A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Hitomi Yoshizawa is a former singer and model. Yoshizawa grew to fame as a member of the Japanese idol girl group Morning Musume. Following her graduation, she was part of the pop duo Hangry & Angry as Hangry and a member of Japanese pop group Dream Morning Musume. In September 2018, Yoshizawa was involved in a hit-and-run caused by her drinking above the legal alcohol limit. Following public criticism, on September 28th, Yoshizawa announced her retirement from the entertainment industry. Yoshizawa became a member of the Hello! Project group Morning Musume in 2000, as a member of the fourth generation along with Rika Ishikawa, Nozomi Tsuji, Ai Kago, making her debut in the group's ninth single "Happy Summer Wedding", she was featured in the group's theatrical release of Pinch Runner. She appeared with the group in the weekly television show Hello! Morning in various segments including a survival match featuring the members of the 5th and 6th Generations where she played the role of the referee.
In the past, she has been perceived as the tomboyish member of the group, due to her voice and hobbies. Furthering this perception of her masculine side, Yoshizawa's first lead came in 2001 with the release of the single "Mr. Moonlight: Ai no Big Band", in which she played a dashing playboy character. Yoshizawa became the captain of the Hello! Project futsal team, Gatas Brilhantes H. P. when it was formed in September 2003. The 5'5" midfielder has since managed to lead the team to victory on many occasions. Yoshizawa convinced teammate Nozomi Tsuji to remain as the team's goalkeeper, despite her graduation from Morning Musume in 2004. In April 2005, after Mari Yaguchi left Morning Musume, the current sub-leader, became the group's new leader. On May 6, 2007, Yoshizawa graduated from Morning Musume after the band's last performance in the Sexy 8 Beat Spring Tour, which took place at Saitama Super Arena. According to several news sources, producer Tsunku, Yoshizawa herself, she would enter a solo career of her own.
Yoshizawa focused her time on Gatas Brilhantes H. P. along with being leader of a group formed with fellow members of the futsal team called Ongaku Gatas. On October 12, 2008, Yoshizawa paired up with fellow ex-Morning Musume member Rika Ishikawa as Hangry in the new unit Hangry & Angry in collaboration with a Harajuku fashion store of the same name; the duo made their first US performance at Sakura-Con in Seattle in April 2009. Their first European performance was at "Chibi Japan Expo" in Montreuil on October 31, 2009. In February 2009, Yoshizawa performed with the rest of the Elder Club at their group graduation concert in Yokohama. Yoshizawa made her first post-Hello! Project at the Summer 2010 tour, acting as MC alongside Sharam Q member Makoto. In 2010, Yoshizawa joined Dream Morning Musume alongside other former-Morning Musume members. In May 2012, Yoshizawa and Rika Ishikawa formed. On September 6th, 2018, Yoshizawa was involved in a hit-and-run caused by her drinking above the legal alcohol limit.
Following backlash, on September 28, she issued a statement via her agency announcing that she was retiring from entertainment industry. Footage of her performances at Hello! Project's 20th anniversary concert was removed from the DVD release. On January 11, 2007, Yoshizawa's younger brother, 16-year-old Kōta Yoshizawa, was killed in a traffic accident. On November 22, 2015, Yoshizawa announced. In March 2016, Yoshizawa announced she was pregnant with her first child and that she would give birth to a son in the late summer of 2016. On July 29, she announced on her blog. On September 6, 2018, at 7:00 AM, Yoshizawa ran a red light while driving a van at 86 kilometers per hour and hit a female cyclist, who collided with a male pedestrian. After fleeing the scene, Yoshizawa reported to the incident to the police and returned 15 minutes where she was arrested for causing a hit-and-run accident while driving under the influence. A breathalyzer test revealed 0.58 mg of alcohol per liter of exhaled air, four times the legal limit in Japan.
Yoshizawa informed the police. Following the incident, Yoshizawa's mother-in-law attempted suicide and was rushed to the hospital for emergency treatment. Yoshizawa was indicted on September 26, but was bailed out of Harajuku Police Station for ¥3 million. 2000 – Pinch Runner 2002 – Tokkaekko 2003 – Koinu Dan no Monogatari 2002 – Ore ga Aitsu de Aitsu ga Ore de 2004 – Motto Koiseyo Otome 2007 – Shinkansen Girl Ameblo Official Hello! Project profile Official Hangry & Angry website Hello! Database entry Hitomi Yoshizawa on IMDb
No. 5 (Morning Musume album)
No. 5 is the fifth album from the J-pop idol group Morning Musume, released on March 26, 2003. No. 5 is the last studio album to feature second generation member Kei Yasuda and first generation member Natsumi Abe as full members of the group. Yasuda graduated in 2003, Abe graduated in early 2004, it is the first Morning Musume studio album to feature a former member as a returning guest artist, as Maki Goto guests on "Megami ~Mousse na Yasashisa~" and "Ganbacchae". Two of the songs, "Megami ~Mousse na Yasashisa~" and "Yes! Pocky Girls", are credited to two one-time Morning Musume spinoff groups, "Venus Mousse" and "Pocky Girls", respectively; the songs originated as promotional songs for Pocky biscuit snacks and appeared in versions that are least one minute shorter on the Petit Best 3 compilation album in December 2002. The first pressing came in special packaging with a special mini poster. "Intro" "Do it! Now" "Top!" "Tomodachi ga Ki ni Itte Iru Otoko Kara no Dengon" "Koko ni Iruzee! "'Suggoi Nakama'" "Tsuyoki de Ikōze" "Megami ~Mousse na Yasashisa~" "Yes!
Pocky Girls" "Hey! Mirai" "Ganbacchae!" "'Sugoku Sukina no ni... ne'" "Sotsugyou Ryokō ~Morning Musume Tabidatsu Hito ni Okuru Uta~" Platinum No.5 entry on the Hello! Project official website
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Ai Kago, born February 7, 1988 in Yamatotokada, Japan, is a Japanese singer, actress and former Guinness World Record holder. Kago began her career at the age of 12 as a member of the idol group Morning Musume. In the same year, she became a founding member of Minimoni. In 2004, she graduated from both the aforementioned groups and formed W with Nozomi Tsuji, but she was withdrawn from the group in 2007. In 2008, she embarked on a career in film and returned to music, releasing a jazz album in 2010 and becoming part of the group Girls Beat!! in 2013. At age 12, Kago won the 4th National Audition of Morning Musume held by the Up-Front Works in 2000. On April 15, along with Rika Ishikawa, Hitomi Yoshizawa, Nozomi Tsuji, were inducted into the idol group Morning Musume as its fourth generation, their recording debut was in the group's ninth single "Happy Summer Wedding". Kago and Tsuji's addition to the group received positive critical response. With an increasing fan base, along with fellow Morning Musume member Mari Yaguchi and Coconuts Musume member Mika Todd, formed a new subgroup named Minimoni.
In addition to this, Kago was admitted into established subgroup Tanpopo as a second generation member. From 2001 to 2004 Kago participated in the annual Hello! Project shuffle units. In August 2004, Kago and Tsuji graduated from Morning Musume together after Minimoni began their indefinite hiatus. Under the arrangement of their agency and Tsuji formed a new pop duo, W, releasing two albums and six singles together. Before the release of their seventh single and their third album, W3: Faithful, on February 9, 2006, Friday published photos showing Kago smoking, she was 15 at the time. The following day, her agency issued a press statement saying that she and W's activities had been suspended "indefinitely." Kago spent the remainder of the year under house arrest at her family's residence in Nara. During this time, she was not allowed to have contact with Tsuji or any of the other members from her agency, she was caught smoking again during her probation period. In 2007 Up-Front Works reported. In late March 2007, photos of Kago going to an onsen with a man 18 years her senior and smoking for a third time circulated in the media, further tarnishing her reputation.
Not long after, Yuukichi Kawaguchi, the director of Up-Front Works, issued a statement announcing that she had been dismissed from the agency. After Kago departed from Up-Front Agency, her mother attempted to sign her to a new talent agency in her hometown, Nara; that year, Josei Seven published an interview with her mother, revealing that Kago left Japan and started residing in New York City. Kago herself revealed that she had not gone to New York, but rather to Los Angeles for three months because she felt like a criminal in Japan. During her stay, she met people who encouraged her, including Winona Ryder, was able to reflect on her situation, she considered suicide and cut her wrists. Kago made a well-publicized return to the entertainment industry in 2008 with plans of pursuing an acting career, she began appearing in multiple Hong Kong movies, including Kung Fu Chefs. On August 25, 2008, Kago released a book entitled Kago Ai Live—Miseinen Hakusho. On her blog, she described the book as "a book where I talk to young teens about their various troubles and dreams."During 2009, Kago focused on rebuilding her music career.
On June 24, 2009, she released her first solo single "No HesitAtIon" on independent record label In Da Groove. On February 16, 2010, she held her first jazz concert at bar JZ Brat in Tokyo. Kago's first jazz album, Ai Kago meets Jazz: The First Door, was released on March 31, 2010 through P-Vine Records and Avex Marketing. In August 2010 she was invited to perform at music festival Summer Sonic. Throughout the second half of 2010, Kago became unhappy with the direction of her work. Around the same time, she began dating restaurant owner Haruhiko Ando, who acted as an in-between for her agency and herself. Since beginning a relationship with Ando, Kago cancelled several jobs at the last minute, causing her agency to suspend her activities. Despite this, she opened a separate blog without permission. Kago parted ways with R&A Promotions in November 2010 despite her contract ending in March 2013; as a response, in 2011, Kazuyuki Ito, president of Mainstream, declared that the agency planned on suing for 100 million yen in damages for contract violations.
During that time, Kago's career was derailed by her personal life. In September 2011, Ando was arrested for alleged extortion and claiming to have connections with the yakuza. In the same month, Kago was rushed to a nearby hospital after agency officials found her on the floor of her apartment with cuts to her wrists, her life was reported to be not in danger, though there were speculations that it was a planned suicide. Following the incident and Ando registered their marriage, Kago became pregnant. After spending 2012 out of the public eye with the birth of her daughter, Kago transferred to a new agency in 2013. Planning to revive her music career, she formed an idol group, named Girls Beat!! The group would be crowd-sourced using lyrics and costume ideas submitted by fans. Remi Kita and Ryona Himeno were recruited as the other two members after passing the auditions. Girls Beat!! Released their first single, "Sekai Seifuku" on July 22, 2014, their activities were abruptly put on hold when an arrest warrant was put out for Ando in October on suspicions of loaning money at illegal interest rates.
J-pop, natively known as pops, is a musical genre that entered the musical mainstream of Japan in the 1990s. Modern J-pop has its roots in traditional Japanese music, but in 1960s pop and rock music, such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys, which led to Japanese rock bands such as Happy End fusing rock with Japanese music in the early 1970s. J-pop was further defined by new wave groups in the late 1970s electronic synth-pop band Yellow Magic Orchestra and pop rock band Southern All Stars. J-pop replaced kayōkyoku in the Japanese music scene; the term was coined by the Japanese media to distinguish Japanese music from foreign music and now refers to most Japanese popular music. Popular styles of Japanese pop music included technopop during the 1970s–1980s, city pop in the 1980s, Shibuya-kei in the 1990s; the origin of modern J-pop is said to be Japanese-language rock music inspired by the likes of The Beatles. Unlike the Japanese music genre called kayōkyoku, J-pop uses a special kind of pronunciation, similar to that of English.
One notable singer to do so is Keisuke Kuwata. Additionally, unlike Western music, the major second was not used in Japanese music, except art music, before rock music became popular in Japan; when the Group Sounds genre, inspired by Western rock, became popular, Japanese pop music adopted the major second, used in the final sounds of The Beatles' song "I Want to Hold Your Hand" and The Rolling Stones' song " Satisfaction". Although Japanese pop music changed from music based on Japanese pentatonic scale and distortional tetrachord to the more occidental music over time, music that drew from the traditional Japanese singing style remained popular. At first, the term J-pop was used only for Western-style musicians in Japan, such as Pizzicato Five and Flipper's Guitar, just after Japanese radio station J-Wave was established. On the other hand, Mitsuhiro Hidaka of AAA from Avex Trax said that J-pop was derived from the Eurobeat genre. However, the term became a blanket term, covering other music genres—such as the majority of Japanese rock music of the 1990s.
In 1990, the Japanese subsidiary of Tower Records defined J-pop as all Japanese music belonging to the Recording Industry Association of Japan except Japanese independent music. Ito Music City, a Japanese record store, adopted expanded classifications including Group Sounds, idol of the 1970s–1980s, enka and established musicians of the 1970s–1980s, in addition to the main J-pop genres. Whereas rock musicians in Japan hate the term "pop", Taro Kato, a member of pop punk band Beat Crusaders, pointed out that the encoded pop music, like pop art, was catchier than "J-pop" and he said that J-pop was the pops music, memorable for its frequency of airplay, in an interview when the band completed their first full-length studio album under a major label, P. O. A.: Pop on Arrival, in 2005. Because the band did not want to perform J-pop music, their album featured the 1980s Pop of MTV. According to his fellow band member Toru Hidaka, the 1990s music that influenced him was not listened to by fans of other music in Japan at that time.
In contrast to this, although many Japanese rock musicians until the late 1980s disrespected the kayōkyoku music, many of Japanese rock bands of the 1990s—such as Glay—assimilated kayōkyoku into their music. After the late 1980s, breakbeat and samplers changed the Japanese music scene, where expert drummers had played good rhythm because traditional Japanese music did not have the rhythm based on rock or blues. Hide of Greeeen described their music genre as J-pop, he said, "I love rock, hip hop and breakbeats, but my field is J-pop. For example, hip hop musicians learn'the culture of hip hop'. We are not like those musicians and we love the music as sounds much; those professional people may say'What are you doing?' but I think that our musical style is cool after all. The good thing is good." Japanese popular music, called ryūkōka before being split into enka and poppusu, has origins in the Meiji period, but most Japanese scholars consider the Taishō period to be the actual starting point of ryūkōka, as it is the era in which the genre first gained nationwide popularity.
By the Taishō period, Western musical techniques and instruments, introduced to Japan in the Meiji period, were used. Influenced by Western genres such as jazz and blues, ryūkōka incorporated Western instruments such as the violin and guitar. However, the melodies were written according to the traditional Japanese pentatonic scale. In the 1930s, Ichiro Fujiyama released popular songs with his tenor voice. Fujiyama sang songs with a lower volume than opera through the microphone. Jazz musician Ryoichi Hattori attempted to produce Japanese native music which had a "flavor" of blues, he composed Noriko Awaya's hit song "Wakare no Blues". Awaya was called "Queen of Blues" in Japan. Due to pressure from the Imperial Army during the war, the performance of jazz music was temporarily halted in Japan. Hattori, who
Morning Musume'19 simply Morning Musume and colloquially referred to as Momusu, are a Japanese female idol group, holding the second highest overall single sales on the Oricon charts as of February 2012, with the Oricon record of most top ten singles with an amount of 64, they have sold over 21 million copies in Japan alone. Morning Musume was formed in 1997 by rock singer-songwriter turned record producer Tsunku, who composed the vast majority of the group's songs over the decade, they are the lead group of Hello! Project that specialises in upbeat, pop-oriented music coupled with dance performance; the group produced several splinter groups, collaborates with other Hello! Project acts, including Country Musume, Berryz Kobo, Melon Kinenbi, v-u-den; the group's name can be translated as "Morning Girls" or "Morning Daughters". The average age of the group members has remained more or less unchanged since its original formation because the group maintains a "school-like" system for their continuous line-up changes, with older members "graduating" and new younger, members selected from nationwide auditions admitted to the group annually.
* All colour values are approximate. Japanese producer Tsunku started the group in 1997 through an audition for a female rock vocalist for his band Sharan Q; the audition was held on the Japanese TV show Asayan. The winner was Michiyo Heike to become a soloist under what would become known as Hello! Project. Tsunku decided to form a girl group consisting of five of the runners-up: Natsumi Abe, Yuko Nakazawa, Kaori Iida, Asuka Fukuda, Aya Ishiguro, they were issued a challenge to sell 50,000 copies of their demo single, "Ai no Tane", with just five days of promotion events. They managed the feat in four promotion days in a grassroots manner, Tsunku began his mission to create the most famous all-girl group in Japan. In early 1998, the girls were ready with their first official single, "Morning Coffee"; the success of this single brought them three new members known as the second generation: Kei Yasuda, Mari Yaguchi, Sayaka Ichii, bringing the total member count to eight. The second single, "Summer Night Town", was the first single of the new lineup—a mature pop tune about unsuccessfully attempting to hide one's true feelings.
Their third single, "Daite Hold on Me!", continued in the same vein musically as Summer Night Town, managed to hit number one on the charts. Leader Nakazawa started her solo career. "First Time" was released in July 1998, featuring the singles "Ai no Tane", "Morning Coffee" and "Summer Night Town". That year, Tsunku formed Tanpopo, the first subgroup of Morning Musume, with Kaori Iida, Aya Ishiguro, Mari Yaguchi. Tanpopo touted more mature songs; when "Morning Coffee" was released, Morning Musume's label Zetima went under a different name, One Up Music. However, in April 1998, one month before the release of "Summer Night Town", One Up Music ended its distribution deal with Warner, was rebranded as Zetima. Distribution rights would be given to Sony Music Japan's sub label Epic Records for "Summer Night Town", "First Time" and all of Zetima's subsequent releases; the group released its fourth single "Memory Seishun no Hikari" in early 1999, reaching number two on Oricon, second to Glay's "Winter, Again" which had 1st week sales of 955,780 copies, verse Memory Seishun no Hikari's 195,720).
The song features rap passages by L The Headtoucha and intense vocal harmonization by the group's members. This was Asuka Fukuda's last single with Morning Musume, making her the shortest-lived member at 2 years. Asuka claimed that she was leaving in order to focus on her studies, only to drop out of school soon after. "Manatsu no Kōsen" was a summer tune. It went to number three on the charts, the sales dropped by half from Memory Seishun no Hikari. Morning Musume's chart position was visibly lagging at the time: their sixth single, "Furusato", only sealed the fact. Natsumi Abe was the only one who sang the melody on "Furusato"; this was their fifth single, the sales once again decreased by half. Second Morning was released in July 1999, contained the singles "Daite Hold on Me!", "Memory Seishun no Hikari", "Manatsu no Kōsen", "Furusato". "Daite Hold on Me!" and "Manatsu no Kōsen" were remixed. Eager to add new life to the group, Tsunku held auditions for the third generation of Morning Musume.
Two girls were expected to be admitted, but only Maki Goto was added. Goto was the youngest member of Morning Musume at the time; the group's seventh single, "Love Machine", sold 1,760,000 copies. The song touted an image of Japan as the future "envy of the world" and cheered the masses during a period of economic recession, it was Aya Ishiguro's last. Its wild success increased the popularity of the group. Soon Goto was paired with Sayaka Ichii to form the subgroup Petitmoni. Petitmoni's first single, "Chokotto Love", rivaled the success of "Love Machine", selling over 1,123,610 copies. 2000 first saw the release of "Koi no Dance Site", which hit number two and sold over a million—400,000 copies away from reaching Love Machine's success. The single