Kodak DCS 300 series
The Kodak DCS 300 series comprised two cameras, the DCS 315 and DCS 330. They were professional-level digital SLR cameras built by Eastman Kodak's Kodak Professional Imaging Solutions division, they were based on the Nikon Pronea 6i APS SLR camera and were aimed at a lower price point than other models in the Kodak DCS range. The 1.5 megapixel DCS 315 was launched in 1998, while the 3 megapixel DCS 330 was launched in 1999. The DCS 315 was the first digital SLR camera to incorporate an image preview LCD and inbuilt JPEG processing; the two cameras had different sized CCD imaging chips, both of which were smaller than either 135 film or APS-C film frames. The 315's imager had a crop factor of 2.6 relative to 135 film, while the 330's was larger with a factor of 1.9. The Kodak modification to the Pronea 6i involved removing the camera's film back and mounting instead a Kodak digital back; this not only covered the back of the camera, but extended beneath it doubling the camera's height. This was required to accommodate the large PC cards used as storage media, the six AA batteries required to power the camera, the circuitry for image processing.
The Kodak back had two display screens. The upper was a full-color screen used for viewing taken shots; the lower LCD displayed the camera's settings. An infrared filter was mounted just behind the lens mount; this had to be removed in order to fit certain Nikkor lenses, including the IX-Nikkor lenses designed for the APS format camera. The DCS 315 was faster than the 330 since only half as much data needed to be stored per shot; the 315 allowed image storage in the smaller JPEG format, while the 330 only allowed Kodak's proprietary. TIF RAW format. Kodak DCS DCS 315 at Kodak.com DCS 330 at Kodak.com Online manual at Kodak.com DCS 300 series on mir.com.my photographic resource The DCS Story DCS315 Teardown photos on Flickr DCS315 video teardown on YouTube
ESL Federal Credit Union
ESL Federal Credit Union is a full-service financial institution with headquarters in Rochester, New York. The locally owned financial institution employs more than 700 people in Rochester, New York and, includes more than 330,000 members world-wide; the company has now appeared on the Great Place to Work® Best Small and Medium Workplaces for six years. Access to the credit union includes 20 branch locations and more than 40 ATM locations, locally based telephone and internet chat centers, online and mobile banking channels. Membership in ESL is open to employees of Eastman Kodak, members of the George Eastman House, residents of Rochester, among others. ESL Federal Credit Union was chartered in 1920 as Eastman Savings and Loan Association by George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak Company. Mr. Eastman’s intent at that time was to provide his employees with a financial institution that served their financial needs—especially by providing mortgages. On February 1, 1996, Eastman Savings and Loan changed its charter from a U.
S. bank to a Federal Credit Union. It is the largest locally owned financial institution in the Greater Rochester area and the largest credit union in New York State. ESL is in the top 1% of national credit unions ranked by assets. Official website
Canon EOS D2000
The Canon EOS D2000 is a 2-megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera developed by Kodak on a Canon EOS-1N body. It was released in March 1998, it can shoot at 3.5 frames per second. Many enthusiasts regard the D2000 as Canon's first usable Digital SLR, it was released in tandem with a 6-megapixel model. Like its predecessor, the EOS DCS 3, the D2000 uses an EOS-1N camera body with a Kodak digital back. However, the digital back was redesigned, being better integrated into the body, using a higher-resolution APS-C sized sensor, adding a second PCMCIA card slot, replacing the SCSI interface with an IEEE 1394 interface, adding a color screen for viewing images, taken, a feature, lacking from the DCS 3 and the higher-end DCS 1. Other incremental improvements such as a higher shooting rate and a swappable, rechargeable battery pack were included; the D2000 was the last of the Kodak / Canon press cameras. It was sold by Kodak until at least as late as 2001. Canon's first home-grown professional digital SLR, the Canon EOS-1D, was released the same year.
Canon EOS Canon EF lens mount Kodak DCS Canon Camera Museum: EOS D2000
The Eastman Kodak Company is an American technology company that produces camera-related products with its historic basis on photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York, is incorporated in New Jersey. Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications and professional services for businesses around the world, its main business segments are Print Systems, Enterprise Inkjet Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging and Solutions, Consumer and Film. It is best known for photographic film products. Kodak was founded by George Eastman and Henry A. Strong on September 4, 1888. During most of the 20th century, Kodak held a dominant position in photographic film; the company's ubiquity was such that its "Kodak moment" tagline entered the common lexicon to describe a personal event, demanded to be recorded for posterity. Kodak began to struggle financially in the late 1990s, as a result of the decline in sales of photographic film and its slowness in transitioning to digital photography, despite developing the first self-contained digital camera.
As a part of a turnaround strategy, Kodak began to focus on digital photography and digital printing, attempted to generate revenues through aggressive patent litigation. In January 2012, Kodak filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. In February 2012, Kodak announced that it would stop making digital cameras, pocket video cameras and digital picture frames and focus on the corporate digital imaging market. Digital cameras are still sold under the Kodak brand by JK Imaging Ltd thanks to an agreement with Kodak. In August 2012, Kodak announced its intention to sell its photographic film, commercial scanners and kiosk operations, as a measure to emerge from bankruptcy, but not its motion picture film operations. In January 2013, the Court approved financing for Kodak to emerge from bankruptcy by mid 2013. Kodak sold many of its patents for $525,000,000 to a group of companies under the names Intellectual Ventures and RPX Corporation.
On September 3, 2013, the company emerged from bankruptcy having shed its large legacy liabilities and exited several businesses. Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging are now part of Kodak Alaris, a separate company owned by the UK-based Kodak Pension Plan. From the company's founding by George Eastman in 1888, Kodak followed the razor and blades strategy of selling inexpensive cameras and making large margins from consumables – film and paper; as late as 1976, Kodak commanded 90% of film sales and 85% of camera sales in the U. S. Japanese competitor Fujifilm entered the U. S. market with lower-priced film and supplies, but Kodak did not believe that American consumers would desert its brand. Kodak passed on the opportunity to become the official film of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. Fuji opened a film plant in the U. S. and its aggressive marketing and price cutting began taking market share from Kodak. Fuji went from a 10% share in the early 1990s to 17% in 1997. Fuji made headway into the professional market with specialty transparency films such as Velvia and Provia, which competed with Kodak's signature professional product, but used the more economical and common E-6 processing machines which were standard in most processing labs, rather than the dedicated machines required by Kodachrome.
Fuji's films soon found a competitive edge in higher-speed negative films, with a tighter grain structure. In May 1995, Kodak filed a petition with the US Commerce Department under section 301 of the Commerce Act arguing that its poor performance in the Japanese market was a direct result of unfair practices adopted by Fuji; the complaint was lodged by the United States with the World Trade Organization. On January 30, 1998, the WTO announced a "sweeping rejection of Kodak's complaints" about the film market in Japan. Kodak's financial results for the year ending December 1997 showed that company's revenues dropped from $15.97 billion in 1996 to $14.36 billion in 1997, a fall of more than 10%. Kodak's market share declined from 80.1% to 74.7% in the United States, a one-year drop of five percentage points that had observers suggesting that Kodak was slow to react to changes and underestimated its rivals. Although from the 1970s both Fuji and Kodak recognized the upcoming threat of digital photography, although both sought diversification as a mitigation strategy, Fuji was more successful at diversification.
Although Kodak developed a digital camera in 1975, the first of its kind, the product was dropped for fear it would threaten Kodak's photographic film business. In the 1990s, Kodak planned a decade-long journey to move to digital technology. CEO George M. C. Fisher reached out to other new consumer merchandisers. Apple's pioneering QuickTake consumer digital cameras, introduced in 1994, had the Apple label but were produced by Kodak; the DC-20 and DC-25 launched in 1996. Overall, there was little implementation of the new digital strategy. Kodak's core business faced no pressure from competing technologies, as Kodak executives could not fathom a world without traditional film there was little incentive to deviate from that course. Consumers switched to the digital offering from companies such as Sony. In 2001 film sales dropped, attributed by Kodak to the financial shocks caused by the September 11 attacks. Executives hoped that Kodak might be able to slow the sh
Digital single-lens reflex camera
A digital single-lens reflex camera is a digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor, as opposed to photographic film. The reflex design scheme is the primary difference between other digital cameras. In the reflex design, light travels through the lens to a mirror that alternates to send the image to either the viewfinder or the image sensor; the traditional alternative would be to have a viewfinder with its own lens, hence the term "single lens" for this design. By using only one lens, the viewfinder of a DSLR presents an image that will not differ from what is captured by the camera's sensor. A DSLR differs from non-reflex single-lens digital cameras in that the viewfinder presents a direct optical view through the lens, rather than being captured by the camera's image sensor and displayed by a digital screen. DSLRs replaced film-based SLRs during the 2000s, despite the rising popularity of mirrorless system cameras in the early 2010s, DSLRs remain the most common type of interchangeable lens camera in use as of 2019.
Like SLRs, DSLRs use interchangeable lenses with a proprietary lens mount. A movable mechanical mirror system is switched down to direct light from the lens over a matte focusing screen via a condenser lens and a pentaprism/pentamirror to an optical viewfinder eyepiece. Most of the entry-level DSLRs use a pentamirror instead of the traditional pentaprism. Focusing can be manual, by twisting the focus on the lens. To take an image, the mirror swings upwards in the direction of the arrow, the focal-plane shutter opens, the image is projected and captured on the image sensor, after which actions, the shutter closes, the mirror returns to the 45-degree angle, the built in drive mechanism re-tensions the shutter for the next exposure. Compared with the newer concept of s, this mirror/prism system is the characteristic difference providing direct, accurate optical preview with separate autofocus and exposure metering sensors. Essential parts of all digital cameras are some electronics like amplifier, analog to digital converter, image processor and other processors for processing the digital image, performing data storage and/or driving an electronic display.
DSLRs use autofocus based on phase detection. This method allows the optimal lens position to be calculated, rather than "found", as would be the case with autofocus based on contrast maximisation. Phase-detection autofocus is faster than other passive techniques; as the phase sensor requires the same light going to the image sensor, it was only possible with an SLR design. However, with the introduction of focal-plane phase detect autofocusing in mirrorless interchangeable lens cameras by Sony, Fuji and Panasonic, cameras can now employ both phase detect and contrast detect AF points. Digital SLR cameras, along with most other digital cameras have a mode dial to access standard camera settings or automatic scene-mode settings. Sometimes called a "PASM" dial, they provide modes such as program, aperture-priority, shutter-priority, full manual modes. Scene modes vary from camera to camera, these modes are inherently less customizable, they include landscape, action, macro and silhouette, among others.
However, these different settings and shooting styles that "scene" mode provides can be achieved by calibrating certain settings on the camera. Professional DSLRs contain automatic scene modes as professionals do not require these and professionals know how to achieve the looks they want. A method to prevent dust entering the chamber, by using a "dust cover" filter right behind the lens mount, was used by Sigma in its first DSLR, the Sigma SD9, in 2002. Olympus used a built-in sensor cleaning mechanism in its first DSLR that had a sensor exposed to air, the Olympus E-1, in 2003. Several Canon DSLR cameras rely on dust reduction systems based on vibrating the sensor at ultrasonic frequencies to remove dust from the sensor; the ability to exchange lenses, to select the best lens for the current photographic need, to allow the attachment of specialised lenses, is one of the key factors in the popularity of DSLR cameras, although this feature is not unique to the DSLR design and mirrorless interchangeable lens cameras are becoming popular.
Interchangeable lenses for SLRs and DSLRs are built to operate with a specific lens mount, unique to each brand. A photographer will use lenses made by the same manufacturer as the camera body although there are many independent lens manufacturers, such as Sigma, Tamron and Vivitar that make lenses for a variety of different lens mounts. There are lens adapters that allow a lens for one lens mount to be used on a camera body with a different lens mount but with reduced functionality. Many lenses are mountable, "diaphragm-and-meter-compatible", on modern DSLRs and on older film SLRs that use the same lens mount. However, when lenses designed for 35 mm film or equivalently sized digital image sensors are used on DSLRs with smaller sized sensors, the image is cropped and the lens appears to have a longer focal length than its stated focal length. Most DSLR manufacturers have introduced lines of lenses with image circles optimised for the smaller sensors
Nikonos is the brand name of a series of 35mm format cameras designed for underwater photography launched by Nikon in 1963. The early Nikonos cameras were improvements of the Calypso camera, an original design by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Belgian engineer Jean de Wouters, it was produced in France by La Spirotechnique until the design was acquired by Nikon to become the Nikonos. The Nikonos system was immensely popular with both amateur and professional underwater photographers, its compact design, ease of use, excellent optical quality set the standard for several decades of underwater imaging. Nikon ceased development and manufacture of new Nikonos cameras in 2001, but the camera remains popular, there is a large and active secondary market. Nippon Kogaku trace their underwater camera history back to 1956, when the company developed an underwater housing for the Nikon S2 rangefinder camera, marketed in May as the Nikon Marine. At the same time, Jean de Wouters was building the first prototypes of the Calypso for La Spirotechnique, which went into serial production in 1961.
However, La Spirotechnique was not experienced with camera design and manufacture, so they approached Nippon Kogaku to license the production and sales rights in June 1961. Nippon Kogaku acquired the patent to the Calypso in 1963 and began manufacturing the Nikonos equipped with Nikkor optics instead of the original SOM Berthiot and Angenieux lenses; because of its waterproof housing, lens options, toughness, the Nikonos was an important tool for photographers working in the steaming jungles, flooded rice paddies, rain-lashed battlefields of the Vietnam War. The wire services loaded their Nikonos cameras with Ektachrome-X or High-Speed Ektachrome. Nikon continued to manufacture Nikonos V bodies until 2001, when it formally announced it was terminating the series. Without any new models in years and with digital imaging taking over the market, Nikon saw no reason to continue the series. However, in the French Magazine "Focus-Numerique" Mr. Tetsuro Goto, the Director of Laboratory Research and Development at Nikon Japan said on the future of Nikonos: “personally I think the Nikonos will be reborn in the future.”
The numbered Nikonos cameras are called rangefinder cameras, but in truth they are scale focus cameras as there is no rangefinder. The viewfinder is used purely to compose the shot, to display exposure information on bodies with internal metering. Focus distance is set with an outsized dial mounted on the left side of the lens barrel, the aperture is set with a dial mounted on the right. Refraction affects the estimated distance underwater by making objects appear 25% closer than they are. Nikon assumed the user did not compensate for appearances underwater, so the distance markers on the lens are marked for apparent distance. Thankfully the Nikonos wide-angle lenses have ample depth of field, so these discrepancies are not a noticeable problem; the depth of field indicators on most Nikonos Nikkor lenses mechanically adjust with aperture. The numbered Nikonos models all had rugged construction, simple controls, were waterproof to 50 m; the camera is made waterproof by a simple system of o-rings at all the crucial joints.
Each new model brought various improvements such as light metering, flash circuitry, improved shutter and film advance design. Notes The initial Nikonos line consisted of three models that were improved versions of Cousteau's Calypso of 1961: Nikonos, renamed Nikonos I after the Nikonos II was released Nikonos II Nikonos III The Nikonos was introduced at Photokina 1963. In Europe, under the terms of the licensing agreement, the Nikonos was known as the Calypso/Nikkor. In July 1966, Nikon began marketing the Nikonos as an all-weather camera and sold a limited number of cameras with a white finish, which consisted of Nikonos cameras with white leather body panels, it is estimated. In total 200,000 Nikonos I, II, III cameras were manufactured between 1963 and 1983; the three Calypso-based Nikonos models share the same basic structure where the complete camera consists of three modules: lens and shutter/film transport assemblies. Film is loaded in the shutter/film assembly, inserted into the housing, the mounting of the lens locks the three pieces together.
The strap lugs are used to pry the shutter/film assembly out of the housing. The Nikonos II was cosmetically and dimensionally similar to the original Nikonos, but the shutter speed dial has an additional ewind setting, the rewind knob is equipped with a lever to facilitate operation. Internally, all parts of the Nikonos II were coated to avoid corrosion; the film transport mechanism was redesigned for the Nikonos III to use the sprocket holes for positive framing. This resulted in a noticeably larger body. In addition, the flash sync port gained an extra pin to support electronic flash units. A second viewfinder line was Nikon's complete re-design and included a through-the-lens
Kodak EasyShare C330
The Kodak C330 is a model of digital camera produced by the Eastman Kodak Company. It is part of the company's EasyShare consumer line of cameras; the camera has a 3x optical zoom, a 5x digital zoom beyond the optical zoom. The camera is able to record QVGA videos in 24 frame/s, it has auto, portrait, landscape, close-up, video modes. Videos may with sound only, it has a viewfinder. The camera has 16 MB of internal memory. Memory capacity can be expanded with 16MB, 32MB, 64MB, 128MB, 256MB, 512MB up to a maximum of 1 GB SD or MMC cards, it includes an AV/USB port for viewing photos on a RCA television with the included adapter or transferring images to a computer via usb. The camera includes a 1.5-inch LCD screen. The camera kit includes a USB cable for uploading images to a computer, it is compatible with the Kodak camera docks and PictBridge printer docks, card readers. Official Kodak website