Anambra is a state in southeastern Nigeria. Its name was inspired by one of its Northern and riverine clans Anam but merged with "branch"; the colonialists who travelled from the present day Anambra region to present Northern Nigeria described where they were coming from as "Anam branch". The term coupled with Omambala, the Igbo name of the Anambra River formed the name Anambra; the capital and seat of government is Awka. Onitsha, a historic port city from pre-colonial times, has developed as by far the largest urban area in the state; the state's theme is "Light of the nation". Boundaries are formed by Delta State to the west, Imo State and Rivers State to the south, Enugu State to the east, Kogi State to the north; the name was derived from the Anambra River m which flows through the area and is a tributary of the River Niger. The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state are the Igbo and a small population of Igala, who live in the north-western part of the state. Anambra is the eighth-most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second-most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State.
The stretch of more than 45 km between the towns of Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns, giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500–2,000 persons per square kilometre. Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude oil and ceramic, it has an 100 percent arable soil. Anambra state has many other resources in terms of agro-based activities such as fisheries and farming, as well as land cultivated for pasturing and animal husbandry, it has the lowest poverty rate in Nigeria. In the year 2006, a foundation-laying ceremony for the first Nigerian private refinery, Orient Petroleum Refinery, was made at Aguleri area; the Orient Petroleum Resource Ltd, owners of OPR, was licensed in June 2002, by the Federal Government to construct a private refinery with a capacity of 55,000 barrels per day. In 2012, following the efforts of Governor Peter Obi and other stakeholders of Orient Petroleum, Anambra State became an oil-producing state; the indigenous company struck oil in the Anambra River basin.
On August 2, 2015, the management of Orient Petroleum Resources Plc said the company planned to increase its crude oil production to 3,000 barrels per day by September 2015, as it stepped up production activities in two new oil wells in its Aguleri oil fields. An indigenous company and Stanley Ltd, was to establish a gas plant at Umueje in Ayamelum Local Government Area to support economic activities in the oil and gas industry in the state. Since the late 1990s, there has been a migration from rural to urban areas in the state, resulting in Anambra becoming a urbanized state: 62% of its population lives in urban areas. In October 2015, the APGA-led state government of Willie Obiano signed a memorandum of understanding with Galway modular housing company, Affordable Building Concepts International, for 10,000 housing units to be built in the state. Given decades of neglect of infrastructure and bad governance, the shift in human migration has posed problems for the state. Infrastructure improvements, both physical and social, have lagged behind the growth in population.
There are problems in environmental sanitation, erosion control, provision of social services. Major cities have become characterized by inadequate and deteriorated road networks and walkways, unregulated building patterns, poor sanitation, uncontrolled street trading, mountains of garbage, chaotic transport systems, creating congestion, noise pollution, overcrowding; the government of Peter Obi, with the assistance of the UN-HABITAT, produced 20-year structural plans for three major cities in the State: Onitsha and Awka Capital Territory, to restore urban planning and guide their growth into the future. The plans contain policies and proposals for land use, city beautification, road infrastructure, industrial development, waste disposal, water supply and health and educational facilities to turn the cities into successful urban areas that can generate employment and wealth, provide high living standards for their residents. Anambra became the first state in Nigeria to adopt Structural Plans for its cities.
With effective implementation, it should systematically grow as a major economic center in Nigeria and West Africa. The process of urbanization is contributed by population growth, immigration and infrastructure initiatives like good road, water and gardens, resulting in the growth of villages into towns, town into cities and cities into metros. To have ecologically feasible development, planning requires an understanding of the growth dynamics. There is a fear that if too many people leave the villages, only the aged men and women will be left to farm; this pattern has been seen in Amesi and Achina towns in Aguata local government area. They have been important in the production of yam and cassava through consistent agriculture, but such activities have suffered due to the out-migration of youth to the urban centres. There has been both food scarcity in the over-population in urban areas. To upgrade the State capital and improve traffic, Governor Willie Obiano signed off on construction of three fly-overs between the Amawbia and Arroma end of the Enugu-Onitsha Expressway, a distance of about three kilometres within the city.
Agulu Crocodile Lake is located along Awka road in Agulu, Anaocha Local Government Area of the state. A potential tourist site, it is home to water turtles. Fishing is not allowed on the lake; as the crocodiles are considered sacred animals, they cannot be killed. Legend says that t
The Idoma are an ethno-linguistic group that inhabit the lower western areas of Benue State and kindred groups can be found in Cross Rivers State, Enugu State and Nasarawa State in Nigeria. The Idoma language is classified in the Akweya subgroup of the Idomoid languages of the Volta–Niger family, which include Alago, Agatu and Yala languages of Benue and Northern Cross river states.. The Akweya subgroup is related to the Yatye-Akpa sub-group; the bulk of the territory is inland, south of river Benue, some seventy-two kilometers east of its confluence with river Niger. The Idomas hospitable and peace-loving; the greater part of Idoma land remained unknown to the West until the 1920s, leaving much of the colorful traditional culture of the Idoma intact. The population of the Idoma is estimated to be about 4 million; the Idoma people have a traditional ruler called the Och'Idoma, the head of the Idoma Area Traditional Council while each community has its own traditional chief such as the Ad'Ogbadibo of Orokam, Chief D.
E Enenche. The Palace of the overall Och ` Idoma is located at Benue State; the present Och'Idoma, HRH Elias Ikoyi Obekpa was installed into office in 1997 and the position is for life. The history of the Idoma people precedes the history of Benue state and the history of the Republic of Nigeria. Oral tradition and dance is the primary method of which history has been passed in Idomaland and is considered a central cultural institution. From a young age Idoma children learn from their elders stories of old and are brought up around extended families, which make multiple historical resources available; when prompted Idomas will proudly tell you where they are from, it’s not uncommon for Idoma to be able to recite at least four generations of their progenitors. Being unable to answer the emblematic question “Who is your father?” Disqualified one from important roles and titles in Idomaland. Quite a number of villages trace origins to single ancestors and further, several Idoma groups trace their heritage to one common ancestor, considered the “father” of the different groups.
According to traditional history, the father of the Idoma had several children who each established different areas. Hence the expression: “Iduh the father of Idoma.” “Iduh the father of Idoma Iduh who begot all the Idoma He begot the following children: Ananawoogeno who begot the children of Igwumale. Many Idoma groups and village subsets have their own histories complete with stories about how their people arrived at their current location; the Otukpa people descended from three ancestors: Ameh-Ochagbaha and Oodo. The first two were brothers; as one can imagine, the ever-changing of people through time makes it difficult to study Idoma history. Scholars have combined oral history with genealogical data and analysis of kinship totems to trace the roots of the Idoma people as a whole. One notable Idoma scholar E. O. Erim cites genealogical data, collected from most modern groups in Idoma suggesting that they derive from several ethnic groups, each with different historical origin. Furthermore, the available genealogies indicate the existence of diverse ethnic groups who descended from ancestors other than Idu.
In several of these cases, the claim of common descent is backed by both extensive genealogical connections and possession of common kinship totems. Erim contends that while Idu was a migration leader—he was not the “father” of the Idoma in the sense implied in the above traditions; these two considerations make it difficult to accept the view that every group in Idomaland is descended from Idu. Many Idoma kindred claim an ancestral homeland called Apa, north-east of present-day Idomaland due to pressures of Northern invaders as as 300 years ago; the historical Apa was part of a confederacy of several peoples. Informants in other ethnic groups have corroborated existence of this kingdom, chiefly the Jukun who believe they once ruled a confederacy called Kwararafa. In the Hausa book Kano Chronicle it is mentioned that Zaria, under Queen Amina conquered all towns as far as Kwarafara in the 15th century. At present, there is a Local Government Area in Benue State called Apa and is said to be the home of those who made the first migration from the historical kingdom.
For many Idoma nationalists today, the name Apa elicits sentiments of a past glory, some in the political sphere have gone as far as suggesting it should become the name of a new Idoma state. Other scholars point to historical and linguistic evidence that suggests that Idoma have ties with the Igala people to the west, concluding that the two nations came from a common ancestor. Angulu note that Igala and Igbo have important historical and cultural relationships. Eri is said to be the original legendary cultural head of the Umu-eri, a subgroup of the Igbo people. Eri migrated from southern Egypt through the Igala area and established a community in the middle of Anambra river valley in Aguleri where he married two wives; the first wife, Nneamakụ, bore him five children. The first was Agulu, the founder of Aguleri (the Ezeora dyna
The Kogi or Cogui or Kágaba, meaning "jaguar" in the Kogi language, are an indigenous ethnic group that lives in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia. Their civilization has continued since the Pre-Columbian era; the Kogi language belongs to the Chibchan family. The Kogi are descendants of the Tairona culture, which flourished before the times of the Spanish conquest; the Tairona were an advanced civilization which built many stone structures and pathways in the jungles. They made many gold objects which they would hang around their necks, they lived not much differently from modern day Kogi. Before the Spanish conquistadors arrived, the Tairona were forced to move into the highlands when the Caribs invaded around 1000 CE; the decision to flee to the mountains proved beneficial and strategic by the time the Spanish entered modern-day Colombia in the 15th century. In 1498, the Spanish arrived in Northern Colombia. Threatened by dogs and soldiers alike, the Tairona remained in isolation. Regardless, many priests were hanged, women were abducted and raped, children were forced to accept Spanish education.
Missionaries came and began to influence their way of life, building chapels and churches amidst their villages to train and convert the locals. In the years since, the Kogi have remained in their home in the mountains, which allows them to escape the worst effects of colonization and aids them in preserving their traditional way of life The Kogi base their lifestyles on their belief in "Aluna" or "The Great Mother," their creator figure, who they believe is the force behind nature; the Kogi understand the Earth to be a living being, see humanity as its "children." They say that our actions of exploitation and plundering for resources is weakening "The Great Mother" and leading to our destruction. Like many other indigenous tribes, the Kogi people honor a holy mountain which they call "Gonawindua," otherwise known as Pico Cristóbal Colón, they believe that this mountain is "The Heart of the World" and they are the "Elder Brothers" who care for it. They say that the outside civilization is the "Younger Brothers" who were sent away from The Heart of the World long ago.
From birth the Kogi attune their priests, called Mamos, for guidance and leadership. The Mamos are not to be confused with shamans or curers but to be regarded as tribal priests who hold respected roles in Kogi society. Mamos undergo strict training to assume this role. Selected male children are taken from birth and put in a dark cave for the first nine years of their lives to begin this training. In the cave, elder Mamos and the child's mother care for, feed and teach the child to attune to "Aluna" before the boy enters the outside world. Through deep concentration, symbolic offerings, divination, the Mamos believe they support the balance of harmony and creativity in the world, it is in this realm that the essence of agriculture is nurtured: seeds are blessed in Aluna before being planted, to ensure they grow successfully. The Kogi Mamos have remained isolated from the rest of the world since the Spanish Conquistadors came to plunder South America for gold. In order to preserve their traditional way of life, they interact with the modern world or with outside civilization.
Outsiders are not allowed inside their ancestral lands. The Kogi Mamos say that the balance of the earth's ecology has been suffering due to the modern-day devastation of resources by Younger Brother; the Kogi Mamos in turn believe that their work as Elder Brother is instrumental in helping to prolong and protect life on earth. In a desperate attempt to prevent further ecological catastrophe and destruction, the Kogi Mamos broke their silence and allowed a small BBC film crew into their isolated mountaintop civilization to hear their message and warning to Younger Brother; the subsequent messages and warnings were voiced in the documentary The Heart of The World: Elder Brother's Warning. After the documentary was filmed, the Kogi Mamos returned to their work in isolation and asked outsiders to not come to their land; the Kogi soon realized that their message and warning had not been heeded by Younger Brother, instead, as they had predicted, many catastrophes occurred and the natural world continued to be devastated at an more rapid pace.
In turn they contacted the same filmmaker twenty years to give one final message. This became Aluna, a documentary made by the Kogi Mamos themselves in which they give a second warning and say that they have chosen to share their secret sciences with Younger Brother so that Younger Brother can help change the world for the better. Traditional Kogi religion is related to the structure of the cosmic universe that exists in dualistic expressions. On a cosmic level, the sun separates the universe into two hemispheres: the east/west and a right/left; the Kogi use this dualistic notion to elaborate on a number of earthly divides: man/woman, male/female, heat/cold, light/dark, right/left. They believe. Within each pair, one cannot survive without the other. In the case of good/evil, the Kogi believe committing a sin once in a while serves as a justification for the existence of good; these natural opposites are a way to keep the society balanced or “in agreement”. The two hemispheres are divided into four segments: North/South/East/West.
Within these four points of reference, the Kogi have associated the orientation of their religious framework int
Ajaokuta is a Local Government Area in Kogi State, Nigeria and a town within it on the left bank of the Niger River. The headquarters of the LGA are in the town of Egayin in the south of the area at 6°40′11″N 8°48′19″E, it has a population of 122,321 at the 2006 census. As of 2008 Ajaokuta, the town, had an estimated population of 16,039; the postal code of the area is 263. The town is the home of the multibillion-dollar Ajaokuta Steel Mill, the largest steel mill in Nigeria. Begun by the Soviet Union in 1979 under a cooperation agreement with Nigeria, the complex reached 98% completion by 1994; the steelworks have been called the "bedrock of Nigeria’s industrialization". However, the project has been mismanaged, the steel mill has not produced a single sheet of steel as of December 2017; the town is not connected except by river. In 1987, a contract was awarded for the construction of a standard gauge railway from the iron mines at Itakpe to the steelworks at Ajaokuta, continuing to the Atlantic Ocean port city of Warri.
The Warri–Ajaokuta–Itakpe line is still incomplete as of August 2017, the section from Itakpe to Ajaokuta has been vandalised. The Nigerian government plans to repair the railway and put it into operation in June 2018. Railway stations in Nigeria
Lokoja is a city in Nigeria. It is the capital of Kogi State. While the Bassa Nge, Yoruba and Ebira are indigenous to the area, other ethnic groups of Nigeria, including the Igbo, Bini/Edo and Nupe, have established themselves. Different ethnic groups lay claim to having named the city; the Yoruba and Oworo people believe. The Hausa believe that the city was named by the emir of Zazzau; the Nupe believe. The Igala believe the name comes from the expression Lewa ka je Eja; the area that would become Lokoja has been inhabited for thousands of years by people from different ethnic groups prior to the arrival of Europeans. The migrations of these groups to the area could be in part accounted for by its nearness to the banks of the Niger and Benue rivers; some of the first groups of people to settle in Lokoja were the and Nupe. It is said that they migrated from Baro and some parts of present-day Niger state to the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers; this area became a center of trade. The Nupe and Zazzau emirs agree with the Hausas to be the leader, while the Nupe to be the religion leader as chief imam of Lokoja.
Lokoja was ruled by the following Maigari of Lokoja that the British installed who claim to be converted to Islam and called Bukar and reside at Yaragi Madabo Junction of Lokoja as the new Lokoja palace. Follow the turn of leadership to Alhaji Yahaya Muhammadu Maikarfi, after his demise Alhaji Kabiru son of Yahaya Muhammadu Maikarfi take on, they were able to sustain themselves by engaging in hunting activities at Agbaja hill. The Patti word is a Nupe word meaning hill, Mount Patti hill and other surrounding hills are hunting areas of the Lokoja people, at Mount Patti there is aged three that most of the former hunters write their name in Ajami and the Latin script, that will make you observe that there is no settlement at Mount Patti; this was. When Dr William Balfour Baikie arrived at Lokoja first in 1854 and in 1857, through his efforts and encouragements, the people descended from Lokoja, he did this through Muhammadu Maikarfi the Maigari of Lokoja, in which after he demise the white men use their power and give it to their servant by the Abigel Which was converted to Islam and name him as Bukar, mean Abubakar in Kanuri tun.
The Bassa-Nges believe that they settled at the foot of Mount Patti when they came into Lokoja before moving again and migrating to settle across the Benue just to the north of the Igalas. Whatever the case may be, it is difficult to categorically state in what order any or each of these groups came after the Oworos to settle in Lokoja town; these different groups lived in different quarters of the town but were related socio-politically. They interacted and tolerated one another. Present day Lokoja is ruled by the Maigari of Lokoja, his 12 Hakimi It is important to note however, that each group have their own local criteria: for example, the Maigari has no jurisdiction over the Olu of Oworo, but he does have authority over Ganaja, Sarkin Numa, ward A to ward E and other villages of the Lokoja Holland, the Salkawa people; the present modern settlement at Lokoja was established in 1857 by the British explorer William Baikie at the site of an earlier model farm constructed during the failed Niger expedition of 1841.
Lokoja was the capital of the British Northern Nigeria Protectorate and the chief of Lokoja as at that time is Alhaji Muhammadu Maikarfi. Lokoja remained a convenient administrative town for the British colonial government after the amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria in 1914; the first Governor-General, Sir Frederick Lugard, governed the new nation of Nigeria from Lokoja. Other subsequent settlers into the city include the Yoruba, the Igala, the Igbira, the Bassa-Nge people. However, there are other groups apart from the ones mentioned above but they are classified as temporary visitors and non indigenous; these include the Igbo, Edo, etc. The city's population has since grown to an estimated count of over 90,000 inhabitants, it is a trade center with respect to its agricultural products. It is home to Kogi State Polytechnic and the newly established Federal University Lokoja. Near Lokoja, in Ajaokuta, are metallurgy facilities and iron ore mines. Lokoja is a Local Government Area of Kogi State with an area of 3,180 km² and a population of 195,261 at the 2006 census.
It is bounded by the Niger in the north and east upstream from the capital until the border with Kwara State, includes the city of Lokoja. The postal code of the area is 260. Lokoja lies 6.7333 ° E east of the Meridian. It is about 165 km Southwest of Abuja as the crow flies, 390 km Northeast of Lagos by same measure. Residential districts are of varying density, the city has various suburbs such as Felele, Adankolo and Ganaja; the town is situated in the tropical Wet and Dry savanna climate zone of Nigeria, temperature remains hot all year round. Given the multiethnic nature of the town, there are various festivals and socio-cultural activities depending on the people group. Thus, no particular group’s festivals or their socio-cultural activities can be said
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr
Benue State is one of the North central states in Nigeria with a population of about 4,253,641 in 2006 census. It is inhabited predominantly by the Tiv and Igede peoples, who speak Tiv and Igede languages respectively, its capital is Makurdi, Benue is a rich agricultural region. Benue State is named after the Benue River and was formed from the former Benue-Plateau State in 1976, along with Igala and some part of Kwara State. In 1991 some areas of Benue state, along with areas in Kwara State, were carved out to become part of the new Kogi State. Igbo people are found in the boundary areas like Oju etc.. Samuel Ortom is the governor and Benson Abounu is the deputy governor. Both were elected under the All Progressives Congress but defected to the Peoples Democratic Party in 2018. Benue state has three universities: Federal University of Agriculture, Benue State University, University of Mkar, it has two polytechnics: Benue State Polytechnic and Fidei polytechnic, Gboko as well as the Akperan Orshi college of Agriculture Yandev.
There are about four colleges of education which are Federal College of Education Agasha, College of Education Oju, College of Education Kastina Ala. Benue State as it exists today is a surviving legacy of an administrative entity, carved out of the protectorate of northern Nigeria at the beginning of the twentieth century; the territory was known as Munshi Province until 1918 when the name of its dominant geographical feature, the'Benue River' was adopted. The State, located in the North Central region of Nigeria, has a total population of 4,253,641 in 2006 census, with an average population density of 99 persons per km2; this makes Benue the 9th most populous state in Nigeria. However, the distribution of the population according to Local government areas shows marked duality. There are areas of low population density; such as Guma, Gwer East, Katsina-Ala, Apa and Agatu, each with less than seventy persons per km2, while Vandeikya, Ogbadibo and Gboko have densities ranging from 160 persons to 200 persons per 2.
Makurdi LGA has over 380 person per km2. The males are 49.8 percent of the total population. Benue State region was depleted of its human population during the slave trade, it is rural, with scattered settlements in tiny compounds or homesteads, whose population range from 630 people, most of whom are farmers. Urbanization in Benue State did not predate the colonial era; the few towns established during colonial rule remained small up to the creation of Benue State in 1976. Benue towns can be categorised into three groups; the first group consists of those with a population of 80,000 to 500,000 people. These include Makurdi, the State Capital and Otukpo the "headquarters" of the two dominant ethnic groups; the second group comprises towns with a population of between 20,000 and 50,000 people and includes Katsina-Ala, Zaki-Biam, Ukum￼￼, Adikpo, Kwande. These are all local government headquarters; the third category comprises towns with a population of 10,000 to 19,000 people and includes Vandeikya, lhugh, Adoka, Okpoga, Oju, Ugbokolo, Ugbokpo, Otukpa and Korinya.
Most of these towns are headquarters of created Local Government Areas and/or district headquarters or major market areas. Some of the headquarters of the newly created LGAs have populations of less than 10,000 people; such places include Tse-Agberaba, Buruku, Idekpa and Obarikeito. Apart from earth roads, periodic markets and chemists, the rural areas are used for farming, relying on the urban centres for most of their urban needs. Benue State has no problem of capital city primacy. Rather, three towns stand out clearly as important urban centres which together account for more than 70 per cent of the social amenities provided in the state and all the industrial establishments; these centres are Makurdi and Otukpo. They are amongst the oldest towns in the state and are growing at a much faster rate than the smaller younger towns. Makurdi doubles as the capital of the state and the headquarters of Makurdi LGA, while Gboko and Oju double as the local government and ethnic headquarters. All the roads in the state radiate from these three centres.
As an administrative unit, Benue State was first created on 3 February 1976. It was one of the seven states created by the military administration headed by General Murtala Mohammed, which increased the number of states in the country from 13 to 19. In 1991, its boundaries were re-adjusted with the creation of Kogi State; the new Benue State of today has twenty-three local government areas, which are administered by local government councils. Benue State lies within the lower river Benue trough in the middle belt region of Nigeria, its geographic coordinates are longitude 7° 47' and 10° 0' East. Latitude 6° 25' and 8° 8' North; the state shares a common boundary with the Republic of Cameroon on the south-east. Benue occupies a landmass of 34,059 square kilometres. Based on Köppen climate classification, Benue State lies within the AW climate and experiences two distinct seasons, the Wet season and the Dry season; the rainy season lasts from April to October with annual rai