The Dazaifu is a Japanese term for the regional government in Kyushu from the 8th to the 12th centuries. The name may refer to the seat of government which grew into the modern city of Dazaifu in Fukuoka Prefecture; the Dazaifu was established in northwest Kyushu the late 7th century. The town of Dazaifu grew up around the military headquarters of the regional government. During the 8th and 9th centuries, records refer to Dazaifu as "the distant capital". In 1268, envoys bearing letters from Kublai Khan appeared at the Dazaifu court. There were a series of envoys which came before the unsuccessful invasion of 1274. In the Muromachi period the political center of the region was moved to Hakata; the city of Dazaifu was the center of the Shōni clan and the Ōuchi clan. In the Edo period, Dazaifu was a part of Kuroda domain until the han system was abolished in 1873; the flexible term refers to the regional government for all of nearby islands. From the 7th through the 13th century, the governor and vice-governor of Dazaifu had civil and military functions.
The titles of the vice governors were Dazai Dazai shoni. Among the Dazai shoni was Fujiwara no Hirotsugu in 740. Sometimes there was an official Absentee Governor; this title was only given to Imperial princes. Among those holding this office was Takaharu-shinnō who would become Emperor Go-Daigo. Dazaifu is the name of the place where regional government was centered in the late Nara period through the Muromachi period, it is the town. It is the name of the small city which continued to grow after the regional government center was moved. Dazaifu refers to the region which includes all the provinces on the island of Kyūshū and other nearby islands; the Dazaifu is the name of the civil government on the island of Kyūshū. As it grew and developed, a large complex of government offices was built for the use of the hierarchy of bureaucrats; the many buildings were arranged along a symmetrical grid, not far from the Buddhist temple complex at Kanzeon-ji. Dazaifu is a metonym of the official position at the head of the regional government.
It is a metonym for the person who fills this leadership role. Asteroid 19917 Dazaifu named for the Dazaifu government Sugawara no Michizane Adolphson, Mikael S. et al.. Heian Japan and Peripheries. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824830137; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Sansom, George Bailey.. A History of Japan to 1334. Stanford: Stanford University Press. OCLC 256194432 Titsingh, Isaac.. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Dazaifu City of Ancient Culture
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China spanning the 7th to 10th centuries. It was followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Historians regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty; the Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day. The Lǐ family founded the dynasty, seizing power during the collapse of the Sui Empire; the dynasty was interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people, yet when the central government was breaking down and unable to compile an accurate census of the population in the 9th century, it is estimated that the population had grown by to about 80 million people.
With its large population base, the dynasty was able to raise professional and conscripted armies of hundreds of thousands of troops to contend with nomadic powers in dominating Inner Asia and the lucrative trade-routes along the Silk Road. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang conquered or subdued several regions which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang exerted a powerful cultural influence over neighboring East Asian states such as those in Japan and Korea; the Tang dynasty was a period of progress and stability in the first half of the dynasty's rule, until the An Lushan Rebellion and the decline of central authority in the half of the dynasty. Like the previous Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty maintained a civil-service system by recruiting scholar-officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office; the rise of regional military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century undermined this civil order.
Chinese culture further matured during the Tang era. Two of China's most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, Zhou Fang. Scholars of this period compiled a rich variety of historical literature, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works; the adoption of the title Tängri Qaghan by the Tang Emperor Taizong in addition to his title as emperor was eastern Asia's first "simultaneous kingship". Many notable innovations occurred including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became a major influence with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, in the 840s the Emperor Wuzong of Tang enacted policies to persecute Buddhism, which subsequently declined in influence. Although the dynasty and central government had gone into decline by the 9th century and culture continued to flourish; the weakened central government withdrew from managing the economy, but the country's mercantile affairs stayed intact and commercial trade continued to thrive regardless.
However, agrarian rebellions in the latter half of the 9th century resulted in damaging atrocities such as the Guangzhou massacre of 878–879. The Li family belonged to the northwest military aristocracy prevalent during the Sui dynasty and claimed to be paternally descended from the Daoist founder, Laozi the Han dynasty General Li Guang and Western Liang ruler Li Gao; this family was known as the Longxi Li lineage. The Tang Emperors had Xianbei maternal ancestry, from Emperor Gaozu of Tang's Xianbei mother, Duchess Dugu. Li Yuan was Duke of Tang and governor of Taiyuan, modern Shanxi, during the Sui dynasty's collapse, caused in part by the Sui failure to conquer the northern part of the Korean peninsula during the Goguryeo–Sui War, he had prestige and military experience, was a first cousin of Emperor Yang of Sui. Li Yuan rose in rebellion in 617, along with his son and his militant daughter Princess Pingyang, who raised and commanded her own troops. In winter 617, Li Yuan occupied Chang'an, relegated Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or retired emperor, acted as regent to the puppet child-emperor, Yang You.
On the news of Emperor Yang's murder by General Yuwen Huaji on June 18, 618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang. Li Yuan, known as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, ruled until 626, when he was forcefully deposed by his son Li Shimin, the Prince of Qin. Li Shimin had commanded troops since the age of 18, had prowess with bow and arrow and lance and was known for his effective cavalry charges. Fighting a numerically superior army, he defeated Dou Jiande at Luoyang in the Battle of Hulao on May 28, 621. In a violent elimination of royal family due to fear of assassination, Li Shimin ambushed and killed two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and Crown prince Li Jiancheng, in the Xuanwu Gate Incident on July 2, 626. Shortly thereafter, his father abdicated in his favor and Li Shimin ascended the throne, he is conventionally known by his temple name Taizong. Although killing two brothers and deposing his father contradicted the Confucian value of filial piety, Taizong showed himself to be a capable leader who listened to the advice of the wisest members of his council.
In 628, Emperor Taizong held a Buddhist memorial service for the casualties of war, in 629 he ha
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Fujiwara-kyō was the Imperial capital of Japan for sixteen years, between 694 and 710. It was located in Yamato Province. However, the name Fujiwara-kyō was never used in the Nihon Shoki. During those times it was recorded as Aramashi-kyō; as of 2006, ongoing excavations have revealed construction on the site of Fujiwara-kyō as early as 682, near the end of the reign of Emperor Tenmu. With a brief halt upon Emperor Tenmu's death, construction resumed under Empress Jitō, who moved the capital in 694. Fujiwara-kyō remained the capital for the reigns of Emperor Monmu and Empress Genmei, but in 710 the Imperial court moved to the Heijō Palace in Nara, beginning the Nara period. Fujiwara was Japan's first capital built in a grid pattern on the Chinese model; the palace occupied a plot measuring about 1 km², was surrounded by walls 5 m high. Each of the four walls had three gates; the Daigokuden and other palace buildings were the first palace structures in Japan to have a tile roof in the Chinese style.
The area had been the domain of the Nakatomi clan, who oversaw the observation of Shintō rituals and ceremonies on behalf of the Imperial court. The city burnt down in 711, one year after the move to Nara, was not rebuilt. Archaeological excavations began in 1934, some portions of the palace were reconstructed. Close to 10,000 wooden tablets, known as mokkan, have been inscribed with Chinese characters; this waka, written by the Empress Jitō, describing Fujiwara in the summer, is part of the famous poem anthology, the Hyakunin Isshu: Which translates as Spring has passed, it seems, now summer has arrived. Fujiwara clan Frederic, Louis. "Japan Encyclopedia." Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Exhibition Room of Fujiwara Imperial Site Media related to Fujiwara-kyō at Wikimedia Commons
Kokuga is a shoot'em up game released by G.rev in 2012 for the Nintendo 3DS. It was directed by Hiroshi Iuchi, famous for his seminal shmups Radiant Ikaruga. Unlike many worldwide releases, the game wasn't released in Canada and the developer was only notified that they would not be able to, late in the preparation process; the game puts the player in command of a tank. The game was released in North America, excluding Canada, in June 2013, July 2013 in Europe; the developer was surprised by the failure to release in Canada and did not know if, or when, it would release there. Kokuga received positive reviews from critics upon release. On Metacritic, the game holds a score of 77/100 based on 14 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Matulef, Jeffrey. "Ikaruga creator's upcoming top-down shooter Kokuga shown off". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2017-07-17. Alexandre, Vítor. "Kokuga - Análise". Eurogamer.pt. Retrieved 2017-07-17. Facchetti, Filippo. "Kokuga - review". Eurogamer.it. Retrieved 2017-07-17. Spencer.
"Ikaruga Creator's 3DS Shooter Is Coming Overseas". Siliconera. Retrieved 2017-07-17. Love, Jamie. "Kokuga: One Smooth Tank Ride". Siliconera. Retrieved 2017-07-17. "Kokuga - Game". Nintendo World Report. Retrieved 2017-07-17. Gifford, Kevin. "Japan Review Check:'Dead or Alive 5','Ys','Kokuga'". Polygon. Retrieved 2017-07-17. Carter, Chris. "Feast your eyes on Kokuga, from the creator of Ikaruga". Destructoid. Retrieved 2017-07-17. Crecente, Brian. "A look at'Kokuga', the latest shooter from creator of'Ikaruga'". Polygon. Retrieved 2017-07-17. Official website
Heijō-kyō, was the Capital of Japan during most of the Nara period, from 710–40 and again from 745–84. The imperial palace is a listed UNESCO World Heritage together with other places in the city of Nara. Empress Genmei ordered the Imperial capital moved from Fujiwara-kyō to Heijō-kyō in 708, the move to Heijō-kyō was complete in 710. Heijō-kyō was modeled after Chang'an, the capital of Tang-dynasty China, although Heijō-kyō lacked walls. In the city and traders from China and India introduced various foreign cultures to Heijō-kyō through the Silk Road; as a result, Heijō-kyō flourished as Japan's first international and political capital, with a peak population of 100,000. The overall form of the city was an irregular rectangle, the area of city is more than 25 km2. In the area of Heijō-kyō, there are ancient Buddhist temples, some temples are listed as UNESCO World Heritage together with Heijō Palace. Daian-ji Yakushi-ji Kōfuku-ji Gangō-ji Suzakumon Saidai-ji Tōdai-ji Daikokuden The year 2010 marked the passage of 1300 years since the establishment of Nara Heijō-kyō.
Commemorative events of the 1300th anniversary of Nara Heijō-kyō Capital were held in and around Nara Prefecture from April 24 to November 7, 2010. These events included special displays of national treasures and other cultural properties, walking events that explore famous places in Nara, traditional events in various places throughout Nara. Main Event Site - Heijō-kyō Capital Area A：Entrance Plaza ●Heijō Palace Site Tour Center ●Corporate Participation Hall B：Heijō History Museum/Full-Scale Replica of Japanese Diplomatic Ship for Envoys to Tang China C：Suzaku Gate Plaza ●Suzaku Gate D：Exchange Plaza ●Mahoroba Stage ●Exchange Hall E：Heijō Palace Site Museum F：Front Courtyard of the Former Imperial Audience Hall G：South Gate Plaza ●Tenpyo period costume rental area H：Heijō-kyō Hands-on Learning Plaza ●Heijō-kyō Hands-on Learning Center ●Ministry of the Imperial Household I：Excavation Site Exhibition Hall J：Eastern Palace Garden Plaza ●Eastern Palace Garden Other Events Site Ikaruga and Shigisan Areas Asuka and Fujiwara Areas Katsuragi Area Yoshino Area Yamato Kogen Plains and Uda Area List of Special Places of Scenic Beauty, Special Historic Sites and Special Natural Monuments Heijō Palace - Imperial palace Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara - UNESCO World Heritage Site Martin, John H..
Nara: A Cultural Guide to Japan's Ancient Capital. Tuttle Publishing. Pp. 11–14. ISBN 0-8048-1914-9. Yoko Hsueh Shirai. Envisioning Heijokyo: 100 Questions & Answers about the Ancient Capital in Nara. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2011. ISBN 978-1463768225 Media related to Heijō-kyō at Wikimedia Commons Nara Palace Site Museum The Commemorative Events for the 1300th Anniversary Jô-Bô System of Heijô-Kyô Nara — The Capital of Japan in the 8th Century Takenaka Corporation on the reconstruction of the first Daigokuden Palace rebuilt at the Special Historical Site-Designated Heijokyu Ruins