International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Gubbi Gubbi people
The Gubbi Gubbi, written Kabi Kabi, people are an Indigenous Australian people native to southeastern Queensland. They are now classified as one of several Murri language groups in Queensland, norman Tindale situated the Gubbi Gubbi as an inland tribe of the Wide Bay–Burnett area, whose lands extended over 3,700 sq. miles and lay west of Maryborough. The northern borders ran as far as Childers and Hervey Bay, on the south, they approached the headwaters of the Mary River and Cooroy. Westwards, they reached as far as the Coast Ranges and Kilkivan, Gubbi Gubbi country is currently located between Pumicestone Road, near Caboolture in the south, through to Childers in the north. Some Gubbi Gubbi died in the poisoning of upwards of 60 Aborigines on the Kilcoy run in 1842. A further 50-60 are said to have killed by food laced with arsenic at Whiteside Station in April 1847. In June 1849 two youths, the Pegg brothers, were speared on the property while herding sheep and they had feasted on stolen sheep.
Marksmen picked off many, even those fleeing by diving into the Burnett River, the slaughter was extensive, and the bones of many of the dead were uncovered on the site many decades later. Blaxland was in turn killed in a payback action sometime in July–August 1850 and his death was revenged in a further large-scaled massacre of tribes in the area. The escaped convict James Davis lived among other tribes, the Gubbi Gubbi John Mathew and he described their society in a 1910 monograph, Two Representative Tribes of Queensland. The Queensland lungfish was native to Gubbi Gubbi waters and the species fell under a taboo among them and it was known in their language as dala
Cairns is a major city on the east coast of Far North Queensland in Australia. The city is the 5th-most-populous in Queensland and ranks 14th overall in Australia, Cairns was founded in 1876 and named after William Wellington Cairns, Governor of Queensland from 1875 to 1877. It was formed to serve miners heading for the Hodgkinson River goldfield and it developed into a railhead and major port for exporting sugar cane and other metals and agricultural products from surrounding coastal areas and the Atherton Tableland region. The estimated residential population of the Cairns urban area in 2015 was 147,993, based on 2015 data, the associated local government area has experienced an average annual growth rate of 2. 3% over the last 10 years. Cairns is a popular tourist destination because of its climate and access to the Great Barrier Reef. Prior to British settlement, the Cairns area was inhabited by the Gimuy Walubara Yidinji people, the area is known in the local Yidiny language as Gimuy. In 1770, James Cook mapped the site of Cairns.
Closer investigation by several official expeditions 100 years established its potential for development into a port, Cairns was founded in 1876, hastened by the need to export gold discovered on the tablelands to the west of the inlet. The site was predominantly mangrove swamps and sand ridges, labourers gradually cleared the swamps, and the sand ridges were filled with dried mud, sawdust from local sawmills, and ballast from a quarry at Edge Hill. Debris from the construction of a railway to Herberton on the Atherton Tableland, the railway opened up land used for agriculture on the lowlands, and for fruit and dairy production on the Tableland. The success of local agriculture helped establish Cairns as a port, on 25 April 1926, the Cairns Sailors and Soldiers War Memorial was unveiled by Alexander Frederick Draper, the mayor of the City of Cairns. Combat missions were flown out of Cairns in support of the Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942, Edmonton and White Rock south of Cairns were major military supply areas and US Paratroopers trained at Gordonvale and the Goldsborough Valley.
A Special Forces training base was established at the old Fairview homestead on Munros Hill and this base was officially known as the Z Experimental Station, but referred to informally as The House on the Hill. After World War II, Cairns gradually developed into a centre for tourism, the opening of the Cairns International Airport in 1984 helped establish the city as a desirable destination for international tourism. Cairns is located on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula on a strip between the Coral Sea and the Great Dividing Range. The northern part of the city is located on Trinity Bay, to the south of the Trinity Inlet lies the Aboriginal community of Yarrabah. Some of the suburbs are located on flood plains. The Mulgrave River and Barron River flow within the greater Cairns area, the citys centre foreshore is located on a mud flat
North Queensland or the Northern Region is the northern part of the Australian state of Queensland that lies just south of Far North Queensland. Townsville is the largest urban centre in North Queensland, leading it to be regarded as an unofficial capital, the region has a population of 231,628 and covers 80,041.5 km2. There is no official boundary that separates North Queensland from the rest of the state, unofficially it is usually considered to have a southern border beginning south of the Mackay Region southern boundary, but historically it has been as far south as Rockhampton. To the north is the Far North Queensland region, centred on Cairns, a coastal region centred on its largest settlement is the city of Townsville. The city is the location of a major seaport handling exports from mines in Mount Isa and cattle exports from coastal, the region contains a bulk sugar exporting terminal at Lucinda in the regions north. Mackay is Australias sugar capital and produces the most sugar in Australia and is shipped at Mackay Harbour, Mackay is one of Australias biggest coal exporters as it is close to Queenslands major mines.
Dalrymple Bay, south of Mackay is another port where coal and it contains the inland city of Charters Towers and the coastal towns of Ayr and Ingham. Other communities in North Queensland include Home Hill, Bowen, Airlie Beach, abbot Point, north of Bowen, is a large, coal exporting port undergoing significant expansion. The region has 36 national parks, captain James Cook passed by the region in 1770, naming several places including Magnetic Island and Cape Cleveland. Alan Cunningham was the first European to explore parts of the region, john Mackay explored the Pioneer Valley near Mackay in 1860. The first settlement in the region was established at Port Denison in 1861, in 1865, the first surveys of what was to become Townsville were conducted. In 1871, gold was discovered at Charters Towers and this led to much development for the town and for Townsville which served as a major port and service centre as both the pastoral and sugar industry spread along the coast. Work on the Great Northern Railway from Townsville to Mount Isa began in 1879 with a section opening the following year.
In July 1942, Japanese naval flying boats conducted air raids on Townsville, the Perc Tucker Regional Gallery was established at Townsville in 1981 and the TYTO Regional Art Gallery at Ingham opened in 2011. The region is serviced by Townsville Airport which is ranked as the 11th busiest airport in Australia, the airport was granted international status in 1980. Along the coast, the Bruce Highway passes from the south through to the north of the region, the Flinders Highway links Townsville with Charters Towers and the Peak Downs Highway extends west from Mackay. Throughout the years, there have been calls for the formation of a new state. Many proposals have been drawn up, regarding the borders, list of schools in North Queensland
Port Douglas is a town in Far North Queensland, approximately 70 km north of Cairns. Its permanent population was 3,205 at the time of the 2011 census, the towns population can often double, with the influx of tourists during the peak tourism season May–September. The town is named in honour of former Premier of Queensland, Port Douglas developed quickly based on the mining industry. Other parts of the area were established with timber cutting occurring in the surrounding the Daintree River. Previous names for the town included Terrigal, Island Point, Port Owen, the town is situated adjacent to two World Heritage areas, the Great Barrier Reef and the Daintree Rainforest. Port Douglas was No.3 on Australian Traveller magazines list of 100 Best Towns In Australia, the town is within the Federal electorate of Leichhardt, and within the State electorate of Cook. At local level, It is within the government area of Shire of Douglas. The Port Douglas township was established in 1877 after the discovery of gold at Hodgkinson River by James Venture Mulligan, Port Douglas Post Office opened on 1 September 1877.
It grew quickly, and at its peak Port Douglas had a population of 12,000 and 27 hotels, with the construction of the Mulligan Highway it serviced towns as far away as Herberton. When the Kuranda Railway from Cairns to Kuranda was completed in 1891, a cyclone in 1911 which demolished all but two buildings in the town had a significant impact. At its nadir in 1960 the town, by little more than a fishing village, had a population of 100. The Port Douglas War Memorial was unveiled on 10 February 1923 by Mrs Tresize, in the late-1980s, tourism boomed in the region after investor Christopher Skase financed the construction of the Sheraton Mirage Port Douglas Resort. In November 1996 United States President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton chose the town as their only stop on their historic visit to Australia. When dining at a restaurant they witnessed a couples wedding certificate. On a return visit on 11 September 2001, the ex-President was again dining at the Salsa Bar and Grill, a local restaurant and he returned to the United States the following day.
The town has enjoyed an influx of full-time residents since its rebirth, with most newcomers arriving from Australias south. On 4 September 2006, entertainer a. k. a, irwin was filmed snorkelling directly above the stingray when it lashed him with its tail, embedding its toxic barb. This event was reported both in Australia and overseas
Djabugay belongs to the Yidinic branch of the Pama–Nyungan language family, and is closely related to Yidin. The last speaker with a knowledge of the language was Gilpin Banning. Their western boundary was defined by the margin of the rain forest from Tolga north to Mount Molloy. By 1952, the Djabugay claimed the strip between Cairns Inlet and Lamb Range, with one horde lived near Redlynch, Cairns. The somewhat ambiguous eurocentric concept of the Dreamtime devised to describe Aboriginal religion or the traditional worldview of the Djabugay and the Yidinji, was expressed in the word bulurru. It finally came to rest at Wangal Djungay In one account, he was killed by emu men at Din din, an incident which unleashed the powerful monsoonal rains on the region. There were 2 Bulurru dreamtime brothers and Guyala, who laid down the contours, created the plant foods, established the customary law, the contours of the Barron River and Redlynch Valley, for example, are thought of as representing the supine body of Damarri.
The tale of Budadjis travels along the Barron Gorge is included in the web guide of Queensland Rail to the journey from Cairns to Kuranda. European settlers explored and cleared the land for gold and tin, the euphemism for shooting groups of blacks, were undertaken at Smithfield, Bibhoora at Clohesy River close to Kuranda in the early 1880s, and near Mareeba in 1881. In May 1886, a railway was constructed from Cairns to Herberton with part of the going on top of a walking track. The Djabugay were unhappy about this development and withstood the settlement by spearing bullocks, as the settlers entered, traditional hunting and gathering grounds were taken over. This led to the notorious Speewah massacre in 1890 where John Atherton took revenge on the Djubagay by sending in native troopers to avenge the killing of a bullock. The Djubagay were segregated from them and forced to live at the Mona-Mona Mission and were unable to hunt and their numbers fell dramatically at the turn of the century. By 1896, the region supported coffee plantations and the Djabugay were used as labour on farms, many now own their own land, some other settlements and farms in the area.
On 17 December 2004, it was recognised that native title existed in the Barron Gorge National Park for the Djabugay and it followed that the physical landscape, its storyplaces and storywaters in bulurru tradition underline the inalienable connection between the native claimants, their ancestral beings and the land. In land title claims, there was a running dispute between the Djabugay and the Yirrganydji the latter claiming native title to the area from Cairns to Port Douglas. The clash arose out of the siting of the Tjapukai Cultural Theme Park, though some Djabuguy wished their claim to be included under the general claim, regarding them as part of the Dajabugay people, the Yirrganydji insisted on maintaining their separate identity. Eventually the two representing the groups thrashed out a compromise agreement
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
Cooktown is a small town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. Cooktown is located about 2,000 kilometres north of Brisbane and 328 kilometres north of Cairns, at the time of the 2011 census, Cooktown had a population of 2,339. Cooktown is at the mouth of the Endeavour River, on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland where James Cook beached his ship, both the town and Mount Cook which rises up behind the town were named after James Cook. Cooktown is one of the few towns in the Cape York Peninsula and was founded on 25 October 1873 as a supply port for the goldfields along the Palmer River. It was called Cooks Town until 1 June 1874, in the local Guugu Yimithirr language the name for the region is Gangaar Aboriginal pronunciation, which means Rock Crystals. The Guugu Yimithirr people saw the Endeavour beach in the waters near the mouth of their river. The captain of the Endeavour, Lieutenant James Cook, the British crew spent seven weeks on the site of present-day Cooktown, repairing their ship, replenishing food and water supplies, and caring for their sick.
The extraordinary scientist, Joseph Banks, and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, the young artist Sydney Parkinson illustrated the specimens and he was the first British artist to portray Aboriginal people from direct observation. After some weeks, Joseph Banks met and spoke with the people, recording about 50 Guugu Yimithirr words. Cook recorded the name as Kangooroo, or Kanguru. The first recorded sighting of kangaroos by Europeans was on Grassy Hill, Cook climbed this hill to work out a safe passage for the Endeavour to sail through the surrounding reefs, after it was repaired. The visit on the 19th of July 1770 ended in a skirmish after Cook refused to share the turtles he kept on the Endeavour with the local inhabitants and they set fire to the grass around Cook’s camp twice, burning the area and killing a suckling pig. After Cook wounded one of the men with a musket, they ran away, Cook and some others followed them and caught up with them on a rocky bar near Furneaux Street, which is now known as Reconciliation Rocks.
A “little old man” appeared from the group of Indigenous Australians and this was an important historic event as it is believed that this is the first recorded reconciliation between Europeans and Indigenous Australians ever. He named Cape York Peninsula after the then-Duke of York and Albany and he collected numerous botanical specimens for the British Museum and Kew Gardens. In 1872, William Hann discovered gold in the Palmer River and his findings were reported to James Venture Mulligan who led an expedition to the Palmer River in 1873. Mulligans expedition found quantities of gold and thus began the gold rush that was to bring prospectors to the Endeavour River from all over the world. The Queensland government responded quickly to Mulligans reports, and soon a party was dispatched to advise whether the Endeavour River would be a site for a port