The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword
The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword is an action-adventure game for the Wii home console and published by Nintendo. The sixteenth mainline entry in The Legend of Zelda series, it was released worldwide in November 2011; the game was made available worldwide on the Wii U eShop in September 2016. Taking the role of series protagonist Link, players navigate the floating island of Skyloft and the land below it, completing quests that advance the story and solving environmental and dungeon-based puzzles. Gameplay mechanics and combat, the latter focusing on attacking and blocking with sword and shield, are reliant on the Wii MotionPlus expansion device. Skyward Sword is the first game in the Zelda continuity, detailing the origins of the Master Sword, a recurring weapon within the series. Link, resident of a floating town called Skyloft, heads on a quest to rescue his childhood friend Zelda after she is kidnapped and brought to the Surface, an abandoned land below the clouds. Armed with the Goddess Sword and aided by a spirit named Fi, Link must ensure Zelda's safety and stop Ghirahim as he attempts to resurrect his master, Demise.
Development lasted around five years, beginning after the release of Twilight Princess in 2006. Multiple earlier Zelda games influenced the developers, including Twilight Princess, Ocarina of Time and Majora's Mask. Many aspects of the game's overworld and gameplay were designed to streamline and populate the experience for players; the art style was influenced by the work of impressionist painters including Paul Cézanne. The implementation of Wii MotionPlus proved problematic for the developers, to the point where it was nearly discarded, it was the first Zelda game to use a live orchestra for the majority of its tracks, with music composed by a team led by Hajime Wakai and supervised by Koji Kondo. First revealed in 2009, it was planned for release in 2010 before being delayed to 2011 to further refine and expand it; the game was a critical and commercial success, receiving perfect scores from multiple journalistic sites and receiving nominations for numerous industry and journalist awards, selling over three million copies worldwide.
Despite the accolades it received, points of widespread criticism directed toward certain aspects of the game's design proved to be a key influence in the development of the next entry for home consoles, Breath of the Wild. The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword is an action-adventure video game in which players take on the role of series protagonist Link through a series of monster-populated overworlds and navigating dungeons featuring puzzles and bosses. Link is controlled using the Wii Remote and Nunchuk, the Wii MotionPlus expansion device is required to play; the greater majority of gameplay mechanics revolve around use of motion controls: these include camera control with the Nunchuk and general hotkey actions and movement linked to the Wii Remote. Jumping across gaps and scaling ledges happen automatically within context; the Nunchuk is used to make Link perform a forward roll. Link can sprint for short distances, but sprinting and other actions such as climbing and carrying heavy objects is limited by a stamina meter, which recharges after a few seconds when not performing actions that drain it.
When depleted Link's movement speed is reduced and he is left vulnerable until the meter refills. Standard navigation takes place from a third-person perspective, while the Dowsing search function switches to a first-person view: Dowsing scans an area for a selected object, with new Dowsing objectives appearing depending on game context. Fighting enemies, which appear in both the overworld and dungeons, relies on Link's use of his sword and shield. Link's sword movements are mapped to the direction the Wii Remote is flicked by the player, other moves include a forward thrust and a stab. Enemy movements are designed to block Link's combat movements. By raising the Wii Remote, the sword gathers energy. Skyward Strikes are used to trigger environmental elements such as magical switches; the shield is controlled with the Nunchuck: when the shield is raised, it can be used to reflect attacks. Spin attacks and Finishing Blows are activated by swinging both Nunchuck. Link's health is represented with Hearts, with Link taking damage whenever he is hit: if he loses all Hearts, the game ends.
The game surrounding airborne islands. Side quests for the town's citizens are unlocked; the different areas of the Surface are accessed through portals in the clouds. Side quests for characters of the Surface are available, are sometimes mandatory for completing the main quest. Skyloft is navigated with a bird called a Loftwing. Beacons can be set on the map for Link to follow, save points in the form of statues preserve Link's progress up to that point. During his quest, Link is aided by the sword spirit Fi, able to give hints to the player for both environmental elements and enemies: for example, when an enemy is targeted and Fi is summoned, she will give the enemy's characteristics and weaknesses. Traditional series items such as Bombs and the Bow and Arrow appear, along with new additions such as a mechanical Beetle that flies to areas beyond Link's reach and a whip for grabbing otherwise-unreachable objects and activating levers. Link's shield takes damage when blocking attacks fail, may break.
Items and equipment can be upgraded, making them more durable. In addition to consuming resources, Link must pay for the upgrade with Rupees, the game's currency, scattered thro
Super Nintendo Entertainment System
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System known as the Super NES or Super Nintendo, is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo, released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Australasia, 1993 in South America. In Japan, the system is called the Super Famicom. In South Korea, it was distributed by Hyundai Electronics; the system was released in Brazil on August 1993, by Playtronic. Although each version is the same, several forms of regional lockout prevent the different versions from being compatible with one another; the SNES is Nintendo's second programmable home console, following the Nintendo Entertainment System. The console introduced advanced graphics and sound capabilities compared with other systems at the time; the development of a variety of enhancement chips integrated in game cartridges helped to keep it competitive in the marketplace. The SNES was a global success, becoming the best-selling console of the 16-bit era despite its late start and the intense competition it faced in North America and Europe from Sega's Genesis console.
The SNES remained popular well into the 32-bit era having sold 49.1 million worldwide by the time it was discontinued in 2003.. It continues to be popular among collectors and retro gamers, some of whom still make homebrew ROM images, in addition to its popularity in Nintendo's emulated rereleases, such as on the Virtual Console and the Super NES Classic Edition. To compete with the popular Family Computer in Japan, NEC Home Electronics launched the PC Engine in 1987, Sega followed suit with the Mega Drive in 1988; the two platforms were launched in North America in 1989 as the TurboGrafx-16 and the Sega Genesis, respectively. Both systems were built on 16-bit architectures and offered improved graphics and sound over the 8-bit NES. However, it took several years for Sega's system to become successful. Nintendo executives were in no rush to design a new system, but they reconsidered when they began to see their dominance in the market slipping. Designed by Masayuki Uemura, the designer of the original Famicom, the Super Famicom was released in Japan on Wednesday, November 21, 1990 for 25,000 yen.
It was an instant success. The system's release gained the attention of the Yakuza, leading to a decision to ship the devices at night to avoid robbery. With the Super Famicom outselling its rivals, Nintendo reasserted itself as the leader of the Japanese console market. Nintendo's success was due to the retention of most of its key third-party developers, including Capcom, Tecmo, Square and Enix. Nintendo released the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, a redesigned version of the Super Famicom, in North America for $199, it began shipping in limited quantities on August 23, 1991, with an official nationwide release date of September 9, 1991. The SNES was released in the United Kingdom and Ireland in April 1992 for £150, with a German release following a few weeks later. Most of the PAL region versions of the console use the Japanese Super Famicom design, except for labeling and the length of the joypad leads; the Playtronic Super NES in Brazil, although PAL-M, uses the North American design.
Both the NES and SNES were released in Brazil in 1993 by Playtronic, a joint venture between the toy company Estrela and consumer electronics company Gradiente. The SNES and Super Famicom launched with few games, but these games were well received in the marketplace. In Japan, only two games were available: Super Mario World and F-Zero. In North America, Super Mario World launched as a bundle with the console; the rivalry between Nintendo and Sega resulted in what has been described as one of the most notable console wars in video game history, in which Sega positioned the Genesis as the "cool" console, with games aimed at older audiences, advertisements that attacked the competition. Nintendo however, scored an early public relations advantage by securing the first console conversion of Capcom's arcade classic Street Fighter II for SNES, which took over a year to make the transition to the Genesis. Despite the Genesis's head start, much larger library of games, lower price point, the Genesis only represented an estimated 60% of the American 16-bit console market in June 1992, neither console could maintain a definitive lead for several years.
Donkey Kong Country is said to have helped establish the SNES's market prominence in the latter years of the 16-bit generation, for a time, maintain against the PlayStation and Saturn. According to Nintendo, the company had sold more than 20 million SNES units in the U. S. According to a 2014 Wedbush Securities report based on NPD sales data, the SNES outsold the Genesis in the U. S. market. During the NES era, Nintendo maintained exclusive control over games released for the system—the company had to approve every game, each third-party developer could only release up to five games per year, those games could not be released on another console within two years, Nintendo was the exclusive manufacturer and supplier of NES cartridges
A liquid-crystal display is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly, instead using a backlight or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images or fixed images with low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words and seven-segment displays, as in a digital clock, they use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels, while other displays have larger elements. LCDs can either be on or off, depending on the polarizer arrangement. For example, a character positive LCD with a backlight will have black lettering on a background, the color of the backlight, a character negative LCD will have a black background with the letters being of the same color as the backlight. Optical filters are added to white on blue LCDs to give them their characteristic appearance.
LCDs are used in a wide range of applications, including LCD televisions, computer monitors, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, indoor and outdoor signage. Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches and mobile telephones, including smartphones. LCD screens are used on consumer electronics products such as DVD players, video game devices and clocks. LCD screens have replaced bulky cathode ray tube displays in nearly all applications. LCD screens are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, with LCD screens available in sizes ranging from tiny digital watches to large television receivers. LCDs are being replaced by OLEDs, which can be made into different shapes, have a lower response time, wider color gamut infinite color contrast and viewing angles, lower weight for a given display size and a slimmer profile and lower power consumption. OLEDs, are more expensive for a given display size due to the expensive electroluminescent materials or phosphors that they use.
Due to the use of phosphors, OLEDs suffer from screen burn-in and there is no way to recycle OLED displays, whereas LCD panels can be recycled, although the technology required to recycle LCDs is not yet widespread. Attempts to increase the lifespan of LCDs are quantum dot displays, which offer similar performance as an OLED display, but the Quantum dot sheet that gives these displays their characteristics can not yet be recycled. Since LCD screens do not use phosphors, they suffer image burn-in when a static image is displayed on a screen for a long time, e.g. the table frame for an airline flight schedule on an indoor sign. LCDs are, susceptible to image persistence; the LCD screen can be disposed of more safely than a CRT can. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment more efficiently than CRTs can be. By 2008, annual sales of televisions with LCD screens exceeded sales of CRT units worldwide, the CRT became obsolete for most purposes.
Each pixel of an LCD consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, two polarizing filters, the axes of transmission of which are perpendicular to each other. Without the liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second polarizer. Before an electric field is applied, the orientation of the liquid-crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic device, the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist; this induces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, the device appears gray. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer; this light will be polarized perpendicular to the second filter, thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black.
By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray. Color LCD systems use the same technique, with color filters used to generate red and blue pixels; the optical effect of a TN device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. Because of this, TN displays with low information content and no backlighting are operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage; as most of 2010-era LCDs are used in television sets and smartphones, they have high-resolution matrix arrays of pixels to display arbitrary images using backlighting with a dark background. When no image is displayed, different arrangements are used. For this purpose, TN LCDs are operated between parallel polarizers, whereas IPS LCDs feature crossed polarizers. In many applications IPS LCDs have replaced TN LCDs, in particular in smartphones su
Super Mario Galaxy
Super Mario Galaxy is a 2007 platform game for the Wii, the third 3D game in Nintendo's Super Mario series. As Mario or Luigi, the player embarks on a quest to rescue Princess Peach, save the universe from Bowser, collect 121 Power Stars; the levels in the game consist of galaxies filled with minor planets and worlds, with different variations of gravity, the central element of gameplay. The player controls the player character using the Wii Remote and Nunchuk, completes missions, fights bosses, reaches certain areas to collect Power Stars. Certain levels use the motion-based Wii Remote functions. Nintendo EAD Tokyo began developing Super Mario Galaxy after the release of Donkey Kong Jungle Beat in late 2004, when Shigeru Miyamoto suggested that Nintendo should commission a large-scale Mario game; the concept for the use of spherical platforms originated from ideas used in Super Mario 128, a technology demonstration shown at Nintendo Space World in 2000. Nintendo aimed to make the game appeal to players of all ages, the team had more freedom in designing it compared to other Super Mario games because of the outer space setting.
The soundtrack was composed by Mahito Yokota and Koji Kondo, using a symphony orchestra for the first time in the series. Super Mario Galaxy was a critical and commercial success, hailed as one of the greatest video games of all time. Super Mario Galaxy is the highest-rated game of all time on review-aggregating site GameRankings. Critics praised the game's graphics, gravity mechanics and setting, it won several awards from gaming publications, including multiple "Game of the Year" titles, became the first Nintendo title to win the British Academy Games Award for Best Game. The game is the ninth bestselling Wii game worldwide with sales of 12.78 million, as well as the second bestselling 3D entry in the Super Mario series. The game was rereleased as a Nintendo Selects title in 2011, as a download via the Wii U's eShop in 2015, on the Nvidia Shield in China in 2018. A sequel, Super Mario Galaxy 2, was released for the Wii in 2010. Super Mario Galaxy is set in outer space, where Mario travels through different galaxies to collect Power Stars, earned by completing missions, defeating a boss, or reaching a particular area.
Each galaxy contains planetoids and orbiting structures for the player to explore. Each astronomical object has its own gravitational force, allowing the player to circumnavigate the planetoids, walking sideways or upside down; the player can jump from one independent object and fall towards another one nearby. Although the main gameplay is in 3D, there are several areas in the game in which the player's movements are restricted to a 2-dimensional plane; the game's main hub is the Comet Observatory, a spaceship which contains six domes that provide access to most of the game's 42 available galaxies, with each dome except one holding five. Five domes end with a boss level in which the objective is to defeat Bowser or Bowser Jr. and earn a special Power Star, known as a Grand Star, that gives the player access to the next dome. The player only has access to one galaxy; the player is awarded the ability to play as Luigi after collecting 120 Power Stars as Mario. Once 120 Power Stars are collected with both characters, the player is rewarded one further challenge which, upon completion, awards the player with two commemorative pictures that can be sent to the Wii Message Board.
The player-character is controlled via Nunchuk. While most of Mario's abilities are taken directly from Super Mario 64, such as the long jump, wall jumps, a variety of somersaults, a new feature called the Star Pointer that uses the Wii Remote's motion sensor is included, it is a cursor. The Star Pointer is used to pick up special konpeito-shaped objects called "Star Bits", which can be shot to stun enemies, manipulate obstacles, or feed Hungry Lumas; the pointer can latch onto small blue objects called "Pull Stars", which can pull Mario through space. In certain levels that encase the player in a floating bubble, the Star Pointer is used to blow wind and maneuver the bubble. Early in the game, the player learns a new ability known as the "Spin" technique, which has appeared in varying forms throughout the Super Mario franchise. In Super Mario Galaxy, the “spin” is used for melee attacks to stun enemies and shatter objects, as well as triggering special propellers called "Sling Stars" or "Launch Stars" that launch Mario across large distances through space.
The "spin" utility is used for climbing vines, ice skating, unscrewing bolts, for activating several power-ups. Other Wii Remote functions are available for smaller quests, such as surfing aboard a manta ray or balancing atop a large ball and rolling it through an obstacle course. Nine power-ups grant Mario temporary abilities. For example, special mushrooms bestow the player with Boo, or Spring Suit; the Bee Suit allows Mario to hover through the air, climb special walls, walk on clouds and flowers. The Fire Flower allows Mario to throw fireballs at enemies, the Ice Flower allows Mario to create hexagonal ice tiles to cover any liquid surface he walks on; the Rainbow Star lets him run faster. Mario's health consists of a three-piece health meter, depleted through contact with enemies and hazards; when swimming underwater, Mario has an air supply meter, which quick
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh