Bishop Gorazd of Prague, given name Matěj Pavlík, was the hierarch of the revived Orthodox Church in Moravia, the Church of Czechoslovakia, after World War I. During World War II, having provided refuge for the assassins of SS-Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich, called The Hangman of Prague, in the cathedral of Saints Cyril and Methodius in Prague, Gorazd took full responsibility for protecting the patriots after the Schutzstaffel found them in the crypt of the cathedral; this act guaranteed his execution, thus his martyrdom, during the reprisals. His feast day is celebrated on 4 September. Matěj Pavlík was born on 26 May 1879, in the Moravian village of Hrubá Vrbka in what would be the Czech Republic. Born into the Roman Catholic society of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Matthias entered the Faculty of Theology in Olomouc after finishing his earlier education, he was subsequently ordained a priest. During his studies, he was interested in the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius and of Eastern Orthodoxy.
Establishment of Czechoslovakia in the aftermath of the First World War brought complete religious freedom. In this environment, many people left the Catholic Church. While many left the religion some looked either to old Czech Protestant churches or, as Pavlík, to Eastern Orthodoxy; the Serbian Orthodox Church provided a shelter for those looking to Orthodoxy. As a leader in Moravia, the Serbian Orthodox Church agreed to consecrate Fr. Pavlík to the episcopate for his homeland. On 24 September 1921, he was consecrated bishop with the name of Gorazd, his monastic name of Gorazd was significant as it was the name of the bishop who succeeded St. Methodius as Bishop of Moravia after he died in 885. Subsequently, Pope Stephen V drove the disciples of St Methodius from Moravia as the Latin rite was imposed. Thus, by the choice of his monastic name of Gorazd, the continuity of the Orthodox Church in Moravia from some eleven hundred years before was recognized. Archimandrite Gorazd was named Bishop of Moravia and Silesia on 24 September 1921, consecrated bishop on the next day at the Cathedral of the Holy Archangel Michael in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, by Serbian Patriarch Dimitrije.
Over the next decade or so, Bp. Gorazd and his faithful followers organized built churches in Bohemia. In all they built two chapels, he had the essential service books translated and published in the Czech language, the language used in the church services. With Carpathian Ruthenia and Slovakia part of Czechoslovakia, he assisted many who had returned to their ancestral Eastern Orthodox faith, thus helping the creation of Eparchy of Mukačevo and Prešov in 1931. With the conquest of Czechoslovakia by the Nazis in 1938, the church was placed under the Metropolitan in Berlin, Germany. Reinhard Heydrich was appointed as ruler of Protectorate of Moravia. On 27 May 1942, a group of Czech resistance fighters killed Heydrich. In making their escape, the group found refuge in the crypt of the Cathedral; when Bp. Gorazd found out a few days he recognized the serious burden this placed on the Czech Orthodox Church. Before he left for the consecration to the episcopate of Fr John in Berlin, he asked that the resistance fighters move elsewhere as soon as possible.
However, on June 18, the Nazis found out the hiding places after a betrayal by two members of the resistance group, all the members of the group were killed. Reprisals came quickly; the two priests and the senior lay church officials were arrested. Bp. Gorazd, wishing to help his fellow believers and the Czech Church itself, took the blame for the actions in the Cathedral on himself writing letters to the Nazi authorities. On 27 June 1942, he was arrested and tortured. On 4 September 1942, Bp. Gorazd, the Cathedral priests and the lay officials were executed by firing squad at Kobylisy Shooting Range, his body was disposed of at Strašnice Crematorium. The reprisals went much further as the Nazis conducted widespread roundups of Czechs, including the whole village of Lidice summarily killed the men and children, while they placed the women in concentration camps; the Orthodox churches in Moravia and Bohemia were closed and the Church forbidden to operate. Metropolitan Seraphim courageously refused to issue any statement condemning Bishop Gorazd.
It was not until the end of the war. By these actions the Orthodox Faithful, led by their bishop, proved the qualities of their little church in bravery and devotion to matters of justice and showed how it was connected to the Czech nation. On 4 May 1961, the Serbian Orthodox Church recognized Bp. Gorazd as a new martyr, on 24 August 1987, he was glorified in the Cathedral of St Gorazd in Olomouc in Moravia. Original source Orthodox Wiki Article Listing at the Orthodox Research Institute Martyr Gorazd of Prague and Moravo-Cilezsk "A Twentieth Century Western Orthodox Missionary" at the Wayback Machine by Monk Gorazd
Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV, it was an important city to its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era. Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe.
Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites; the city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague is classified as an "Alpha −" global city according to GaWC studies and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016, its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fourth most visited European city after London and Rome. During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. A Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celts tribe appeared in the area establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". In the last century BC, the Celts were driven away by Germanic tribes, leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in southern Prague in the suburb now called Závist. Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled the Central Bohemian Region.
In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley and Levý Hradec. The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, growing a fortified settlement that existed on the site since the year 800; the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but wasn't completed until the 20th century; the legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a town called Praha to be built on the site.
The region became the seat of the dukes, kings of Bohemia. Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973; until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz. Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub; the Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague was once home to an important slave market. At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia; this bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. It was named the Charles Bridge. In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany area; this was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights.
The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město, which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. Prague flourished dur
Operation Anthropoid was the code name for the assassination during World War II of Schutzstaffel -Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, the combined security services of Nazi Germany, acting Reichsprotektor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Heydrich was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and an important figure in the rise of Adolf Hitler; the Czechoslovaks undertook the operation to help confer legitimacy on Edvard Beneš's government-in-exile in London, as well as for retribution for Heydrich's brutally efficient rule. The operation was carried out by Czechoslovak army-in-exile soldiers in Prague, on 27 May 1942, after preparation by the British Special Operations Executive with the approval of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Wounded in the attack, Heydrich died of his injuries on 4 June 1942; this was the only government-sponsored targeted assassination of a senior Nazi leader during the Second World War.
His death led to a wave of reprisals by SS troops, including the destruction of villages and the mass killing of civilians. Heydrich had been the chief of the RSHA since September 1939 and was appointed acting Protector of Bohemia and Moravia after replacing Konstantin von Neurath in September 1941. Hitler agreed with Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and Heydrich that von Neurath's lenient approach to the Czechs promoted anti-German sentiment, encouraged anti-German resistance by strikes and sabotage. Heydrich came to Prague to "strengthen policy, carry out countermeasures against resistance", keep up production quotas of Czech motors and arms that were "extremely important to the German war effort". During his role as de facto dictator of Bohemia and Moravia, Heydrich drove with his chauffeur in a car with an open roof; this was a show of his confidence in the occupation forces and in the effectiveness of his government. Due to his brutal efficiency, Heydrich was nicknamed the Butcher of Prague, the Blond Beast, the Hangman.
By late 1941, Germany under Hitler controlled all of continental Europe, German forces were approaching Moscow. The Allies deemed Soviet capitulation likely; the exiled government of Czechoslovakia under President Edvard Beneš was under pressure from British intelligence, as there had been little visible resistance since the occupation of the Sudeten regions of the country in 1938. The takeover of these regions was enforced by the Munich Agreement, the subsequent terror of the German Reich broke the will of the Czechs for a period; the resistance was active from the beginning of occupation in several other countries defeated in open warfare, but the subjugated Czech lands remained calm and produced significant amounts of materiel for Nazi Germany. The exiled government felt that it had to do something that would inspire the Czechoslovaks as well as show the world that the Czechs and Slovaks were allies. Reinhard Heydrich was chosen over Karl Hermann Frank as an assassination target due to his status as the acting Protector of Bohemia and Moravia as well as his reputation for terrorizing local citizens.
The operation was intended to demonstrate to senior Nazis that they were not beyond the reach of allied forces and the resistance groups they supported. The operation was instigated by František Moravec, head of the Czechoslovak intelligence services, with the knowledge and approval of Edvard Beneš, head of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Britain as soon as Heydrich was appointed Protector. Moravec briefed Brigadier Colin Gubbins, who at the time was the Director of Operations in the British Special Operations Executive and who had responsibility for the Czech and Polish "country" sections of the organisation. Gubbins agreed to help mount the operation, although knowledge of it was restricted to a few of the headquarters and training staff of SOE; the operation was given the codename Anthropoid, Greek for "having the form of a human", a term used in zoology. Preparation began on 20 October 1941. Moravec had selected two dozen of the most promising personnel from among the 2,000 exiled Czechoslovak soldiers based in Britain.
They were sent to one of SOE's commando training centres at Arisaig in Scotland. Warrant Officer Jozef Gabčík and Staff Sergeant Karel Svoboda were chosen to carry out the operation on 28 October 1941, but Svoboda was replaced by Jan Kubiš after he received a head injury during training; this caused delays in the mission as Kubiš had not completed training, nor had the necessary false documents been prepared for him. Training was supervised by the nominated head of the Czech section, Major Alfgar Hesketh-Pritchard, who turned to Cecil Clarke to develop the necessary weapon, light enough to throw but still be lethal to an armour-plated Mercedes. During extensive training, the new weapon was found to be easy to throw by Hesketh-Pritchard, who had a strong cricketing background, but less so by Gabčík and Kubiš. Gabčík and Kubiš, with seven other soldiers from Czechoslovakia's army in exile in the United Kingdom in two other groups named Silver A and Silver B, were flown from RAF Tangmere by a Halifax of No. 138 Squadron RAF at 22:00 on 28 December 1941.
They landed near Nehvizdy east of Prague. It had been planned to land near Pilsen, but the pilots had navigation problems; the soldiers moved to Pilsen to contact their allies, from there on to Prague, where the attack was planned. In Prague, they contact
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A shooting range, firing range or gun range is a specialized facility designed for firearms qualifications, training or practice. Some shooting ranges are operated by military or law enforcement agencies, though the majority of ranges are privately-owned and cater to recreational shooters; each facility is overseen by one or more supervisory personnel, called variously a range master or "Range Safety Officer" in the US, or a range conducting officer in the UK. Supervisory personnel are responsible for ensuring that all weapon safety rules and relevant government regulations are followed at all times. Shooting ranges can be indoor or outdoor, may be restricted to certain types of type of firearm that can be used such as handguns or rifles, or they can specialize in certain shooting sports such as skeet shooting or 10 m Air Pistol/Rifle. Most indoor ranges restrict the use of certain powerful calibers, rifles, or automatic weapons. A shooting gallery is a recreational shooting facility with low-powered guns located within amusement parks, carnivals or fairgrounds that provides games and entertainments for the visiting crowd.
In urban areas, most shooting ranges will be at indoor facilities. Indoor ranges offer protection from inclement weather conditions and can be operated around the clock under controlled environmental conditions. Outdoor shooting ranges are found away from populated areas because of concerns about safety, noise pollution and soil contamination. Indoor firing ranges are constructed as standalone structures, though they may be housed in larger buildings in basement or such; the basic components of most indoor firing ranges consist of firing lines/lanes, targets and a bullet trap/"backstop". Design considerations may vary depending on planned use but they all must address the basic requirements for operating the range safely, and, provide ballistic protection, safety controls, proper ventilation, acoustic isolation and appropriate lighting. Firing range walls are constructed of poured concrete, precast concrete, or masonry block; the walls must be impenetrable and provide adequate ballistic protection from stray bullets and back splatter.
Floors are constructed from dense reinforced concrete with a smooth surface finish. Floors are slanted from uprange toward the bullet trap downrange to allow for better maintenance and cleaning. Indoor firing range roofs are constructed from steel joists or precast concrete panels with a smooth flat surface that will redirect misfired bullets, facilitate maintenance, prevent lead buildup. Roof baffles are installed at a 25–30 degree angle protect ceilings, lighting fixtures, ventilation ducts, any other unprotected element from stray bullets. Baffles are constructed of armored plate steel covered with fire-rated plywood. Deflectors are similar to baffles, but are not covered with plywood. Shields are constructed of plate plywood. Control rooms or stations houses the central controls for the firing range equipment, communication and security; the controls are operated by the range master–the designated official responsible for range operation and management. The control station must provide the range master with unobstructed line of sight of the firing lanes and all shooters.
Control stations are constructed of concrete blocks with bulletproof observation windows. Backstops and bullet traps are used to absorb the energy from the bullet and capture it to prevent overflight beyond the range area. Bullet traps come in a variety of designs and are constructed of impenetrable metal plates; the thickness of the plates and the materials used depend on the velocity and energy levels of the projectiles to be fired in the range. Most modern traps consist of angled hardened steel plates that deflect the bullets into other metal plates to remove their energy; the plates must be resistant to penetration and metal fatigue. The traps direct the spent bullets to a collection area in front of the trap or, for high-energy projectiles, at the back of the trap. Many indoor firing ranges provide additional spaces such as a cleaning room for weapons, a classroom, office areas, lounge area, or storage and maintenance rooms. Passageways are used to physically isolate the firing range from the adjoining areas.
Some firing ranges are equipped with shooting booths to provide shooters with a defined firing area and to reduce potential hazard from misfires and ejected bullet cartridges from adjacent shooters. Shooting booths are made of partitions or panels which can be acoustically treated to reduce the effect of weapons discharge on other shooters; the booths are sometimes equipped with target-operation equipment. The firing line marked red or orange, runs along the downrange edge of the shooting booths; some ranges have motion detectors that can set off an alarm when a shooter passes this line during shooting. Target systems consist of a target, a target carrier system, a target control system. Targets for indoor firing ranges are a paper sheet or piece of corrugated cardboard with a printed target image on the sheet; the target carrier system allows the firing range to operate more efficiently and safely by transporting the target and frame between the firing line and the target line, in b
Panelák is a colloquial term in Czech and Slovak for a panel building constructed of pre-fabricated, pre-stressed concrete, such as those extant in the former Czechoslovakia and elsewhere in the world. Panelák is derived from the standard Czech: panelový dům or Slovak: panelový dom meaning "panel house / prefabricated-sections house"; the term panelák is used for the elongate blocks with more sections with separate entrances – simple panel tower blocks are called "věžový dům" or colloquially "věžák". The buildings remain a towering visible reminder of the Communist era; the term panelák refers to buildings in the former Czechoslovakia. However, similar buildings were built in other Communist countries and in the West. Paneláks resulted from two main factors: the postwar housing shortage and the ideology of Czechoslovak leaders. Planners from the Communist era wanted to provide large quantities of affordable housing and to slash costs by employing uniform designs over the whole country, they sought to foster a "collectivistic nature" in the people.
In case of war, these houses would not be as susceptible to firebombing as traditional, densely packed buildings. Between 1959 and 1995, paneláks containing 1.17 million flats were built in what is now the Czech Republic. They house about one-third of the country's population. In Prague and other large cities, most paneláks were built in a type of housing estate known as a sídliště; such developments now dominate the suburbs of Prague and other towns. The first sídliště built in Prague was Petřiny in the 1950s; the largest concentration of paneláks in the former Czechoslovakia and central Europe can be found in Petržalka, a section of the Slovak capital of Bratislava. The city of Most is known for having a dominant share of people living in paneláks; the historical city was torn down due to the spread of coal mining and the majority of its population was moved into paneláks. In comparison to pre-war apartment buildings, paneláks can be enormous; some are more than 100 metres long, some are more than 20 stories high.
Some have openings for cars and pedestrians to pass through, lest they have to go all the way around the building. Many people criticize paneláks for their low design quality, mind-numbing appearance, second-rate construction materials and shoddy construction practices. In 1990, Václav Havel president of Czechoslovakia, called paneláks "undignified rabbit pens, slated for liquidation." Panelák housing estates as a whole are said to be mere bedroom communities with few conveniences and less character. However, paneláks are not universally detested; some panelák housing estates were designed by Czech architects who aspired to follow the tradition of pre-war Czech modern architecture, notably functionalism. Despite unfortunate cost-saving changes during construction, some of those panelák estates do not fit the critique above; some housing estates do have other facilities, such as shopping centres, libraries, swimming pools, cinemas. Architects sometimes made an effort to make the buildings distinct, by mixing various types of panelaks, for example, or by using different colours.
Well-designed housing estates have some environmental advantages. By leaving wide spaces between buildings, designers created large green spaces and parks, which are lacking in many prewar Czech neighbourhoods. In some places, paneláks were an improvement in sanitary conditions. Unlike government-built housing estates in places like the United States and United Kingdom, paneláks today remain home to a mix of social classes, with middle class prevailing. Thus, there is little social stigma associated with living in a panelák. Many apartments are well-appointed inside. Among the important people living in a panelák is Czech ex-Prime minister Jan Fischer. Panelák estates in big cities, are the obvious first targets for builders of telecommunication networks, as the housing estates combine a high concentration of people with easy access to underground and in-house spaces for cables. Panelák housing estates are the first neighbourhoods with access to cable tv, WiFi network coverage, cable-modem service, DSL and other telecommunication services.
The attitude of panelák inhabitants to their buildings vary. According to Illner, "people get used to living in paneláks". Many panelák flats are now the property of their inhabitants and whole buildings are managed by syndicates of flat owners. Many buildings have been renovated with the support of local governments. Renovations have included the installation of thermal insulation for energy efficiency and new coats of colourful paint; the cost of replacing of paneláks in the short term would be well beyond the means of the Czech Republic or Slovakia. Nonetheless, the decay of many paneláks remains a serious problem requiring the attention of authorities in both countries. Many Czech sociologists have expressed concern about the social development of panelák housing estates; the most endangered would be those lacking facilities other than "sleeping blocks" and with a bad connection to business and commercial centres. Some people fear that with the growth and deregulation of the housing market, the middle class may flee to other locations, such panelák estates may become refuges for the poor or ghettos for minorities and immigrants.
Some local authorities are making significant