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The koku is a Chinese-based Japanese unit of volume, 1 koku is equivalent to 10 to or 180 litres, or about 5 bushels. It converts, in turn, to 100 shō and 1000 gō. One gō is the volume of the "rice cup", the plastic measuring cup, supplied with commercial Japanese rice cookers; the koku in Japan was used as dry measure. The amount of rice production measured in koku was the metric by which the magnitude of a feudal domain was evaluated. A feudal lord was only considered daimyō class; as a rule of thumb, one koku was considered sufficient quantity of rice to feed one person for one year. The Chinese equivalent or cognate unit for capacity is the shi or dan (Chinese: 石; the Chinese shi or dan is equal to 10 dou "pecks", 100 sheng "pints". While the current shi is 103 liters in volume, the shi of the Tang Dynasty period equalled 59.44 liters. The exact modern koku is calculated to be 180.39 liters, 100 times the capacity of a modern shō. This modern koku is defined to be the same as the koku from the Edo Period, namely 100 times the shō equal to 64827 cubic bu in the traditional shakkanhō measuring system.

The kyō-masu, the semi-official one shō measuring box since the late 17th century under Nobunaga, began to be made in a different size in the early Edo Period, sometime during the 1620's. Its dimensions, given in the traditional Japanese shaku length unit system, were 4 sun 9 bu square times 2 sun 7 bu depth, its volume, which could be calculated by multiplication was: 1 koku = 100 shō= 100 × = 100 × 64827 cubic bu Although this was referred to as shin kyō-masu or the "new" measuring cup in its early days, its use supplanted the old measure in most areas in Japan, until the only place still left using the old cup was the city of Edo, the Edo government passed an edict declaring the kyō-masu the official nationwide measure standard in 1669. When the 1891 Japanese Weights and Measures Act was promulgated, it defined the shō unit as the capacity of the standard kyo-masu of 64827 cubic bu; the same act defined the shaku length as 10/33 metre. Thus the metric equivalent of the modern shō can be calculated arithmetically, the result is 2401/1331000m3.

The modern koku is therefore 1.8039 litres. The modern shaku defined here is set to equal the so-called setchū-shaku, measuring 302.97 mm, a middle-ground value between two different kane-jaku standards. A researcher has pointed out that the kyō-masu cups ought to have used take-jaku which were 0.2% longer. However, the actual measuring cups in use did not quite attain the take shaku metric, when the Japanese Ministry of Finance had collected actual samples of masu from the masu-za of both eastern and western Japan, they found that the measurements were close to the average of take-jaku and kane-jaku; the "lumber koku" or "maritime koku" is defined as equal to 10 cubic shaku in the lumber or shipping industry, compared with the standard koku measures 6.48 cubic shaku. A lumber koku is conventionally accepted as equivalent to 120 board feet, but in practice may convert to less. In metric measures 1 lumber koku is about 278.3 litres. The exact measure now in use originates in, devised around the 1620s, but not adopted for all of Japan until the Kanbun era.

Under the Tokugawa shogunate of the Edo period of Japanese history, each feudal domain had an assessment of its potential income known as kokudaka which in part determined its order of precedence at the Shogunal court. The smallest kokudaka to qualify the fief-holder for the title of daimyō was 10,000 koku and Kaga han, the largest, was called the "million-koku domain", its holdings totaled around 1,025,000 koku. Many samurai, including hatamoto, received stipends in koku; the production yield was reported in terms of brown rice in most places, with the exception of Satsuma clan which reported in terms of unhusked or non-winnowed rice. Since this practice had persisted, past Japanese rice production statistics need to be adjusted for comparison with other countries that report production by milled or polished rice. In certain parts of the Tōhoku region or Ezo where rice could not be grown, the economy was still measured in terms of koku, with other crops and produce converted to their equivalent value in terms of rice.

The kokudaka was not adjusted from year to year, thus some fiefs had larger economies than their nominal koku indicated due to land reclamation and new rice field development, which allowed them to fund development projects. Koku was used to measure how much a ship could carry when all its loads were rice. Smaller ships carried 50 koku; the biggest ships were larger than military vessels owned by the Shogunate. The Hyakumangoku Matsuri in Kanazawa, Japan celebrates the arrival of daimyō Maeda Toshiie into the city in 1583, although Maeda's income was not raised to over a million koku until after the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Citations Bibliography

Warner Westenra, 2nd Baron Rossmore

Warner William Westenra, 2nd Baron Rossmore, was an Anglo-Irish landowner and politician. Westenra was the son of Henry Westenra, Member of Parliament for County Monaghan, by Harriet Murray, daughter of Colonel John Murray Member of Parliament for County Monaghan, he was educated at Dublin. Westenra was returned to the Irish House of Commons for County Monaghan in August 1800, a seat he held until December of that year, when the Irish Parliament was abolished, he represented the newly created constituency County Monaghan in the British Parliament until 1801, when he succeeded his maternal aunt's husband General Robert Cuninghame, 1st Baron Rossmore, as 2nd Baron Rossmore according to a special remainder in the letters patent. This was an Irish peerage and did not entitle him to an automatic seat in the House of Lords, although he was forced to resign from his seat in the House of Commons as Irish peers were not allowed to represent Irish constituencies in Parliament. In 1805 he became Custos Rotulorum of County Monaghan, in 1831 he became the first Lord-Lieutenant of County Monaghan.

He held both posts until his death. In 1838 he was created Baron Rossmore, of the County of Monaghan, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which gave him a seat in the House of Lords. Lord Rossmore married firstly Mary Ann Walsh, daughter of Charles Walsh, of Walsh Park, County Tipperary, in 1791, their third son the Honourable John Westenra represented King's County in Parliament. Lady Rossmore died in August 1807 and Lord Rossmore married secondly Lady Augusta Charteris, daughter of Francis Charteris, Lord Elcho, in 1819. There were no children from this marriage, she died in July 1840. Lord Rossmore died at Rossmore Park, County Monaghan, in August 1842, aged 76, was succeeded in his titles by his son, Henry. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Rossmore

1912 Detroit Tigers season

The 1912 Detroit Tigers season was a season in American baseball. It involved the Tigers finishing sixth in the American League, it was the team's first season in Tiger Stadium. April 20, 1912: Navin Field opened the same day as Fenway Park, it was supposed to be opened on April 18 but it rained in both cities on that day. Ty Cobb scored the first run in Tiger Stadium by stealing home. May 18, 1912: Tigers players went on strike to protest the suspension of star center fielder Ty Cobb, who had gone into the stands on May 15 to attack a disabled fan, abusing him. Rather than forfeit the next game, the Tigers sent out a team of replacement players local college and sandlot players but including Tigers coaches Joe Sugden and 48-year-old Deacon McGuire. Manager Hughie Jennings entered the game as a pinch hitter. Starting pitcher Allan Travers gave up 24 runs on 26 hits in a complete game loss, both American League records. July 4, 1912: George Mullin threw the first no-hitter in Detroit Tigers history.

The Tigers beat the St. Louis Browns by a score of 7–0, it was Mullin's 32nd birthday. August 26, 1912: Willie Jensen was purchased by the Tigers from the New Haven Murlins. Note: Pos = Position. = Batting average. = Batting average.

Goetz von Berlichingen of the Iron Hand (1979 film)

Goetz von Berlichingen of the Iron Hand is a 1979 German-Yugoslavian historical adventure film directed by Wolfgang Liebeneiner and starring Raimund Harmstorf, Michèle Mercier and Sky du Mont. It is an adaptation of the 1773 play Götz von Berlichingen by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; the film's sets were designed by the art director Nino Borghi. Location shooting took place in Zagreb in Croatia. Raimund Harmstorf as Götz von Berlichingen Ulli Bauer as Georg - Götz's page Sky du Mont as Hans von Selbitz Detlev Eckstein as Franz von Tautenberg Erik Frey as Emperor Maximilian Joachim Hansen as Kaiserlicher Hauptmann Hans Holt as Bischof von Bamberg Adrian Hoven as Jäger Lerse Karl Lieffen as Assessor Olearius Silvia Reize as Elisabeth von Berlichingen Reiner Schöne as Franz von Sickingen Ernst Stankovski as Liebetraut Sabina Trooger as Marie von Berlichingen Klausjürgen Wussow as Adalbert von Weislingen Michèle Mercier as Adalheid - Countess von Walldorff Herbert Fux as Bauer Sievers Michael Gahr as Brautvater Ruth Gassmann as Zofe Margarete Wolf Goldan as Reiter Hans Erhart Hartmann as Reiter Hinz Kurt Jaggberg as Bauer Metzler Dietrich Kerky as Reiter Peter Goble, Alan.

The Complete Index to Literary Sources in Film. Walter de Gruyter, 1999. Goetz von Berlichingen of the Iron Hand on IMDb


Dashynka is a village in Khoroshiv Raion of Zhytomyr Oblast of Ukraine. Dashynka is within the boundaries of the natural-geographical region Polissya and 6 km from the district center - the city Khoroshiv; the nearest train station - New Borovaya, for 24 km. To the south-east of the village flows the river Irshitsya. Dashynka was founded in the second half of the XVII century. In 1906, the village lived 463 people, there were 86 yard farms. In 1932–1933, the village suffered from the Holodomor. According to eyewitnesses, the number of deaths was at least 20 people. During the German-Soviet war, 211 local residents took part in hostilities, 121 of them died, 90 were awarded with orders and medals. In the early 1970s, the central estate of the Zhdanov collective farm, an eight-year school, a club, a library with a book fund of 6759 copies and a paramedic-obstetric station operated in the village. According to Population Census of Ukraine 2001, the population of the village was 389 people, of which 99.74% said their native Ukrainian, 0.26% - Belarusian Olexandr Germanovych Pap Ovsiy Grygorovych Levchenko Media related to Dashynka at Wikimedia Commons Registration card on the site of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Web-page of KHOROSHIV COMMUNITY

Somali Faces

Somali Faces is an online project that shares everyday stories of ordinary Somali people from around the world. It was founded by a storyteller, author and an academic; the blog had over 70,000 followers on Facebook and around 21,600 followers on Instagram as of June 2017. The project has two main aims; the first is global, seeking to reconstruct the image of Somalis as a peaceful, resilient people, thereby challenging stereotypes that peg them as terrorists, pirates and refugees. The second is national: a compassionate reminder to the Somali people to rise above petty clannism "and earnestly understand that your fellow co-ethnic has his/her own struggles, dreams and aspirations." Mohammed and Donia started the Somali Faces platform in January 2016. They have travelled across Europe and Americas by focused on Somalis living in the Diaspora; this allowed them to narrate the Diaspora experience in the face of perpetual negativity of Somalis in the media. Following this, they have started touring the Horn of Africa visiting many remote villages and towns in Somalia and Somaliland to capture the human stories.

In January 2017, following the gang rape of two Somali girls in Galdogob and the subsequent release of the video footage, Somali Faces raised emergency funds online to resettle the two families. 2018: International Somali Award, Innovative category, 2018 International Somali Awards for Somali Faces. General references Ibrahim Shire, Mohammed. "Ni pirates, ni réfugiés, ni terroristes: portraits de Somaliens contre les clichés". France24. Retrieved 22 October 2016. "Thirty Years Looking for Mum". BBC. 21 June 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016