Friedrich Kohlrausch (educator)
Heinrich Friedrich Theodor Kohlrausch was a German educator and historian. He was the father of surgeon Otto Kohlrausch, he was born in Landolfshausen. He was a student at the University of Göttingen continuing his education at the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg, he was a teacher in Barmen, Düsseldorf and Münster. In 1830 he was appointed Generalschuldirektor by the Royal Hanoverian government. In this role he introduced several administrative reforms and standards to the curriculum, he stressed the importance of subjects such as natural sciences and gymnastics. Kohlrausch published several textbooks, including the 1816 Die deutsche Geschichte für Schule und Haus, a work, published over fifteen editions. Other writings associated with Kohlrausch include: Die Geschichte und Lehre der Heiligen Schrift. Chronologischer Abriss der Weltgeschichte. Kurze Darstellung der deutschen Geschichte. Historische Tabellenwerke Gilman, D. C.. "Kohlrausch, Heinrich Friedrich Theodor". New International Encyclopedia.
New York: Dodd, Mead. Parts of this article are based on a translation of an equivalent article at the German Wikipedia
Rudolf Hermann Arndt Kohlrausch was a German physicist. He was a native of Göttingen, the son of the Royal Hanovarian director general of schools Friedrich Kohlrausch, he was a high-school teacher of mathematics and physics successively at Lüneburg, Rinteln and Marburg. In 1853 he became an associate professor at the University of Marburg, four years a full professor of physics at the University of Erlangen. In 1854 Kohlrausch introduced the relaxation phenomena, used the stretched exponential function to explain relaxation effects of a discharging Leyden jar. In 1856, with Wilhelm Weber, he demonstrated that the ratio of electrostatic to electromagnetic units produced a number that matched the value of the known speed of light; this finding was instrumental towards Maxwell's conjecture. The first usage of the letter "c" to denote the speed of light was published in an 1856 paper by Kohlrausch and Weber, he was the father of physicist Friedrich Kohlrausch. Elektrodynamische Maaßbestimmungen: insbesondere Zurückführung der Stromintensitäts-Messungen auf mechanisches Maass 1857.
"The evolution of applied harmonic analysis" by Elena Prestini PhysicsWorld "Blast from the Past" Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Kohlrausch, Rudolf Hermann Arndt". Encyclopedia Americana. "Kohlrausch, Rudolf Hermann Arndt". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Friedrich Kohlrausch (physicist)
Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Kohlrausch was a German physicist who investigated the conductive properties of electrolytes and contributed to knowledge of their behaviour. He investigated elasticity and thermal conduction as well as magnetic and electrical precision measurements. Nowadays, Friedrich Kohlrausch is classed as one of the most important experimental physicists, his early work helped to extend the absolute system of Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber to include electrical and magnetic measuring units. Son of Rudolf Kohlrausch, Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Kohlrausch was born on October 14, 1840, in Rinteln, Germany. After studying physics at Erlangen and Göttingen, Friedrich Kohlrausch completed his doctorate in Göttingen. After a two-year work as a lecturer in Frankfurt, Kohlrausch was appointed a professor of physics at the University of Göttingen. During 1870 Kohlrausch became a professor at ETH Zurich in Switzerland. One year he moved to the Darmstadt University of Technology in Germany.
In 1875, he responded to an offer from the University of Würzburg in southern Germany, where he subsequently conducted his experiments in quantity determination and the conductivity of electrolytes. From 1888 he taught at Strasbourg University, he refused a professorship at the Humboldt University in Berlin in 1894, but from 1900 he was a professor there. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences during 1902. Kohlrausch was an important researcher of electrochemistry for many reasons. First, the experiments from which he deduced his law of independent migration of ions became canonical and disseminated from Kohlrausch's laboratories in Göttingen and Darmstadt. Moreover, because Kohlrausch continued to test and confirm the Ionist theory after it had been first proposed, his work tied "measuring physics" and its consequent capability of producing plenty of empirical data to the results and methods of the Ionists and their devotees. In 1874 he demonstrated that an electrolyte has a definite and constant amount of electrical resistance.
By observing the dependence of conductivity upon dilution, he could determine the transfer velocities of the ions in solution. He used alternating current to prevent the deposition of electrolysis products. From 1875 to 1879, he examined numerous salt solutions and solutions of other materials, his efforts resulted in the law of the independent migration of ions, that is, each type of migrating ion has a specific electrical resistance no matter what its original molecular combination may have been, therefore that a solution's electrical resistance was due only to the migrating ions of a given substances. Kohlrausch showed for weak electrolytes that the more dilute a solution, the greater its molar conductivity due to increased ionic dissociation. During 1895 he succeeded Hermann von Helmholtz as President of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, an office which he held until 1905. Here, as in the past, his activities were focused on experimental and instrumental physics: he constructed instruments and devised new measuring techniques to examine electrolytic conduction in solutions.
He concluded the setup of the PTR, a task which had not yet been completed on the death of its first president. He introduced fixed work schedules and working hours for the Institute. Under direction of Kohlrausch, the PTR created numerous standards and calibration standards which were used internationally outside Germany. Kohlrausch was intent on creating optimum working conditions in the laboratories and to shield the labs from unwanted external influences. For six years, for instance, he fought against a streetcar line, due to be laid near the PTR. However, before the streetcar was to make its first journey, the institute succeeded in developing an astatic torsion magnetometer, uninfluenced by disturbing electromagnetic fields; the use of this instrument and the shielded wire galvanometer developed by du Bois and Rubens meant that precision electrical and magnetic work continued to be possible. Over the years, Kohlrausch added experiments which met the needs of physical chemistry and electrical technology in particular.
He improved precision measuring instruments and developed numerous measuring methods in all of the fields of physics known during his lifetime, including a reflectivity meter, a tangent galvanometer, various types of magnetometers and dynamometers. The Kohlrausch bridge, which he invented at that time for the purpose of measuring conductivity, is still well known today. Like Helmholtz and Siemens, Kohlrausch saw the possibilities inherent in applied and basic research in the natural sciences and technology, he lay the foundations for scientific knowledge which advanced industry and technology. The PTR developed standardized precision instruments for university research institutes and industrial laboratories, it introduced uniform electrical units for Germany and played a significant role in their international usage. In the period to 1905, there were many examples of the importance of the PTR for German industry, in particular for the high technologies of the time – the electrical and mechanical industries.
Overall, Kohlrausch was involved in the measurement of electrical and electrochemical phenomena for 50 years. In 1905 Kohlrausch retired from his post as President of the PTR. Friedrich Kohlrausch died in Marburg on 17 Janua
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions