Kazuyoshi Hoshino is a Japanese former racing driver and businessman. Hoshino's nickname was "the fastest man/guy in Japan", he won the Japanese motocross national championships in the 90cc and 125cc classes for Kawasaki in 1968 before switching to cars as a Nissan factory driver in 1969. Hoshino participated in two Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 24 October 1976 at the Japanese Grand Prix. Driving a Tyrrell-Ford for Heros Racing, he ran as high as fourth, but retired having used up his tyre supply, he once again entered the Japanese Grand Prix driving for Heros Racing. He finished in eleventh place driving a year-old Kojima-Ford, he scored no championship points in his Formula 1 career. His only major world championship win was in the 1985 World Sportscar Championship round at the Fuji 1000 race, boycotted by many competing teams due to torrential rain. Hoshino won the Japanese Formula 2000 championship in 1975 and 1977, before winning the Japanese Formula Two championship in 1978, he competed in the Japanese Formula 3000 championship, winning that title in 1987, 1990 and 1993.
Hoshino dominated the Fuji Grand Champion Series in the 1970s and 1980s. He won five titles in 1978, 1982, 1985 and 1987, collecting 28 wins and 42 podiums. Like his compatriot, Masahiro Hasemi, he continued his career racing for Nissan, driving a Skyline GT-R to win the Japanese Touring Car Championship in 1990. Hoshino drove a Nissan R90C with Toshio Suzuki to win the 1990 Suzuka 1000 race. Hoshino and Suzuki won the All Japan Sports Prototype Championship in 1991 and 1992. Along with Nissan Motorsports teammates Aguri Suzuki and Masahiko Kageyama, Hoshino drove a Nissan R390 GT1 to a third-place finish at the 1998 24 Hours of Le Mans. Hoshino retired from racing in 2002 and now continues to run his own Super GT team and his own Nissan specialised aftermarket parts company, Impul. Since 2003, his racing team has won the Formula Nippon championship seven times in eight years, his son, Kazuki Hoshino, competes in Super GT. This section is a stub. You can help by expanding it. Kazuyoshi Hoshino profile at the Japan Automobile Federation Calsonic Sponsor's site Impul Own aftermarket company and team site Calsonic racing team Nismo.com: Hoshino History 1969-2002 - charting the motorsport career of Hoshino Kazuyoshi Hoshino career summary at DriverDB.com
Dunlop Rubber was a multinational company involved in the manufacture of various rubber goods. Its business was founded in 1889 by Harvey du Cros and he involved John Boyd Dunlop who had invented and developed the first pneumatic tyre, it was one of the first multinationals, under du Cros and, after him, under Eric Geddes grew to be one of the largest British industrial companies. J B Dunlop had dropped any ties to it; the business and manufactory was founded in Upper Stephens Street in Dublin. A plaque marks the site, now part of the head office of the Irish multinational departments store brand, Dunnes Stores. Dunlop Rubber failed to adapt to evolving market conditions in the 1970s despite having recognised by the mid 1960s the potential drop in demand as the new much more durable tyres swept throughout the market. After taking on excessive debt Dunlop was acquired by the industrial conglomerate BTR in 1985. Since ownership of the Dunlop trade-names has been fragmented. In 1888, John Boyd Dunlop, a Scottish veterinary surgeon living in Ireland discovered the pneumatic tyre principle.
Willie Hume created publicity for J B Dunlop's discovery by winning seven out of eight races with his pneumatic tyres. To own the rights and exploit the discovery, the Pneumatic Tyre and Booth's Cycle Agency Co. Ltd was incorporated in 1889 and floated by Harvey du Cros who was, amongst other things, president of the Irish Cyclists' Association; the invitation to du Cros to participate was made by a Dublin cycle agent. J B Dunlop who could see no prosperous future in his discovery, had informally made over his rights to Bowden. J B Dunlop held a 20 percent stake in the venture; the company and manufactory was first founded in Stephens Street in Dublin. The late 1880s was a period of great demand for John Kemp Starley's new safety bicycles. Pneumatic Tyre began cycle tyre production in Belfast in late 1890, expanded to fill consumer demand. However, in 1890, J B Dunlop's patent was withdrawn, it had been discovered that Robert William Thomson had first patented the pneumatic tyre in 1845. J B Dunlop and Harvey du Cros together worked through the ensuing considerable difficulties.
They employed inventor Charles Kingston Welch and acquired other rights and patents which allowed them to protect their business's position to some extent. In the early 1890s, Pneumatic Tyre established divisions in Europe and North America sending there four of du Cros's six sons. Factories were established overseas because foreign patents rights would only be maintained if the company was engaged in active manufacture where its tyres were sold. Pneumatic Tyre partnered with local cycle firms such as Clement Cycles in France and Adler in Germany in order to limit the necessary capital expenditure. An American business was established in the USA in 1893 with a factory in Buffalo, New York after Harvey du Cros junior was old enough to sign the necessary deeds. In 1893 home manufacture was relocated from Belfast and Dublin to Coventry, the centre of the British cycle industry; the Dublin Corporation had launched a case against Pneumatic Tyre claiming nuisance from the smell of rubber and naphtha.
Pneumatic Tyre soon spread developing interests in Birmingham. The following year a major interest was taken in their component supplier Byrne Bros India Rubber of Lichfield Road, Aston Birmingham; the same year du Cros started Cycle Components Manufacturing in Selly Oak to supply inner tubes. J B Dunlop resigned in 1895, sold most of his interest in Pneumatic Tyre. In 1896 Harvey Du Cros persuaded his board to sell Pneumatic Tyre to financier Ernest Terah Hooley for £3 million. Hooley drummed up support by offering financial journalists cheap shares and appointing aristocrats to the board, sold the business again this time as the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company for £5 million providing a gross profit to Hooley's syndicate including du Cros of £1.7 million. Associate and supplier, Byrne Bros India Rubber, at their Manor Rubber Mills, Aston Cross, had moved from making tyre and tube components to complete inner tubes and covers. In June 1896 du Cros formed Rubber Tyre Manufacturing, to acquire Byrne Bros..
E J Byrne was contracted to be managing director for five years. From the late 1890s, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre began to acquire its own rubber mills, began to process rubber, whereas it had assembled tyres using components from other manufacturers. In 1901 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre used its majority holding to rename Rubber Tyre Manufacturing – Dunlop Rubber. Arthur Du Cros replaced E J Byrne. From 1900, Dunlop began to diversify from cycle tyres; the company manufactured its first motor car tyre in 1900. In 1906, a car wheel manufacturing plant was built. In 1910 Dunlop developed its first aeroplane golf ball. Between 1904 and 1909, the French Dunlop subsidiary lost a total of £200,000, as European rivals such as Michelin of France and Continental of Germany overtook it in the motor tyre market. In 1909, Dunlop of France, in 1910, Dunlop of Germany were wholly acquired by the British parent in order to enforce stronger quality control. In August 1912 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre went out of business though retaining certain financial commitments.
It passed its activities to Dunlop Rubber in exchange for shares. It changed its name to The Parent Tyre Company Limited. Dunlop Rubber purchased certain of its assets including goodwill and trading rights and in exchange the tyre company shareholders now owned three-quarters of Dunlop Rubber; the amalgamation was intended to bring about a substantial reduction in overhead and clarify what had been seen as a confusing relationship between the two enterprises when they shared most shareholders. Arthur du Cros was made managin
Motocross is a form of off-road motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits. The sport evolved from motorcycle trials competitions held in the United Kingdom. Motocross first evolved in the U. K. from motorcycle trials competitions, such as the Auto-Cycle Clubs's first quarterly trial in 1909 and the Scottish Six Days Trial that began in 1912. When organisers dispensed with delicate balancing and strict scoring of trials in favour of a race to become the fastest rider to the finish, the activity became known as "hare scrambles", said to have originated in the phrase, "a rare old scramble" describing one such early race. Though known as scrambles racing in the United Kingdom, the sport grew in popularity and the competitions became known internationally as "motocross racing", by combining the French word for motorcycle, motocyclette, or moto for short, into a portmanteau with "cross country"; the first known scramble race took place at Camberley, Surrey in 1924. During the 1930s the sport grew in popularity in Britain where teams from the Birmingham Small Arms Company, Matchless, AJS competed in the events.
Off-road bikes from that era differed little from those used on the street. The intense competition over rugged terrain led to technical improvements in motorcycles. Rigid frames gave way to suspensions by the early 1930s, swinging fork rear suspension appeared by the early 1950s, several years before manufacturers incorporated it in the majority of production street bikes; the period after World War II was dominated by BSA, which had become the largest motorcycle company in the world. BSA riders dominated international competitions throughout the 1940s. In 1952 the FIM, motorcycling's international governing body, set up an individual European Championship using a 500 cc engine displacement formula. In 1957 it was upgraded to World Championship status. In 1962 a 250 cc world championship was established. In the smaller 250 cc category companies with two-stroke motorcycles came into their own. Companies such as Husqvarna from Sweden, CZ from the former Czechoslovakia and Greeves from England became popular due to their lightness and agility.
Stars of the day included BSA-works riders Jeff Smith and Arthur Lampkin, with Dave Bickers, Joe Johnson and Norman Brown on Greeves. By the 1960s, advances in two-stroke engine technology meant that the heavier, four-stroke machines were relegated to niche competitions. Riders from Belgium and Sweden began to dominate the sport during this period. Motocross arrived in the United States in 1966 when Swedish champion, Torsten Hallman rode an exhibition event against the top American TT riders at the Corriganville Movie Ranch known as Hopetown in Simi Valley, California; the following year Hallman was joined by other motocross stars including Roger DeCoster, Joël Robert, Dave Bickers. They dominated the event, placing their lightweight two-strokes into the top six finishing positions. Motocross began to grow in popularity in the United States during this period, which fueled an explosive growth in the sport. By the late 1960s Japanese motorcycle companies began challenging the European factories for supremacy in the motocross world.
Suzuki claimed the first world championship for a Japanese factory when Joël Robert won the 1970 250 cc crown. The first stadium motocross event took place in 1972 at the Los Angeles Coliseum. In 1975 a 125 cc world championship was introduced. European riders continued to dominate motocross throughout the 1970s but, by the 1980s, American riders had caught up and began winning international competitions. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Japanese motorcycle manufacturers presided over a boom period in motocross technology; the typical two-stroke air-cooled, twin-shock rear suspension machines gave way to machines that were water-cooled and fitted with single-shock absorber rear suspension. In the 1990s, America's leading motorcycle sport governing body, the AMA, increased the allowable displacement limit for four stroke powered machines in the AMA motocross championship, due to the low relative power output of a four stroke engine, compared to the then-dominating two stroke design. By 1994, the displacement limit of a four stroke power motocross bike was up to 550 cc in the 250 class, to incentivize manufactures to further develop the design for use in motocross.
By 2004 all the major manufacturers had begun competing with four-stroke machines. European firms experienced a resurgence with Husqvarna, KTM winning world championships with four-stroke machinery; the sport evolved with sub-disciplines such as stadium events known as supercross and arenacross held in indoor arenas. Classes were formed for all-terrain vehicles. Freestyle motocross events where riders are judged on their jumping and aerial acrobatic skills have gained popularity, as well as supermoto, where motocross machines race both on tarmac and off-road. Vintage motocross events take place - for motorcycles predating the 1975 model year. Many VMX races include a "Post Vintage" portion, which includes bikes dating until 1983; the FIM Grand Prix Motocross World Championship is predominantly held in Europe, but includes events in North America, South America, Asia and Africa. It is the major Motocross series worldwide. There are four classes: MXGP for 450cc machines, MX2 for 250cc machines, MX3 for 650cc machines and Women's MX.
Competitions consist of two races which are called motos with a duration of 30 minutes plus two laps. The AMA Motocross Championship continues until late August; the championship consists of twelve rounds at twelve major tracks all over the continental United States. There are three classes: the 250 Motocross Class for 0–125 cc 2-stroke or 150–250 cc 4-stroke machines, the 450 Mot
1976 Formula One season
The 1976 Formula One season was the 30th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1976 World Championship of Drivers and the 1976 International Cup for Formula 1 Manufacturers which were contested concurrently over a sixteen race series which commenced on 25 January and ended on 24 October; the season included two non-championship races for Formula One cars. In an extraordinarily political season the World Championship went to McLaren driver James Hunt by one point from Ferrari's defending champion Niki Lauda, although Ferrari took the International Cup for Formula 1 Manufacturers. Hunt had moved from the Hesketh team to McLaren, taking the place of dual World Champion Emerson Fittipaldi who had moved to drive for his brother Wilson's Fittipaldi Automotive team for the season; the controversy began in Spain where Hunt was disqualified from first place, giving the race to Lauda, only for the decision to be overturned on appeal months later. The six-wheeled Tyrrell P34 confounded the skeptics by winning in Sweden, with Lauda third and Hunt fifth.
Hunt won in France and, it seemed, in Britain, but the race had been restarted after a first lap pile-up and Hunt drove on an access road returning to the pits, against the rules. He was disqualified after an appeal from Ferrari. Lauda became the official race winner. Lauda had a massive crash in West Germany and appeared to die from his injuries. Hunt finished fourth to John Watson's Penske in Austria. Miraculously, Lauda returned to finish fourth in Italy, where Hunt, Jochen Mass, Watson were relegated to the back of the grid for infringements of the regulations. Hunt won in Canada and in the US but Lauda took third to lead Hunt by three points going into the final race in Japan. In appalling weather conditions Mario Andretti won, Lauda withdrew because of the hazardous conditions, Hunt finished third to take the title. Chris Amon, drove his last Grand Prix in Germany; the 1976 Wolf–Williams cars were Heskeths, Williams had left the team by September. After the departure of Matra at the end of 1972 no French constructor competed in Formula One for three seasons until the Ligier's arrival at the start of this season.
American constructor Shadow received a British licence, thus becoming the first constructor to change its nationality. The 2013 film Rush is based on this season, focusing on the rivalry and friendship between James Hunt and Niki Lauda; the following teams and drivers contested the 1976 World Championship of Drivers and the 1976 International Cup for Formula 1 Manufacturers. For the opening round of the season in Brazil at the 5-mile Interlagos circuit in São Paulo, James Hunt took pole position in his McLaren with reigning World Champion Niki Lauda alongside in his Ferrari. Clay Regazzoni in the second Ferrari took the lead at the start. Regazzoni, Lauda and Shadow's Jean-Pierre Jarier battled. Regazzoni and Jarier collided, the former had to pit for repairs. Lauda now led from Hunt and Jarier, but Hunt crashed out due to a sticking throttle, Jarier did the same a lap after driving on some oil in the track. Lauda thus started his title defence with victory, with Patrick Depailler second in the Tyrrell, Tom Pryce completing the podium in the other Shadow.
At the Kyalami circuit near Johannesburg, Hunt took pole position for the second time in two races, with Lauda alongside again. It was Lauda who led into the first corner, with Hunt dropping down to fourth behind McLaren teammate Jochen Mass and Vittorio Brambilla in his March. Hunt was waved through by Mass, passed Brambilla to take second after five laps. Lauda led from start to finish to win again, with Hunt second and Mass third for McLaren. Well after the South African race, the drivers assembled at Long Beach in the US for the third round. Regazzoni took pole position with Depailler second, forcing Lauda onto the second row; the top four maintained their positions at the start, immediately Regazzoni began to pull away. Hunt now tried to pass Depailler for second. Depailler kept third until a spin which dropped him well down the order, but he charged back up to fifth, was back in third after Pryce's Shadow, Jody Scheckter in the second Tyrrell retired after driveshaft and suspension failures respectively.
Regazzoni went on to take a dominant victory, with Lauda completing the Ferrari 1–2, Depailler third. As the European season began at the Jarama circuit near Madrid, there was a big talking point as the Tyrrell team entered a new P34 six-wheeler for Depailler. Depailler was behind Hunt and Lauda. Lauda once again led for the first third of the race. Depailler, after a slow start, was running fourth behind Mass when he spun off and crashed with brake problems. Just before mid-race, the McLarens of Hunt and Mass found another gear and drove past Lauda, but towards the end of the race, Mass had to retire with an engine failure. Hunt took his first win of the season, with Gunnar Nilsson's Lotus third. After the race, Hunt was disqualified. McLaren appealed, saying this was due to the expansion of the tyres during the race, two months after the race, Hunt was reinstated; the fifth round was at the Zolder circuit near the Dutch-Belgian border. Ferrari locked out the front row, with Lauda on pole from Regazzoni.
Lauda motored away as the start, with Hunt up to second but, soon Regazzoni took the place back. The Ferraris raced away, Hunt dropped to sixth, behind Jacques Laffite's Lig
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word