In other words, a floodplain is an area near a river or a stream which floods when the water level reaches flood stage. Flood plains are made by a meander eroding sideways as it travels downstream, when a river breaks its banks and floods, it leaves behind layers of alluvium. These gradually build up to create the floor of the flood plain, floodplains generally contain unconsolidated sediments, often extending below the bed of the stream. These are accumulations of sand, loam, and/or clay, and are often important aquifers, geologically ancient floodplains are often represented in the landscape by fluvial terraces. These are old floodplains that remain relatively high above the present floodplain and it is probable that any section of such an alluvial plain would show deposits of a similar character. The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, and is occasionally completely covered with water. When the drainage system has ceased to act or is diverted for any reason.
The floodplain differs, because it is not altogether flat and it has a gentle slope downstream, and often, for a distance, from the side towards the center. The floodplain is the place for a river to dissipate its energy. Meanders form over the floodplain to slow down the flow of water, in terms of flood management the upper part of the floodplain is crucial as this is where the flood water control starts. Artificial canalisation of the river here will have a impact on wider flooding. This is the basis of flood management. Floodplains can support particularly rich ecosystems, both in quantity and diversity, tugay forests form an ecosystem associated with floodplains, especially in Central Asia. They are a category of riparian zones or systems, a floodplain can contain 100 or even 1,000 times as many species as a river. Microscopic organisms thrive and larger species enter a rapid breeding cycle, opportunistic feeders move in to take advantage. The production of nutrients peaks and falls away quickly, however the surge of new growth endures for some time and this makes floodplains particularly valuable for agriculture.
River flow rates are undergoing change following suit with climate change and this change is a threat to the riparian zones and other flood plain forests. These forests have over time synced their seedling deposits after the peaks in flow to best take advantage of the nutrient rich soil generated by peak flow
The pronghorn is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America. It is the surviving member of the family Antilocapridae. During the Pleistocene period, about 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America, three other genera existed when humans entered North America but are now extinct. As a member of the superfamily Giraffoidea, the pronghorns closest living relatives are the giraffes, the Giraffoidea are in turn members of the infraorder Pecora, making pronghorns more distant relatives of the Cervidae and Bovidae, among others. The scientific name of the pronghorn is Antilocapra americana, the pronghorn is the sole extant member of the family Antilocapridae. This species was first described by American ornithologist George Ord in 1815, the expedition, which aimed to unravel water routes in the continent for commercial purposes, led to the discovery or formal recognition of a variety of flora and fauna of North America. Following the discovery of a few subspecies of the grouse and Clark came across the pronghorn near the mouth of the Niobrara River.
Clark was the first to kill a pronghorn, and described his experience as follows and Clark made several other observations on the behavior of the pronghorn and how the local tribes hunted them. They described the animal, which referred to as the Antelope or the Goat, as follows. Shy and timorous they generally only on the ridges, which command a view of all the approaches of an enemy. When they first see the hunters they run with great velocity, the Indians near the Rocky Mountains hunt these animals on horseback, and shoot them with arrows. The Mandans mode of hunting them is to form a large, strong pen or fold, the animals are surrounded by the hunters, and gently driven towards this pen, in which they imperceptibly find themselves enclosed, and are at the mercy of the hunters. Pronghorns have distinct white fur on their rumps, breasts, adult males are 1. 3–1.5 m long from nose to tail, stand 81–104 cm high at the shoulder, and weigh 40–65 kg. The females are the height as males, but weigh 34–48 kg.
The feet have two hooves, with no dewclaws and their body temperature is 38 °C. The orbits are prominent and set high on the skull, with never an anteorbital pit, as in the Giraffidae, skin covers the bony cores, but in the pronghorn, it develops into a keratinous sheath which is shed and regrown on an annual basis. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the sheaths of the pronghorn are branched. Males have a horn sheath about 12. 5–43 cm long with a prong, females have smaller horns that range from 2. 5–15.2 cm and sometimes barely visible, they are straight and very rarely pronged
The Bovidae are the biological family of cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, gazelles, goats and domestic cattle. A member of family is called a bovid. With 143 extant species and 300 known extinct species, the family Bovidae consists of eight major subfamilies apart from the disputed Peleinae and Pantholopinae, the family evolved 20 million years ago, in the early Miocene. The bovids show great variation in size and pelage colouration, excepting some domesticated forms, all male bovids have two or more horns, and in many species females possess horns, too. Most bovids bear 30 to 32 teeth, social activity and feeding usually peak during dawn and dusk. Bovids typically rest before dawn, during midday, and after dark and they have various methods of social organisation and social behaviour, which are classified into solitary and gregarious behaviour. Bovids use different forms of vocal and tangible communication, most species alternately feed and ruminate throughout the day.
While small bovids forage in dense and closed habitat, larger species feed on vegetation in open grasslands. Mature bovids mate at least once a year and smaller species may even mate twice, the greatest diversities of bovids occur in Africa. The maximum concentration of species is in the savannas of eastern Africa, other bovid species occur in Europe and North America. Bovidae includes three of the five domesticated mammals whose use has spread outside their original ranges, namely cattle, dairy products such as milk and cheese are manufactured largely from domestic cattle. Bovids provide leather and wool, the name Bovidae was given by the British zoologist John Edward Gray in 1821. The word Bovidae is the combination of the prefix bov- and the suffix -idae, the family Bovidae is placed in the order Artiodactyla. It includes 143 extant species, accounting for nearly 55% of the ungulates, molecular studies have supported monophyly in the family Bovidae. The number of subfamilies in Bovidae is disputed, with suggestions of as many as ten, in addition, three extinct subfamilies are known, Hypsodontinae and the subfamily Tethytraginae, which contains Tethytragus.
In 1992, Alan W. Boodonts have somewhat primitive teeth, resembling those of oxen, a controversy exists about the recognition of Peleinae and Patholopinae, comprising the genera Pelea and Pantholops respectively, as subfamilies. Pantholops, earlier classified in the Antilopinae, was placed in its own subfamily. However and morphological analysis supports the inclusion of Pantholops in Caprinae, below is a cladogram based on Gatesy et al. and Gentry et al
Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. The word taxonomy was introduced in 1813 by Candolle, in his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, the term alpha taxonomy is primarily used today to refer to the discipline of finding and naming taxa, particularly species. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology and cytology.
He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, Ernst Mayr in 1968 defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species. This activity is what the term denotes, it is referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species. While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.
The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from 1883 onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone. Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate
Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earths total surface area and 20.4 % of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the human population. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos and it contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africas population is the youngest amongst all the continents, the age in 2012 was 19.7. Algeria is Africas largest country by area, and Nigeria by population, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas, it is the continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa, Africa varies greatly with regard to environments, historical ties and government systems.
However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century, afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe. The name is connected with Hebrew or Phoenician ʿafar dust. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land, the Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while Asia was used to refer to Anatolia, as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. 25,4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya, isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2.
Suggests Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning sunny, massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning to turn toward the opening of the Ka. The Ka is the double of every person and the opening of the Ka refers to a womb or birthplace
Eutheria is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic. Except for the Virginia opossum, from North America, which is a metatherian, all post-Miocene mammals indigenous to Europe, Asia, extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, and all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia. Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, jaws, all extant eutherians lack epipubic bones, which are present in all other living mammals. This allows for expansion of the abdomen during pregnancy, the oldest known eutherian species is Juramaia sinensis, dated at 160 million years ago from the Jurassic in China. Eutheria was named in 1872 by Theodore Gill, in 1880 Thomas Henry Huxley defined it to encompass a more broadly defined group than Placentalia, distinguishing features are, an enlarged malleolus at the bottom of the tibia, the larger of the two shin bones. Various features of jaws and teeth, eutheria contains several extinct genera as well as larger groups, many with complicated taxonomic histories still not fully understood.
Members of the Adapisoriculidae and Leptictida have been placed within the out-dated placental group Insectivora. However, more recent studies have suggested these enigmatic taxa represent stem group eutherians, the weakly favoured cladogram favours Boreoeuthearia as a basal Eutherian clade as sister to the Atlantogenata
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia. Antelopes comprise a wastebasket taxon within the family Bovidae, encompassing those Old World species that are not cattle, buffalo, bison, a group of antelope is called a herd. It perhaps derives from Greek anthos and ops, perhaps meaning beautiful eye or alluding to the animals long eyelashes and this, may be a folk etymology. The word talopus and calopus, from Latin, came to be used in heraldry, in 1607, it was first used for living, cervine animals. The 91 species, most of which are native to Africa, the classification of tribes or subfamilies within Bovidae is still a matter of debate, with several alternative systems proposed. Antelope are not a cladistic or taxonomically defined group, the term is used to describe all members of the family Bovidae that do not fall under the category of sheep, cattle, or goats. Usually, all species of the Alcelaphinae, Hippotraginae, Cephalophinae, many Bovinae, the grey rhebok, and the impala are called antelopes.
No antelope species is native to Australasia or Antarctica, nor do any extant species occur in the Americas, North America is currently home to the native pronghorn, which taxonomists do not consider a member of the antelope group, but which is locally referred to as such. More species of antelope are native to Africa than to any other continent, almost exclusively in savannahs, other species occur in Asia, the Arabian Peninsula is home to the Arabian oryx and Dorcas gazelle. India is home to the nilgai, blackbuck, Tibetan antelope, and four-horned antelope, while Russia and Central Asia have the Tibetan antelope, many species of antelopes have been imported to other parts of the world, especially the United States, for exotic game hunting. With some species possessing spectacular leaping and evasive skills, individuals may escape, Texas in particular has many game ranches, as well as habitats and climates, that are very hospitable to African and Asian plains antelope species. Accordingly, wild populations of antelope and nilgai may be found in Texas.
Antelope live in a range of habitats. Numerically, most live in the African savannahs, species living in forests, woodland, or bush tend to be sedentary, but many of the plains species undertake long migrations. These enable grass-eating species to follow the rains and thereby their food supply, the gnus and gazelles of East Africa perform some of the most impressive mass migratory circuits of all mammals. For example, a male common eland can measure 178 cm at the shoulder and weigh almost 950 kg, whereas an adult royal antelope may stand only 24 cm at the shoulder and weigh a mere 1.5 kg. Not surprisingly for animals with long, slender yet powerful legs, many antelopes have long strides, some are adapted to inhabiting rock koppies and crags. Both dibatags and gerenuks habitually stand on their two legs to reach acacia and other tree foliage
Chevrotains, known as mouse-deer, are small ungulates that make up the family Tragulidae, the only members of the infraorder Tragulina. The ten extant species are in three genera, but several species are only from fossils. The extant species are found in forests in South and Southeast Asia, with a species in the rainforests of Central. They are solitary or live in pairs, and feed almost exclusively on plant material, depending on exact species, the Asian species weigh between 0.7 and 8.0 kg, and include the smallest ungulates in the world. The African chevrotain is considerably larger at 7–16 kg, chevrotain is a French word that means little goat. The single African species is known as chevrotain. Consequently, all species with pale-spotted or -striped upper parts are known as chevrotain, the Telugu name for the Indian spotted chevrotain is jarini pandi, which literally means a deer and a pig. In Kannada, it is called barka, in Malayalam, it is called khooran, the Tamil term is சருகு மான் sarukumāṉ leaf-pile deer.
The Sinhalese name meeminna roughly translates to mouse-like deer and this was used in the scientific name of the Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain, M. meminna. The family was widespread and successful from the Oligocene through the Miocene and they have four-chambered stomachs to ferment tough plant foods, but the third chamber is poorly developed. Though most species feed exclusively on plant material, the water chevrotain occasionally takes insects and crabs, or scavenges meat, like other ruminants, they lack upper incisors. They give birth to only a single young, in other respects, they have primitive features, closer to nonruminants such as pigs. All species in the family lack antlers and horns, but both sexes have elongated canine teeth and these are especially prominent in males, where they project out on either side of the lower jaw, and are used in fights. Their legs are short and thin, which leave them lacking in agility, other pig-like features include the presence of four toes on each foot, the absence of facial scent glands, premolars with sharp crowns, and the form of their sexual behaviour and copulation.
They are solitary or live in pairs, the young are weaned at three months of age, and reach sexual maturity between five and 10 months, depending on species. Their territories are small, on the order of 13–24 hectares. Some of the show a remarkable affinity with water, often remaining submerged for prolonged periods to evade predators or other unwelcome intrusion. This has lent support to the idea that whales evolved from water-loving creatures that looked like small deer, only four extant species were recognized in the family Tragulidae
Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are bilaterally symmetric coelomates, in the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized via segmentation. There are additional extinct taxa, the Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata, consisting of chordates with a skull, the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, the worlds largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans. Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion, which includes the acorn worms, has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but it now is usually treated as a separate phylum. The Hemichordata, along with the Echinodermata, form the Ambulacraria, the Chordata and Ambulacraria form the superphylum Deuterostomia, composed of the deuterostomes.
Attempts to work out the relationships of the chordates have produced several hypotheses. All of the earliest chordate fossils have found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna. Because the fossil record of early chordates is poor, only molecular phylogenetics offers a prospect of dating their emergence. However, the use of molecular phylogenetics for dating evolutionary transitions is controversial and it has proved difficult to produce a detailed classification within the living chordates. Attempts to produce family trees shows that many of the traditional classes are paraphyletic. While this has been known since the 19th century, an insistence on only monophyletic taxa has resulted in vertebrate classification being in a state of flux. Although the name Chordata is attributed to William Bateson, it was already in prevalent use by 1880, ernst Haeckel described a taxon comprising tunicates and vertebrates in 1866. Though he used the German vernacular form, it is allowed under the ICZN code because of its subsequent latinization, among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, and in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail.
In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the pharynx is the part of the throat immediately behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, a muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. This is a groove in the wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus and it stores iodine, and may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland
The giraffe is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants. The genus consists of eleven or more species including Giraffa camelopardalis, seven of these species are extinct, prehistoric species known from fossils, though numerous subspecies have been described and its taxonomy is not definitively set. Indeed, research into the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of Giraffa has suggested to recognize four to six extant species. The giraffes chief distinguishing characteristics are its long neck and legs, its horn-like ossicones. It is classified under the family Giraffidae, along with its closest extant relative, each of the four species is distinguished by its coat patterns and genetics. Its scattered range extends from Chad in the north to South Africa in the south, Giraffes usually inhabit savannahs and woodlands. Their food source is leaves and flowers of plants, primarily acacia species. Giraffes may be preyed on by lions, spotted hyenas, Giraffes live in herds of related females and their offspring, or bachelor herds of unrelated adult males, but are gregarious and may gather in large aggregations.
Males establish social hierarchies through necking, which are combat bouts where the neck is used as a weapon, dominant males gain mating access to females, which bear the sole responsibility for raising the young. The giraffe has intrigued various cultures, both ancient and modern, for its appearance, and has often been featured in paintings, books. It is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as Vulnerable to extinction, the name giraffe has its earliest known origins in the Arabic word zarāfah, perhaps borrowed from the animals Somali name geri. The Arab name is translated as fast-walker, there were several Middle English spellings, such as jarraf and gerfauntz. The Italian form giraffa arose in the 1590s, the modern English form developed around 1600 from the French girafe. Camelopard is an archaic English name for the giraffe deriving from the Ancient Greek for camel and leopard, referring to its camel-like shape, living giraffes were originally classified as one species by Carl Linnaeus in 1758.
He gave it the binomial name Cervus camelopardalis, morten Thrane Brünnich classified the genus Giraffa in 1772. The species name camelopardalis is from Latin, the giraffe belongs to the suborder Ruminantia. Many ruminants have been described from the mid-Eocene in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, the earliest ruminants date back to about 50 million years ago. The Rumanantia arose from early artiodactyls, which experienced adaptive radiation in the middle Eocene period that led to related to herbivory
Black musk deer
The black musk deer or dusky musk deer is a species of even-toed ungulate in the family Moschidae. It is found in Bhutan, India, Myanmar, M. fuscus is, in appearance, a small deer with long, thick hind legs in comparison to the front legs, and no antlers. The dusky musk deer has large and well developed ears and eyes and females are similarly sized, between 70 and 100 cm in length and 10 and 15 kg in weight, and generally have thick brown hair. There is variation in color and vibrancy, which is evident in spotting, upper canine teeth in males form sabers that can extend past the jaw, but not in females. Unlike most cervids, this creature possesses a gallbladder and does not have the facial glands. Mature males have a gland between the naval and genitalia, and females have two mammae. Black musk deer have mating periods beginning in late November into December and they have a polygynous mating system, mating with more than one female at a time. Breeding typically occurs in November and December, during mating season, a male excretes scents from scent glands to indicate his territory ( Gestation lasts roughly six months, ending in parturition, which normally occurs during June or July.
Typically, females give birth to one or two young, the newborns weigh about 500 g, and have spots. The young are cared for by their mother after birth for several months and this process generally takes between three and four months. At six months, the young have reached full adult size. Sexual maturity, does not occur until roughly 18 months, not much is known about black musk deer parental care. Females are generally the main caretakers, as they watch their young for roughly 3 to 4 months, the young travel with their mothers throughout this period, during which the mother defends and grooms her young. The role of the father in parental care is currently unknown, all animals have a certain position on the food web. Even the black musk deer, although endangered, its lack of species numbers has a detrimental effect on the environment in which it lives. They are believed to affect the vegetation because they consume mostly grass, because they are hunted by humans and other animals such as the wolverine and yellow-throated marten, their numbers have been greatly reduced, so they are now on the endangered species list.
With fewer black musk deer around, it has more difficult for these predators to find food. The musk glands of the males have been collected for use in soaps