Kodiak Island Borough, Alaska
Kodiak Island Borough is a borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. At the 2010 census, the population was 13,592; the borough seat is Kodiak. The borough has a total area of 12,022 square miles, of which 6,550 square miles is land and 5,472 square miles is water. Most of the land area belongs to Kodiak Island, but a thin strip of coastal area on the western part of the Alaska Peninsula and other nearby islands are in the borough; the waterway between the island and mainland is known as the Shelikof Strait. South of the island are the open waters of the Pacific Ocean, so the site is considered good for launching certain types of satellites; the Kodiak Launch Complex is ideal for putting satellites in polar orbits. Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska - north Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska - northwest Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Barren Islands Semidi Wilderness Semidi Islands Trinity Islands Sitkinak Island Tugidak Island Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Becharof Wilderness Chugach National Forest Katmai National Park and Preserve Katmai Wilderness Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 13,913 people, 4,424 households, 3,256 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 5,159 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 59.69% White, 0.96% Black or African American, 14.58% Native American, 16.04% Asian, 0.79% Pacific Islander, 2.78% from other races, 5.16% from two or more races. 6.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.10 % reported speaking Tagalog at a language of the Philippines, while 5.28 % speak Spanish. There were 4,424 households out of which 45.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.70% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.40% were non-families. 19.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.52. In the borough the population was spread out with 32.40% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 34.00% from 25 to 44, 20.40% from 45 to 64, 4.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.40 males. Akhiok Kodiak Larsen Bay Old Harbor Ouzinkie Port Lions Aleneva Chiniak Karluk Kodiak Station Womens Bay List of airports in the Kodiak Island Borough Official website Kodiak Island Public Access Atlas Borough map: Alaska Department of Labor
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Kodiak is one of seven communities and the main city on Kodiak Island, Kodiak Island Borough, in the U. S. state of Alaska. All commercial transportation between the entire island and the outside world goes through this city either via ferryboat or airline; the population was 6,130 as of the 2010 census. 2014 estimates put the population at 6,304. Inhabited by Alutiiq natives for over 7,000 years, the city was settled in the 18th century by the subjects of the Russian crown and became the capital of Russian Alaska. Harvesting of the area's sea otter pelts led to the near extinction of the animal in the following century and led to wars with and enslavement of the natives for over 150 years. After the Alaska Purchase by the United States in 1867, Kodiak became a commercial fishing center which continues to be the mainstay of its economy. A lesser economic influence includes tourism by those seeking outdoor adventure trips. Salmon, the unique Kodiak bear, Sitka deer, mountain goats attract hunting tourists as well as fishermen to the Kodiak Archipelago.
The Alaska Department of Fish and Game maintains an office in the city and a website to help hunters and fishermen obtain the proper permits and learn about the laws specific to the Kodiak area. The city has four public elementary schools, a middle and high school, as well as a branch of the University of Alaska. An antenna farm at the summit of Pillar Mountain above the city provided communication with the outside world before fiber optic cable was run. Transportation to and from the island is provided by ferry service on the Alaska Marine Highway as well as local commercial airlines; the Kodiak Archipelago has been home to the Alutiiq for over 7,000 years. In their language, qikertaq means "island". In 1763, the Russian explorer Stephan Glotov discovered the island, he was followed by the British captain James Cook fifteen years who first recorded "Kodiak" in his journals in 1778. In 1792, the Russian Shelikhov-Golikov Company chief manager Alexander Baranov moved the post at Three Saints Bay to a new site in Paul's Harbor.
This developed as the nucleus of modern Kodiak. Baranov considered Three Saints Bay a poor location; the relocated settlement was first named Pavlovskaya Gavan. A warehouse was built in what became one of the key posts of the Shelikhov-Golikov Company, a precursor of the Russian-American Company and a center for harvesting the area's vast population of sea otters for their prized pelts; the warehouse still stands as the Baranov Museum. Because the First Native cultures revered this animal and would never harm it, the Russians had wars with and enslaved the Aleuts during this era. Eastern Orthodox missionaries settled on the island by the end of the 18th century, continuing European settlement of the island, they held the liturgy in native Tlingit from 1800. The capital of Russian America was moved to Novoarkhangelsk in 1804; the Russian-American Company was established in 1799 as a joint-stock company by decree of Emperor Paul to continue the harvest of sea otter and other fur-bearing animals and establish permanent settlements.
By the mid-19th century, the sea otter was extinct and 85% of the First Native population had disappeared from exposure to European diseases and violence. When Russia sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, Kodiak developed as a center for commercial fishing, canneries dotted the island in the early 20th century until global farm-raised salmon eliminated these businesses. New processing centers emerged and the industry continues to evolve. During the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, animals such as the mountain goat, Sitka deer, muskrats, beavers and others were introduced to the island and the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge was created; as Kodiak was incorporated in 1941, the U. S. feared attack from Japanese during World War II, turned the town into a fortress. Roads, the airport, Fort Abercrombie, gun fortifications improved the island's infrastructure; when Alaska became a state in 1959, government assistance in housing and education added additional benefits. In March 1964, a tectonic tsunami struck the city during the 1964 Alaska earthquake with 30-foot waves that killed 15 people and caused $11 million in damage.
Some areas near Kodiak were permanently raised by 30 feet. It wiped out the neighboring Native villages of Old Kaguyak; the Standard Oil Company, the Alaskan King Crab Company, much of the fishing fleet were destroyed. Kodiak is located on the eastern shore of Kodiak Island. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.9 square miles, divided into 3.5 sq mi of land and 1.4 sq mi of water. Kodiak has a subarctic climate that closely borders a humid continental climate marked by chilly to cold weather year-round. Precipitation is heavy year-round, though markedly less in the summer months. Kodiak first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the village of Saint Paul, it reported a population of 288, of which 253 were "Creole", 15 Aleuts. In 1890, it would report as "Kadiak". In 1900, it returned as "Kadiak Settlement." From 1910 onwards, it reported as Kodiak, would formally incorporate in 1940. As of the census of 2000, there are 6,334 people, 1,996 households, 1,361 families residing in the city.
The population densi
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
Old Harbor, Alaska
Old Harbor is a city in Kodiak Island Borough, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 218, down from 237 in 2000. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.5 square miles, of which 20.5 square miles is land and 6.0 square miles, or 22.59%, is water. The community of Old Harbor has its origins in the era of Russian conquest. On August 14, 1784, Grigory Shelikhov with 130 Russian fur traders massacred several hundred Qik’rtarmiut Sugpiat tribe of Alutiiq men and children at Refuge Rock, a tiny stack island off the eastern coast of Sitkalidak Island. In Alutiiq, this sacred place is known as Awa'uq. Old Harbor first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village with 160 residents: 155 Inuit and 5 Creole, it returned with 86 residents in 1890, all Native. It did not return again until 1920, it formally incorporated in 1966. As of the census of 2000, there were 237 people, 79 households, 51 families residing in the city; the population density was 11.3 people per square mile.
There were 111 housing units at an average density of 5.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 13.08% White, 73.00% Native American, 13.92% from two or more races. There were 79 households out of which 44.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.9% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.60. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 39.7% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 4.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 127.9 males. For every 100 females of age 18 and over, there are 142.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,500, the median income for a family was $26,000.
Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $23,750 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,265. About 30.8% of families and 29.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. The Old Harbor School, a K-12 rural school, is operated by the Kodiak Island Borough School District. Kodiak.org – Information about Old Harbor
Woody Island (Alaska)
Woody Island is located in Chiniak Bay, 2.6 miles east of Kodiak, Alaska. It was settled by the native Alutiiq people who called themselves Tangirnarmiut, "the people of Tangirnaq." They used Woody Island for thousands of years. The Russians established an agricultural colony on Woody Island in 1792, it was designated Wood Island in 1894 by the US Post Office and was the primary coastal settlement for commerce and trade for many years. The first road in Alaska was built on Woody Island. Aside from the Aleut presence, the island has gone through four periods of occupation by non-natives, is unoccupied today; the island is 2.8 miles long from north to south and 1.8 miles wide and 13 miles in circumference. The Woody Island Historic Archeological District, comprising sites of archaeological importance on the island was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015; the Alutiiq people used the island for "whaling, wood-working, sweat-baths, extensive trade," and build "large multi-roomed houses, large villages with complex social ranking."
When the Russians arrived in the 18th century, the native people were successful in driving them off. There followed a short period of accommodation and trade, after which the Russians engaged in brutal subjugation of the people, resulting in "epidemics, forced relocations, extermination of those who resisted."Russian naval officer Gavriil Davydov observed an Aleut winter ceremony on Woody Island in 1802. He wrote: In 1805 a village on the east side of Woody Island was inhabited by 54 Alutiiq people. A smallpox epidemic struck the region in 1837 and the Russians forcefully amalgamated the survivors into seven villages, among them a village on Woody Island; the Russian American Commercial Company operated an ice company on the island beginning in 1852. They dammed Lake Tanignak, they shipped ice south to California. The company brought in the first iron rails to haul ice and horses to power a horse-powered saw which cut the ice into blocks. A sawmill was built to produce not lumber, but sawdust, used to insulate the ice for shipment south.
The first road built in Alaska was graded around the island to allow the horses to be exercised. In 1867 the company was renamed the Kodiak Ice Co. For much of the late half of the 19th century, many of the Aluttiq people on Woody Island were enslaved by the Russians to work for the ice harvesting companies during the winter. Conscripted by the Russians, they hunted sea otters and fur seals during the summer for their prized fur. In 1872 a Russian Orthodox Church was built on Woody Island; the church exerted a strong influence over the native population, replacing in many instances native ceremonies and observances with church-centered activities. The sea otter and fur seal populations declined in the latter half of the 19th century due to over-harvesting, with about 100,000 sea otters and a correspondingly high number of fur seals being taken each year. By 1911 only about 2000 sea otters remained in 13 small remnant populations, making hunting unprofitable. Commercial taking of sea otters and fur seals were prohibited by the Fur Seal Treaty.
The Aleuts were permitted to hunt them for subsistence purposes only. In 1886, the Island was the commercial center for the Kodiak area. Services included the ice harvesting operation, a boat yard, a grist mill, the Alaska Commercial Company wharf, the only roads in Alaska connecting these facilities; the North American Commercial Company, a fur trading enterprise, established a presence there in 1891, including a store. Ernest and Ida Roscoe built a Baptist Mission and orphanage on Woody Island in 1893. Over the next twenty years, the mission added a girls' quarters, boys' dormitory, office building, carpenter shop, cannery and dining room; the mission provided homes for Aleut children who had lost their parents, but the Baptist missionaries sometimes brought children to the orphanage against their parents' will. The main building burned down in 1925, was rebuilt, burned again in 1937; the mission was relocated to Kodiak on the mainland where a greater variety of services were more available.
The United States Navy built a wireless station on the island in 1911. It included two large masts 225 feet tall. During the eruption of the Novarupta volcano on the Alaska Peninsula in 1912, over 18 inches of ash was deposited on the island. Everyone but the watchman evacuated to Kodiak. During the ash fall, lightning struck one of the antenna which started a fire that burned most of the wireless station. Harry Martin, a survivor of the volcanic eruption, told U. S. Navy radioman Bart Phelps about the experience in 1924: The wireless station was rebuilt and updated in 1914; the wireless station was decommissioned on February 28, 1931, shortly thereafter the Federal government allowed the Territory of Alaska to use the remaining buildings for the Longwood School. After the mission and orphanage was relocated to the mainland, the entire island's population declined rapidly; the Longwood School enrollment dropped from 71 in 1937 to 20 in 1939, the school was permanently closed. Many of the natives moved to Kodiak where they were less dependent on subsistence living and could find jobs.
In 1941, the Civil Aeronautics Administration built the Kadiak Naval Air Station including a runway, flight service station, remote air ground, remote transmitter, low frequency range beacon, VHF link terminal facilities. These relayed weather and other aeronautical data to pilots. During World War II up to their families lived on the island, they maintained the teletypes and radio rec
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol