into the Alaska Senate in 2001. Olson caucused with the Republicans in the majority during the 28th Senate, from 2013 to 2014, but he was not invited to participate in the organization of the majority caucus for the 29th Senate, he is a member of the Democratic minority caucus. Media related to Donny Olson at Wikimedia Commons Alaska State Legislature - Senator Donald Olson official AK Senate website Project Vote Smart - Representative Donald Olson profile Follow the Money - Donald Olson 2006 2004 2000 Senate campaign contributions 2006 Lieutenant Governor campaign contributions Donny Olson at 100 Years of Alaska's Legislature
Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska
Northwest Arctic Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,523; the borough seat is Kotzebue. The borough was formed on June 2, 1986. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 40,749 square miles, of which 35,573 square miles is land and 5,176 square miles is water. By land area, it is larger in total area than the state of Indiana, its coastline is limited by the Chukchi Sea. The Kotzebue Sound, a significant wildlife area, is a prominent water body within the Northwest Arctic Borough; the largest polar bear sighted in history, a male weighing 2209 pounds, was sighted at Kotzebue sound. North Slope Borough, Alaska - north Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - east Nome Census Area, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Chamisso Wilderness Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Cape Krusenstern National Monument Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve Gates of the Arctic Wilderness Kobuk Valley National Park Kobuk Valley Wilderness Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge Noatak National Preserve Noatak Wilderness Selawik National Wildlife Refuge Selawik Wilderness At the 2000 census, there were 7,208 people, 1,780 households and 1,404 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 0.18 per square mile. There were 2,540 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 12.32% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 82.46% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 3.70% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.00 % "Eskimo" at home. There were 1,780 households of which 55.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.90% were married couples living together, 19.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.10% were non-families. 16.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.87 and the average family size was 4.36. Age distribution was 41.50% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 15.50% from 45 to 64, 5.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.70 males. Noatak Red Dog Mine List of airports in the Northwest Arctic Borough Official website Borough map: Alaska Department of Labor Summaries of Division of Subsistence research projects in northwest Alaska / Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by the Alaska State Publications Program. Subsistence wildlife harvests in five northwest Alaska communities, 2001-2003: results of a household survey / by Kawerak, Inc. Maniilaq Association, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
The Kobuk River is a river located in the Arctic region of northwestern Alaska in the United States. It is 280 miles long. Draining a basin with an area of 12,300 square miles, the Kobuk River is among the largest rivers in northwest Alaska with widths of up to 1500 feet and flow at a speed of 3–5 miles per hour in its lower and middle reaches; the average elevation for the Kobuk River Basin is 1,300 feet above sea level, ranging from near sea level to 11,400 feet. Topography includes low, rolling mountains and lowlands, moderately high rugged mountainous land, some sloped plateaus and highlands; the river contains an exceptional population of sheefish, a large predatory whitefish within the salmon family, found throughout the Arctic that spawns in the river's upper reaches during the autumn. A portion of the vast Western Arctic Caribou Herd utilize the Kobuk river valley as winter range, it is assumed that the Kobuk River issues from Walker Lake. However, the headwaters of the river are to the east of Walker Lake in the Endicott Mountains within the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, just north of the Arctic Circle.
It flows south, descending from the mountains through two spectacular canyons flows west along the southern flank of the western Brooks Range in a broad wetlands valley. In the valley it passes a connected community of inland native villages, including Kobuk and Ambler, where it receives the Ambler River. In the river's lower reaches, where it passes between the Baird and Waring mountains, it traverses Kobuk Valley National Park, the location of the 25 square miles Kobuk Sand Dunes, it passes Kiana. The river enters its broad delta 10 miles southwest of Kiana; the delta is located in The Hotham Inlet of the Kotzebue Sound 30 miles southeast of Kotzebue. The Kobuk's Inuit name means "big river", it was first transcribed by John Simpson in 1850 as "Kowuk." Explored by Lt. G. M. Stoney, USN, in 1883-1886, who wrote the name "Ku-buck," but proposed that it be called "Putnam" in honor of Master Charles Putnam, USN, officer of the Rodgers, carried to sea on the ice and lost in 1880. Lt. J. C. Cantwell, USRCS explored the river in 1884 and 1885 and spelled the name "Koowak" on his map and "Kowak" in his text.
Ivan Petroff spelled the river name "Kooak" in 1880, W. H. Dall spelled it "Kowk" in 1870. Lt. H. T. Allen, USA, obtained the Koyukon Indian name in 1885 which he spelled "Holooatna" and "Holoatna."Native peoples have hunted and lived along the Kobuk for at least 12,500 years and it has long been an important transportation route for inland peoples. In 1898 the river was the scene of a brief gold rush called the Kobuk River Stampede, which involved about 2,000 prospectors in total. Hearing of gold along the Kobuk and its tributaries, miners set out from Seattle and San Francisco on ships to reach the mouth of the Kobuk. Upon arrival they were informed by native people that it was a scam, only about 800 traveled upriver; the result was that little or no gold was found, only on a few tributaries of the river. In 1980 the United States Congress designated 110 miles of the river downstream from Walker Lake as the Kobuk Wild and Scenic River as part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System; the river is considered an outstanding destination for recreational floating.
The Kobuk River Basin has a continental climate. The summers are warm, while winters are long and cold; the mean annual temperature in the middle and upper portions of the Kobuk Valley is -6 °C, the mean temperature in July is 15 °C. An average of 21 inches of precipitation falls in the basin. However, actual precipitation can range from 15-40 inches with greater amounts falling in the upper reaches of the river basin; the Kobuk River Basin is sensitive to changes in climate. Arctic climates have warmed at twice the global rate in the last several decades. Records of air-temperature from 1961 to 1990 logged at the latitudes of the Kobuk River, show a warming trend of about 1.4 °F per decade. The warming has been the strongest in the spring months. Climate change is presently considered the most severe environmental stress in the Kobuk River Basin and throughout Alaska; as a specific example, climate change will cause widespread thawing of permafrost in the discontinuous zone and significant changes in the continuous zone.
Thawing permafrost can lead to a landscape of irregular depressions due to subsiding soils. This can alter drainage patterns and change the course of streams. In addition, slope stability will decrease and permafrost degradation could lead to erosion of river banks resulting in an increase in sediment transport by the rivers; these physical changes will impact nutrient cycling and biological processes within the basin as well. Permafrost regions along the Kobuk River are shown in the accompanying figure; the Kobuk River is a periglacial river, fed by a remnant glacial lake and mountain snowmelt in the Brooks Range. It cuts a channel through a landscape otherwise dominated by permafrost; the Kobuk's current form and structure is a direct result of several stages of erosion and channel formation following the last glacial retreat. As the glacier first retreated and melted, large amounts of erodible, fine-grained sediment dropped out in high mountain valleys; the availability of this fine-grained, loose sediment combined with a hig
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Buckland is a city in Northwest Arctic Borough, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 416, up from 406 in 2000. Buckland is located at 65°59′5″N 161°7′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.4 square miles, of which, 1.2 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Buckland first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village. Around 1950, residents relocated temporarily to Elephant Point on Eschscholtz Bay, Buckland did not report a population for the 1950 census. Residents soon returned to Buckland, it has reported in every successive census since 1960 and formally incorporated in 1966; as of the census of 2000, there were 406 people, 84 households, 75 families residing in the city. The population density was 332.3 people per square mile. There were 89 housing units at an average density of 72.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 3.20% White, 95.81% Native American, 0.99% from two or more races.
1.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 84 households out of which 66.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.5% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.7% were non-families. 8.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.83 and the average family size was 5.19. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 51.2% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 10.1% from 45 to 64, 3.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 18 years. For every 100 females, there were. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,333, the median income for a family was $40,000. Males had a median income of $31,563 versus $27,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $9,624. About 7.9% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
The Buckland School, operated by the Northwest Arctic Borough School District, serves the community. As of 2017 it had 168 students, with Alaska Natives making up 96% of the student body; the current school building opened in 2002
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol