Ohio School for the Deaf
Ohio School for the Deaf is a school located in Columbus, Ohio. It is run by the Ohio Department of Education for hard-of-hearing students across Ohio, it was established on October 16, 1829, making it the fifth oldest residential school in the country. OSD is the only publicly funded residential school for the deaf in Ohio; the mission of the Ohio School for the Deaf, an educational facility and resource center on deafness, is: to provide comprehensive education for Ohio's Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing students which encourages independence and lifelong learning to promote social development and cultural awareness to prepare students to attain their potential and become contributing members of their communities to collaborate with schools and other educational programs serving Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing students and their families to meet the individual needs of each student all via a barrier-free communication environment using American Sign Language and English. Kohs block design test Ohio State School for the Blind "History of OSD".
Ohio School for the Deaf. Retrieved 2018-10-19. "Ohio School for the Deaf Alumni Association". Retrieved 2018-10-19."Deaf School Park Historical Marker". The Historical Marker Database. 2016-06-16. Retrieved 2018-10-19
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear. The academic field concerned with hearing is auditory science. Sound may be heard through liquid, or gaseous matter, it is one of the traditional five senses. In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is performed by the auditory system: mechanical waves, known as vibrations are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain. Like touch, audition requires sensitivity to the movement of molecules in the world outside the organism. Both hearing and touch are types of mechanosensation. There are three main components of the human ear: the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear; the outer ear includes the pinna, the visible part of the ear, as well as the ear canal which terminates at the eardrum called the tympanic membrane. The pinna serves to focus sound waves through the ear canal toward the eardrum.
Because of the asymmetrical character of the outer ear of most mammals, sound is filtered differently on its way into the ear depending on what vertical location it is coming from. This gives these animals the ability to localize sound vertically; the eardrum is an airtight membrane, when sound waves arrive there, they cause it to vibrate following the waveform of the sound. The middle ear consists of a small air-filled chamber, located medial to the eardrum. Within this chamber are the three smallest bones in the body, known collectively as the ossicles which include the malleus and stapes, they aid in the transmission of the vibrations from the eardrum into the cochlea. The purpose of the middle ear ossicles is to overcome the impedance mismatch between air waves and cochlear waves, by providing impedance matching. Located in the middle ear are the stapedius muscle and tensor tympani muscle, which protect the hearing mechanism through a stiffening reflex; the stapes transmits sound waves to the inner ear through the oval window, a flexible membrane separating the air-filled middle ear from the fluid-filled inner ear.
The round window, another flexible membrane, allows for the smooth displacement of the inner ear fluid caused by the entering sound waves. The inner ear consists of the cochlea, a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled tube, it is divided lengthwise by the organ of Corti, the main organ of mechanical to neural transduction. Inside the organ of Corti is the basilar membrane, a structure that vibrates when waves from the middle ear propagate through the cochlear fluid – endolymph; the basilar membrane is tonotopic, so that each frequency has a characteristic place of resonance along it. Characteristic frequencies are high at the basal entrance to the cochlea, low at the apex. Basilar membrane motion causes depolarization of the hair cells, specialized auditory receptors located within the organ of Corti. While the hair cells do not produce action potentials themselves, they release neurotransmitter at synapses with the fibers of the auditory nerve, which does produce action potentials. In this way, the patterns of oscillations on the basilar membrane are converted to spatiotemporal patterns of firings which transmit information about the sound to the brainstem.
The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the signals are projected to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain tectum; the inferior colliculus integrates auditory input with limited input from other parts of the brain and is involved in subconscious reflexes such as the auditory startle response. The inferior colliculus in turn projects to the medial geniculate nucleus, a part of the thalamus where sound information is relayed to the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Sound is believed to first become consciously experienced at the primary auditory cortex. Around the primary auditory cortex lies Wernickes area, a cortical area involved in interpreting sounds, necessary to understand spoken words. Disturbances at any of these levels can cause hearing problems if the disturbance is bilateral. In some instances it can lead to auditory hallucinations or more complex difficulties in perceiving sound. Hearing can be measured by behavioral tests using an audiometer.
Electrophysiological tests of hearing can provide accurate measurements of hearing thresholds in unconscious subjects. Such tests include auditory brainstem evoked potentials, otoacoustic emissions and electrocochleography. Technical advances in these tests have allowed hearing screening for infants to become widespread; the hearing structures of many species have defense mechanisms against injury. For example, the muscles of the middle ear in many mammals contract reflexively in reaction to loud sounds which may otherwise injure the hearing ability of the organism. There are several different types of hearing loss: Conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss and mixed types. Conductive hearing loss Sensorineural hearing loss Mixed hearing lossThere are defined degrees of hearing loss: Mild hearing loss - People with mild hearing loss have difficulties keeping up with conversations in noisy surroundings; the most quiet sounds that people with mild hearing loss can hear with their better ear are between 25 and 40 dB HL.
Moderate hearing loss - People with moderate hearing loss have difficulty keeping up with conversations when they are not using a hearing aid. On average, the most quiet sounds heard by
An intelligence quotient is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book. IQ is a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months; the resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score. When current IQ tests were developed, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so historically. By this definition two-thirds of the population scores are between IQ 85 and IQ 115. About 2.5 percent of the population scores above 130, 2.5 percent below 70. Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence.
Unlike, for example and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of "intelligence". IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance. IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, evaluating job applicants; when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory and speed. In research contexts they have been studied as predictors of job performance, income, they are used to study distributions of psychometric intelligence in populations and the correlations between it and other variables. Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect.
Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can inform current research on human intelligence. Before IQ tests were devised, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life; those other forms of behavioral observation are still important for validating classifications based on IQ test scores. Both intelligence classification by observation of behavior outside the testing room and classification by IQ testing depend on the definition of "intelligence" used in a particular case and on the reliability and error of estimation in the classification procedure; the English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a person's intelligence. A pioneer of psychometrics and the application of statistical methods to the study of human diversity and the study of inheritance of human traits, he believed that intelligence was a product of heredity, he hypothesized that there should exist a correlation between intelligence and other observable traits such as reflexes, muscle grip, head size.
He set up the first mental testing centre in the world in 1882 and he published "Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development" in 1883, in which he set out his theories. After gathering data on a variety of physical variables, he was unable to show any such correlation, he abandoned this research. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities, it was intended to identify mental retardation in school children, but in specific contradistinction to claims made by psychiatrists that these children were "sick" and should therefore be removed from school and cared for in asylums. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. For example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks passed by six-year-olds—but nothing beyond—would have a mental age that matched his chronological age, 6.0.. Binet came under the control of practical judgment.
In Binet's view, there were limitations with the scale and he stressed what he saw as the remarkable diversity of intelligence and the subsequent need to study it using qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, measures. American psychologist Henry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910. American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon scale, which resulted in the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, it became the most popular test in the United States for decades. The many different kinds of IQ tests include a wide variety of item content; some test items are visual. Test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge; the British psychologist Charles Spearman in 1904 made the first formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests. He observed that children's school grades across unrelated school subjects were positively correlated, reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests.
He suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor and a large num
David Wechsler was a Romanian psychologist. He developed well-known intelligence scales, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Wechsler as the 51st most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Wechsler was born in a Jewish family in Lespezi and emigrated with his parents to the United States as a child, he studied at the City College of New York and Columbia University, where he earned his master's degree in 1917 and his Ph. D. in 1925 under the direction of Robert S. Woodworth. During World War I, he worked with the United States Army to develop psychological tests to screen new draftees while studying under Charles Spearman and Karl Pearson. After short stints at various locations, Wechsler became chief psychologist at Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital in 1932, where he stayed until 1967, he died on May 2, 1981. Wechsler is best known for his intelligence tests, he was one of the most influential advocates of the role of nonintellective factors in testing.
He emphasized. Wechsler objected to the single score offered by the 1937 Binet scale. Although his test did not directly measure nonintellective factors, it took these factors into careful account in its underlying theory; the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was developed first in 1939 and called the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. From these he derived the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children in 1949 and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in 1967. Wechsler created these tests to find out more about his patients at the Bellevue clinic and he found the then-current Binet IQ test unsatisfactory; the tests are still based on his philosophy that intelligence is "the global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, to deal with environment". The Wechsler scales introduced many novel concepts and breakthroughs to the intelligence testing movement. First, he did away with the quotient scores of older intelligence tests. Instead, he assigned an arbitrary value of 100 to the mean intelligence and added or subtracted another 15 points for each standard deviation above or below the mean the subject was.
While not rejecting the concept of general intelligence, he divided the concept of intelligence into two main areas: verbal and performance scales, each evaluated with different subtests. Frank, George; the Wechsler Enterprise: An Assessment of the Development and Use of the Wechsler Tests of Intelligence. Oxford: Pergamon. ISBN 978-0-08-027973-2. Kaplan, Robert M.. Psychological Testing: Principles and Issues. Belmont: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-495-09555-2. Kaufman, Alan S.. Intelligent Testing with the WISC-V. Wiley. New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-1118589236. Kaufman, Alan S.. IQ Testing 101. New York: Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8261-0629-2. Kaufman, Alan S.. Assessing Adolescent and Adult Intelligence. Hoboken: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-73553-3. Wechsler, David; the Measurement of Adult Intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Witkins. Wechsler, David; the Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Witkins
Lewis Madison Terman was an American psychologist and author. He was noted as a pioneer in educational psychology in the early 20th century at the Stanford Graduate School of Education, he is best known for his revision of the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales and for initiating the longitudinal study of children with high IQs called the Genetic Studies of Genius. He was a member of the Human Betterment Foundation, he served as president of the American Psychological Association. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Terman as the 72nd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, in a tie with G. Stanley Hall. Terman was born in Indianapolis, the son of Martha P. and James William Terman. He received a BS, BPd, BA from Central Normal College in 1894 and 1898, a BA and MA from the Indiana University Bloomington in 1903, he received his PhD from Clark University in 1905. He worked as a school principal in San Bernardino, California in 1905, as a professor at Los Angeles Normal School in 1907.
In 1910, he joined the faculty of Stanford University as a professor of educational psychology at the invitation of Ellwood Patterson Cubberley and remained associated with the university until his death. He served as chairman of the psychology department from 1922 to 1945, his son, Frederick Terman, is credited with being the father of Silicon Valley. Terman published the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale in 1916 and revisions were released in 1937 and 1960. Original work on the test had been completed by Théodore Simon of France. Terman promoted his test – the "Stanford-Binet" – as an aid for the classification of developmentally disabled children. Early on, Terman adopted William Stern's suggestion that mental age/chronological age times 100 be made the intelligence quotient or IQ. Revisions adopted the Wechsler cohort-norming of IQ. Revisions of the Stanford-Binet remain in widespread use as a measure of general intelligence for both adults and for children; the first mass administration of IQ testing was done with 1.7 million soldiers during World War I, when Terman served in a psychological testing role with the United States military.
Terman was able to work with other applied psychologists to categorize army recruits. The recruits were given group intelligence tests. Testing options included Army Alpha, a text-based test, Army Beta, a picture-based test for nonreaders. 25% could not complete the Alpha test. The examiners scored the tests on a scale ranging from "A" through "E". Recruits who earned scores of "A" would be trained as officers while those who earned scores of "D" and "E" would never receive officer training; the work of psychologists during the war proved to Americans that intelligence tests could have broader utility. After the war Terman and his colleagues pressed for intelligence tests to be used in schools to improve the efficiency of growing American schools. Terman followed J. McKeen Cattell's work which combined the ideas of Wilhelm Wundt and Francis Galton saying that those who are intellectually superior will have better "sensory acuity, strength of grip, sensitivity to pain, memory for dictated consonants".
At Clark University, Terman wrote his doctoral dissertation entitled Genius and stupidity: a study of some of the intellectual processes of seven "bright" and seven "stupid" boys. He administered Cattell's tests on boys who were considered intelligent versus boys who were considered unintelligent. Unlike Binet and Simon, whose goal was to identify less able school children in order to aid them with the needed care required, Terman proposed using IQ tests to classify children and put them on the appropriate job-track, he was the strongest predictor of one's ultimate success in life. Terman's study of genius and gifted children was a lifelong interest, his fascination with the intelligence of children began early in his career since he was familiar with Alfred Binet's research in this area. Through his studies on gifted children, Terman hoped first, to discover the best educational settings for gifted children and, second, to test and dispel the negative stereotypes that gifted children were "conceited, freakish eccentric, ".
The research had looked at genius adults had been retrospective, examining their early years for clues to the development of talent. With Binet's development of IQ tests, it became possible to identify gifted children and study them from their early childhood into adulthood. In his 1922 paper called A New Approach to the Study of Genius, Terman noted that this advancement in testing marked a change in research on geniuses and giftedness. Throughout his life Terman developed several methods for examining individuals with high ability, such as the longitudinal method and above-level testing; some of these procedures would be adopted by other social scientists studying different populations. Terman found his answers in his longitudinal study on gifted children: Genetic Studies of Genius. Initiated in 1921, the Genetic Studies of Genius was from the outset a long-term study of gifted children. Published in five volumes, Terman followed children with high IQ in childhood throughout their lives; the fifth volume examined the children in a 35-year follow-up, looked at the gifted group during mid-life.
Genetic Studies of Genius revealed that gifted and genius children were in at least as good as average health and had normal personalities. Few of them demonstrated the previously-held negative stereotypes of gifted children, he found that gifted children did not fi
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex. The cube is one of the five Platonic solids, it has 6 faces, 12 edges, 8 vertices. The cube is a square parallelepiped, an equilateral cuboid and a right rhombohedron, it is a regular square prism in three orientations, a trigonal trapezohedron in four orientations. The cube is dual to the octahedron, it has octahedral symmetry. The cube is the only convex polyhedron; the cube has four special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, edges and normal to its vertex figure. The first and third correspond to the B2 Coxeter planes; the cube can be represented as a spherical tiling, projected onto the plane via a stereographic projection. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. For a cube centered at the origin, with edges parallel to the axes and with an edge length of 2, the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are while the interior consists of all points with −1 < xi < 1 for all i.
In analytic geometry, a cube's surface with center and edge length of 2a is the locus of all points such that max = a. For a cube of edge length a: As the volume of a cube is the third power of its sides a × a × a, third powers are called cubes, by analogy with squares and second powers. A cube has the largest volume among cuboids with a given surface area. A cube has the largest volume among cuboids with the same total linear size. For a cube whose circumscribing sphere has radius R, for a given point in its 3-dimensional space with distances di from the cube's eight vertices, we have: ∑ i = 1 8 d i 4 8 + 16 R 4 9 = 2. Doubling the cube, or the Delian problem, was the problem posed by ancient Greek mathematicians of using only a compass and straightedge to start with the length of the edge of a given cube and to construct the length of the edge of a cube with twice the volume of the original cube, they were unable to solve this problem, in 1837 Pierre Wantzel proved it to be impossible because the cube root of 2 is not a constructible number.
The cube has three uniform colorings, named by the colors of the square faces around each vertex: 111, 112, 123. The cube has three classes of symmetry, which can be represented by vertex-transitive coloring the faces; the highest octahedral symmetry Oh has all the faces the same color. The dihedral symmetry D4h comes from the cube being a prism, with all four sides being the same color; the lowest symmetry D2h is a prismatic symmetry, with sides alternating colors, so there are three colors, paired by opposite sides. Each symmetry form has a different Wythoff symbol. A cube has eleven nets: that is, there are eleven ways to flatten a hollow cube by cutting seven edges. To color the cube so that no two adjacent faces have the same color, one would need at least three colors; the cube is the cell of the only regular tiling of three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is unique among the Platonic solids in having faces with an number of sides and it is the only member of that group, a zonohedron; the cube can be cut into six identical square pyramids.
If these square pyramids are attached to the faces of a second cube, a rhombic dodecahedron is obtained. The analogue of a cube in four-dimensional Euclidean space has a special name—a tesseract or hypercube. More properly, a hypercube is the analogue of the cube in n-dimensional Euclidean space and a tesseract is the order-4 hypercube. A hypercube is called a measure polytope. There are analogues of the cube in lower dimensions too: a point in dimension 0, a line segment in one dimension and a square in two dimensions; the quotient of the cube by the antipodal map yields the hemicube. If the original cube has edge length 1, its dual polyhedron has edge length 2 / 2; the cube is a special case in various classes of general polyhedra: The vertices of a cube can be grouped into two groups of four, each forming a regular tetrahedron. These two together form the stella octangula; the int