The jackfruit known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the fig and breadfruit family native to southwest India. The jackfruit tree is well-suited to tropical lowlands, its fruit is the largest tree-borne fruit, reaching as much as 55 kg in weight, 90 cm in length, 50 cm in diameter. A mature jackfruit tree can produce about 100 to 200 fruits in a year; the jackfruit is a multiple fruit, composed of hundreds to thousands of individual flowers, the fleshy petals are eaten. Jackfruit is used in South and Southeast Asian cuisines; the ripe and unripe fruit and seeds are consumed. The jackfruit tree is a cultivated throughout tropical regions of the world, it is the national fruit of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, the state fruit of the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The word "jackfruit" comes from Portuguese jaca, which in turn is derived from the Malayalam language term chakka; when the Portuguese arrived in India at Kozhikode on the Malabar Coast in 1498, the Malayalam name ചക്ക was recorded by Hendrik van Rheede in the Hortus Malabaricus, vol. iii in Latin.
Henry Yule translated the book in Jordanus Catalani's Mirabilia descripta: the wonders of the East. This term is in turn derived from the Proto-Dravidian root kā; the common English name "jackfruit" was used by physician and naturalist Garcia de Orta in his 1563 book Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India. Centuries botanist Ralph Randles Stewart suggested it was named after William Jack, a Scottish botanist who worked for the East India Company in Bengal and Malaya; the jackfruit was domesticated independently in South Asia and Southeast Asia, as evidenced by the fact that the Southeast Asian names for the fruit are not derived from the Sanskrit roots. It was first domesticated by Austronesians in Java or the Malay Peninsula; the word for jackfruit in Proto-Western-Malayo-Polynesian is reconstructed. Modern cognates include Javanese, Malay and Cebuano nangka. Note, that the fruit was only introduced to Guam via Filipino settlers when both were part of the Spanish Empire. Artocarpus heterophyllus grows as an evergreen tree that has a short trunk with a dense treetop.
It reaches heights of 10 to 20 meters and trunk diameters of 30 to 80 centimeters. It sometimes forms buttress roots; the bark of the jackfruit tree is smooth. In the event of injury to the bark, a milky juice is released; the leaves are alternate and spirally arranged. They are divided into a petiole and a leaf blade; the petiole is 1 to 3 inches long. The leathery leaf blade is 7 to 15 inches long, 3 to 7 inches wide and is oblong to ovate in shape. In young trees, the leaf edges are irregularly split. On older trees, the leaves are dark green, with a smooth leaf margin; the leaf blade has a prominent main nerve and starting on each side six to eight lateral nerves. The stipules are egg-shaped at a length of 1.5 to 8 centimeters. The inflorescences are formed on branches or twigs. Jackfruit trees are monoecious, there are both female and male flowers on a tree; the inflorescences are pedunculated, cylindrical to ellipsoidal or pear-shaped, to about 10-12 centimeters long and 5-7 centimeters wide. Inflorescences are completely enveloped in egg-shaped cover sheets which slough off.
The flowers are small, there are several thousand flowers in an inflorescence, which sit on a fleshy rachis. The male flowers are greenish, some flowers are sterile; the male flowers are hairy and the perianth ends with two 1 to 1.5 millimeters membrane. The individual and prominent stamens are straight with roundish anthers. After the pollen distribution, the stamens become fall off after a few days. All the male inflorescences fall off; the greenish female flowers, with hairy and tubular perianth, have a fleshy flower-like base. The female flowers contain an ovary with a broad, capitate or bilobed scar; the blooming time ranges from December until March. The ellipsoidal to roundish fruit is a multiple fruit formed from the fusion of the ovaries of multiple flowers; the fruits grow on a thick stem on the trunk. They vary in size and ripen from an yellowish-greenish to yellow, at maturity to yellowish-brown, they possess a gummy shell with small pimples surrounded with hard, hexagonal tubercles. The large and variously shaped fruit have a length of 30 to 100 centimeters and a diameter of 15 to 50 centimeters and can weigh 10-25 kilograms or more.
The fruits consist of a whitish core about 5-10 centimeters thick. Radiating from this are many 10 centimeter long individual fruits, they are elliptical to egg-shaped, light brownish achenes with a length of about 3 centimeters and a diameter of 1.5 to 2 centimeters. There may be about 100-500 seeds per fruit; the seed coat consists of a thin, parchment-like and removable testa and a brownish, membranous tegmen. The cotyledons are unequal in size, the endosperm is minimally present; the fruit matures during the rainy season from July to August. The bean-shaped achenes of the jackfruit are coated with a firm yellowish aril, which has an intense sweet taste at maturity of the fruit; the pulp is enveloped by many narrow strands of fiber, which run between the hard shell and the core of the fruit and are firmly
Indonesian cuisine consists of the various regional cuisines in parts of Indonesia. Many regional cuisines exist based upon indigenous culture with some foreign influences. Indonesia has around 5,350 traditional recipes, with 30 of them considered the most important. Indonesia's cuisine may include rice and soup dishes in modest local eateries to street-side snacks and top-dollar plates. Indonesian cuisine varies by region and has many different influences. Sumatran cuisine, for example has Middle Eastern and Indian influences, featuring curried meat and vegetables such as gulai and curry, while Javanese cuisine is indigenous, with some hint of Chinese influence; the cuisines of Eastern Indonesia are similar to Melanesian cuisine. Elements of Chinese cuisine can be seen in Indonesian cuisine: foods such as noodles, meat balls, spring rolls have been assimilated. Throughout its history, Indonesia has been involved in trade due to its location and natural resources. Additionally, Indonesia’s indigenous techniques and ingredients were influenced by India, the Middle East and Europe.
Spanish and Portuguese traders brought New World produce before the Dutch came to colonise most of the archipelago. The Indonesian islands The Moluccas, which are famed as "the Spice Islands" contributed to the introduction of native spices, such as cloves and nutmeg, to Indonesian and global cuisine. Indonesian cuisine demonstrates complex flavour, acquired from certain ingredients and bumbu spices mixture. Indonesian dishes have rich flavours. Most of Indonesians favour hot and spicy food, thus sambal, Indonesian hot and spicy chili sauce with shrimp paste, is a staple condiment at all Indonesian tables. Seven main Indonesian cooking methods are frying, roasting, dry roasting, sautéing and steaming; some popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng, gado-gado and soto are ubiquitous in the country and are considered national dishes. The official national dish of Indonesia however, is tumpeng, chosen in 2014 by Indonesian Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy as the dish that binds the diversity of Indonesia's various culinary traditions.
However in 2018, the same ministry has chosen 5 national dish of Indonesia. Today, some popular dishes that originated in Indonesia are now common to neighbouring countries and Singapore. Indonesian dishes such as satay, beef rendang, sambal are favoured in Malaysia and Singapore. Soy-based dishes, such as variations of tofu and tempeh, are very popular. Tempeh is regarded as a Javanese invention, a local adaptation of soy-based food fermentation and production. Another fermented food is oncom, similar in some ways to tempeh but using a variety of bases, created by different fungi, popular in West Java. SBS Australia stated that Indonesian food is "one of the most vibrant and colourful cuisines in the world, full of intense flavour." Kira Jane Buxton of Mashed described it as "eclectic" and "diverse". Indonesian cuisine has a long history—although most of them are not well-documented, relied on local practice and oral traditions. A rare instance however, is demonstrated by Javanese cuisine that somewhat has quite a well-documented culinary tradition.
The diversity ranges from ancient bakar batu or stone-grilled yams and boar practiced by Papuan tribes of eastern Indonesia, to sophisticated contemporary Indonesian fusion cuisine. The ethnic diversity of Indonesian archipelago provides an eclectic combination — mixing local Javanese, Balinese, Minang and other native cuisine traditions, with centuries worth of foreign contacts with Indian traders, Chinese migrants and Dutch colonials. Rice has been an essential staple for Indonesian society, as bas-reliefs of 9th century Borobudur and Prambanan describes rice farming in ancient Java. Ancient dishes were mentioned in many Javanese inscriptions and historians have succeeded in deciphering some of them; the inscriptions from Medang Mataram era circa 8th to 10th century mentioned several ancient dishes, among others are hadaŋan haraŋ, hadaŋan madura, dundu puyengan. Various haraŋ-haraŋ either celeṅ/wök, hadahan/kbo, kidaŋ/knas or wḍus. Ancient beverages include nalaka rasa, jati wangi, kinca. Various kuluban and phalamula.
Other ancient vegetable dishes include rumwah-rumwah and tetis. The 9th century Old Javanese Kakawin Ramayana mentioned cooking technique as Trijata offered Sita some food. Several food were mentioned in several Javanese inscriptions dated from 10th century to 15th century; some of this dishes are identified with present day Javanese foods. Among others are pecel, rarawwan, kurupuk, sweets like wajik and dodol beverages like dawet. In the 15th century Sundanese manuscript Sanghyang Siksa Kanda
Coconut sugar is a palm sugar produced from the sap of the flower bud stem of the coconut palm. Other types of palm sugar are made from the Palmyra palm, the date palm, the sugar date palm, the sago palm or the sugar palm. Used as a sweetener in many countries, coconut sugar has no significant nutritional or health benefits over other sweeteners. Coconut sugar granule form, block or liquid. Producing coconut sugar is a two-step process, it starts with "tapping" the flower bud stem of a coconut tree. Farmers make a cut on the sap starts to flow from the cut into bamboo containers; the sap collected is transferred into large woks and placed over moderate heat to evaporate the moisture content of the sap. The sap is about 80 % water. At this point it is known as coconut neera or nira, as coconut toddy, maprau, or lagbi; as the water evaporates, it starts to transform into a thick sap syrup. From this form, it may not be further reduced to crystal, block or soft paste form; the brown colour which develops as the sap is reduced is due to caramelization.
In Indonesian cuisine coconut sugar is called as gula jawa or gula merah, while gula aren refer to palm sugar made from aren palm. Some Indonesian foodstuffs are made including kecap manis and dendeng. Gula melaka is a Southeast Asian name for palm sugar or'malacca sugar' named for its origin in the state of Malacca, Malaysia, it is derived from coconut palms, but sometimes from other palms. It is used in savory dishes, but in local desserts and cakes of the Southeast Asian region. Coconut sugar is subtly sweet like brown sugar but with a slight hint of caramel; the flavor and sweetness is similar to table sugar or brown sugar. However, since coconut sugar is not processed, the color and flavor can vary depending on the coconut species used, season when it was harvested, where it was harvested and/or the way the "sap" or "toddy" was reduced. Although its use as a sweetener has become more common in developed countries, there is no scientific evidence that coconut sugar is more nutritious or healthier than any other sweetener.
The nutritive value is similar to the empty calories found in brown sugar. The principal carbohydrates of coconut sugar are sucrose and fructose; the glycemic index of coconut sugar was reported by the Philippine Coconut Authority to be 35 and by that measure is classified as a low glycemic index food. However, the University of Sydney Glycemic Index Research Service measured the GI of coconut sugar to be 54, considers any GI over 55 to be high. Jaggery, a form of brown sugar, is sometimes made from coconut sugar Gula melaka, a form of palm sugar, is coconut sugar. Coconut palm sugar is a type of palm sugar
Dessert is a course that concludes an evening meal. The course consists of sweet foods, such as confections dishes or fruit, a beverage such as dessert wine or liqueur, however in the United States it may include coffee, nuts, or other savory items regarded as a separate course elsewhere. In some parts of the world, such as much of central and western Africa, most parts of China, there is no tradition of a dessert course to conclude a meal; the term dessert can apply to many confections, such as biscuits, cookies, gelatins, ice creams, pies and sweet soups, tarts. Fruit is commonly found in dessert courses because of its occurring sweetness; some cultures sweeten foods that are more savory to create desserts. The word "dessert" originated from the French word desservir, meaning "to clear the table." Its first known use was in 1600, in a health education manual entitled Naturall and artificial Directions for Health, written by William Vaughan. In his A History of Dessert, Michael Krondl explains it refers to the fact dessert was served after the table had been cleared of other dishes.
The term dates from the 14th century but attained its current meaning around the beginning of the 20th century when "service à la française" was replaced with "service à la russe"" The word "dessert" is most used for this course in Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, the United States, while "pudding", "sweet", or more colloquially, "afters" are used in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong and India. Sweets were fed to the gods in ancient Mesopotamia and ancient India and other ancient civilizations. Dried fruit and honey were the first sweeteners used in most of the world, but the spread of sugarcane around the world was essential to the development of dessert. Sugarcane was grown and refined in India before 500 BC and was crystallized, making it easy to transport, by 500 AD. Sugar and sugarcane were traded, making sugar available to Macedonia by 300 BC and China by 600 AD. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, China, sugar has been a staple of cooking and desserts for over a thousand years.
Sugarcane and sugar were little known and rare in Europe until the twelfth century or when the Crusades and colonization spread its use. Herodotus mentions that, as opposed to the Greeks, the main Persian meal was simple, but they would eat many desserts afterwards. Europeans began to manufacture sugar in the Middle Ages, more sweet desserts became available. Sugar was so expensive only the wealthy could indulge on special occasions; the first apple pie recipe was published in 1381. The earliest documentation of the term cupcake was in "Seventy-five Receipts for Pastry and Sweetmeats" in 1828 in Eliza Leslie's Receipts cookbook; the Industrial Revolution in Europe and America caused desserts to be mass-produced, preserved and packaged. Frozen foods, including desserts, became popular starting in the 1920s when freezing emerged; these processed foods became a large part of diets in many industrialized nations. Many countries have foods distinctive to their nations or region. Sweet desserts contain cane sugar, palm sugar, honey or some types of syrup such as molasses, maple syrup, treacle, or corn syrup.
Other common ingredients in Western-style desserts are flour or other starches, Cooking fats such as butter or lard, eggs, acidic ingredients such as lemon juice, spices and other flavoring agents such as chocolate, peanut butter and nuts. The proportions of these ingredients, along with the preparation methods, play a major part in the consistency and flavor of the end product. Sugars contribute tenderness to baked goods. Flour or starch components gives the dessert structure. Fats can enable the development of flaky layers in pastries and pie crusts; the dairy products in baked goods keep the desserts moist. Many desserts contain eggs, in order to form custard or to aid in the rising and thickening of a cake-like substance. Egg yolks contribute to the richness of desserts. Egg whites can provide structure. Further innovation in the healthy eating movement has led to more information being available about vegan and gluten-free substitutes for the standard ingredients, as well as replacements for refined sugar.
Desserts can contain many extracts to add a variety of flavors. Salt and acids are added to desserts to create a contrast in flavors; some desserts are coffee-flavored, for coffee biscuits. Alcohol can be used as an ingredient, to make alcoholic desserts. Dessert consist of variations of flavors and appearances. Desserts can be defined as a sweeter course that concludes a meal; this definition includes a range of courses ranging from fruits or dried nuts to multi-ingredient cakes and pies. Many cultures have different variations of dessert. In modern times the variations of desserts have been passed down or come from geographical regions; this is one cause for the variation of desserts. These are some major categories. Biscuits, (from the Old French word bescuit meaning twice-baked in Latin known as "cookies" in North America, are flattish bite-sized or larger short pastries intended to be eaten out of the hand. Biscuits can have a texture, crispy, chewy, or soft. Examples include layered bars, crispy
The sweet potato is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. Its large, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are a root vegetable; the young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. The sweet potato is only distantly related to the potato and does not belong to the nightshade family, but both families belong to the same taxonomic order, the Solanales; the plant is a herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, red, brown and beige, its flesh ranges from beige through white, pink, yellow and purple. Sweet potato cultivars with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh. Ipomoea batatas is native to the tropical regions in the Americas. Of the 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the only crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally, but many are poisonous.
The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato includes several garden flowers called morning glories, though that term is not extended to Ipomoea batatas. Some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown as ornamental plants under the name tuberous morning glory, used in a horticultural context; the sweet potato is called a "yam" in parts of North America, but is botanically distinct from the botanical yams. Although the soft, orange sweet potato is called a "yam" in parts of North America, the sweet potato is distinct from the botanical yams, native to Africa and Asia and belongs to the monocot family Dioscoreaceae. To add to the confusion, a different crop plant, the oca, is called a "yam" in many parts of Polynesia, including New Zealand. Although the sweet potato is not related botanically to the common potato, they have a shared etymology; the first Europeans to taste sweet potatoes were members of Christopher Columbus's expedition in 1492. Explorers found many cultivars under an assortment of local names, but the name which stayed was the indigenous Taino name of batata.
The Spanish combined this with the Quechua word for potato, papa, to create the word patata for the common potato. In Argentina, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic the sweet potato is called batata. In Mexico, Chile, Central America, the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote, derived from the Nahuatl word camotli. In Peru, the Quechua name for a type of sweet potato is kumar, strikingly similar to the Polynesian name kumara and its regional Oceanic cognates, which has led some scholars to suspect an instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. In New Zealand, the original Māori varieties bore elongated tubers with white skin and a whitish flesh. Kumara is popular as a roasted food served with sour cream and sweet chili sauce. In Australia, shops will label purple cultivars as "purple sweet potato" to denote the difference to the other cultivars. About 95% of Australia's production is of the orange cultivar named'Beauregard' from North America, known as "sweet potato". A reddish-purple cultivar,'Northern Star', is 4% of production and is sold as "kumara".
The origin and domestication of sweet potato occurred in either South America. In Central America, domesticated sweet potatoes were present at least 5,000 years ago, with the origin of I. batatas between the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico and the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. The cultigen was most spread by local people to the Caribbean and South America by 2500 BCE; the sweet potato was grown in Polynesia before western exploration as the Ipomoea batatas, spread by vine cuttings rather than by seeds. Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1400 CE. A common hypothesis is that a vine cutting was brought to central Polynesia by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, spread from there across Polynesia to Easter Island and New Zealand. Divergence time estimates suggest that sweet potatoes might have been present in Polynesia thousands of years before humans arrived there, although other reports dispute this. In response to a major crop failure, sweet potatoes were introduced to Fujian province of China in about 1594 from Luzon.
The growing of sweet potatoes was encouraged by the Governor Chin Hsüeh-tseng. The sweet potato was introduced to Japan, in the early 1600s. Sweet potatoes became a staple in Japan because they were important in preventing famine when rice harvests were poor. Sweet potatoes were planted in Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune's private garden, it was introduced to Korea in 1764. The sweet potato arrived in Europe with the Columbian exchange, it is recorded, for example, in Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book, compiled in England in 1604. The genome of cultivated sweet potatoes contains sequences of DNA from Agrobacterium, with genes expressed by the plants. Transgenes were observed both in related wild relatives of the sweet potato, in more distantly related wild species. Studies indicated that the sweet potato genome evolved over millennia, with eventual domestication of the crop taking advantage of natural genetic modific
Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava plant. This species is native to the north region and central-west region of Brazil, but its use spread throughout South America; the plant was carried by Portuguese and Spanish explorers to most of the West Indies and Africa and Asia. It is a tropical, perennial shrub, less cultivated in temperate climate zones. Cassava thrives better in poor soils than many other food plants. Although tapioca is a staple food for millions of people in tropical countries, it provides only carbohydrate food value, is low in protein and minerals. In other countries, it is used as a thickening agent in various manufactured foods. Tapioca is derived from the word tipi'óka, its name in the Tupí language spoken by natives when the Portuguese first arrived in the Northeast Region of Brazil around 1707; this Tupí word refers to the process. The cassava plant has either green branches with blue spindles on them; the root of the green-branched variant requires treatment to remove linamarin, a cyanogenic glycoside occurring in the plant, which otherwise may be converted into cyanide.
Konzo is a paralytic disease associated with several weeks of exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. In the north and northeast of Brazil, traditional community-based production of tapioca is a by-product of manioc flour production from cassava roots. In this process, the manioc is ground to a pulp with a small hand- or diesel-powered mill; this masa is squeezed to dry it out. The wet masa is placed in a long woven tube called a tipiti; the top of the tube is secured while a large branch or lever is inserted into a loop at the bottom and used to stretch the entire implement vertically, squeezing a starch-rich liquid out through the weave and ends. This liquid is collected and the water allowed to evaporate, leaving behind a fine-grained tapioca powder similar in appearance to corn starch. Commercially, the starch is processed into several forms: hot soluble powder, pre-cooked fine/coarse flakes, rectangular sticks, spherical "pearls". Pearls are the most available shape.
Flakes and pearls must be soaked well before cooking, in order to rehydrate, absorbing water up to twice their volume. After rehydration, tapioca products become swollen. Processed tapioca is white, but sticks and pearls may be colored. Traditionally, the most common color applied to tapioca has been brown, but pastel colors have been available. Tapioca pearls are opaque when raw, but become translucent when cooked in boiling water. Brazil in South America, Thailand in Asia, Nigeria in Africa are the world's largest producers of cassava. Thailand accounts for about 60 percent of worldwide exports. Tapioca predominantly consists of carbohydrates, with each cup containing 23.9 grams for a total of 105 calories. One serving of tapioca pudding contains no dietary fiber, a small amount of oleic acid, no omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. A casabe is a thin flatbread made from bitter cassava root without leavening, it was produced by the indigenous Arawak and Carib peoples because these roots were a common plant of the rain forests where they lived.
In eastern Venezuela, many indigenous groups still make casabe. It is their chief bread-like staple. Indigenous communities, such as the Ye-Kuana, Kari-Ña, Guarao or Warao descended from the Caribe or Arawac nations, still make casabe. To make casabe, the starchy root of bitter cassava is ground to a pulp squeezed to expel a milky, bitter liquid called yare; this carries the poisonous substances with it out of the pulp. Traditionally, this squeezing is done in a sebucan, an 8 to 12-foot long, tube-shaped, pressure strainer, woven in a characteristic helical pattern from palm leaves; the sebucan is hung from a tree branch or ceiling pole, it has a closed bottom with a loop, attached to a fixed stick or lever, used to stretch the sebucan. When the lever is pushed down, stretching the sebucan, the helical weaving pattern causes the strainer to squeeze the pulp inside; this is similar to the action of a Chinese finger trap. The pulp is spread in round cakes about 2 feet in diameter on a budare to roast or toast.
Thin and crisp cakes of casabe are broken apart and eaten like crackers. Like bread, casabe can be eaten alone or with other dishes. Thicker casabe are eaten moistened. A sprinkle of a few drops of liquid is enough to transform a dry casabe into soft smooth bread. Tapioca balls known as boba in some cultures, are produced by passing the moist starch through a sieve under pressure. Pearl tapioca is a common ingredient in South and Southeast Asian desserts such as falooda, sago soup, in sweet drinks such as bubble tea, fruit slush and taho, where they provide a chewy contrast to the sweetness and smooth texture of the drink. Small pearls are preferred for use in puddings. In Brazil, the pearls are called sagu. Large pearls are preferred for use in drinks; these pearls most are brown, not white, due to the sugar added and are traditionally used in black or green tea drinks. They are used as various colors in hot drinks. In addition to their use in puddings and beverages, tapioca pearls may be used in cakes.
Processing of the cassava flour into tapioca pearls requires the intermediate step of a product called tapioca grit. Tapioca grit is dried ca
Binignit is a Visayan dessert soup from the central Philippines. The dish is traditionally made with glutinous rice cooked in coconut milk with various slices of sabá bananas and sweet potato, among other ingredients, it is comparable to various savoury and dessert guinataán dishes found in other regions such as bilo-bilo. Binignit is called giná-tan in Bikolano, tabirák in Mindanao Cebuano, alpahor in Chavacano, ginettaán' in Ilokano, ginat-an in Waray and Hiligaynon/Ilonggo, kamlo in western Iloilo and linugaw in Bacolod City. Binignit is considered a type of guinataán; the meat of a mature coconut is grated and the "thick" milk is extracted. Two cups of water are added to the grated coconut and a second extraction is made; this becomes the "thin" milk. This "thin" coconut milk extract is added to cubed kamote and ube, sliced ripe sabá and langka, tapioca pearls. Sometimes, young coconut meat strips are added; this is simmered on low to medium heat. Glutinous rice is added once the root crops have sufficiently softened and the mixture is brought to a boil.
Just before removal from the flame, the "thick" coconut milk is added. The people of the neighbouring island of Leyte include landang and anise, thicken it with milled glutinous rice; the vegetables and the pearl sago are cooked in a mixture of water, coconut milk and landang, sweetened by muscovado or brown sugar. The soup is cooked and eaten during Holy Week during Good Friday when observant Catholics fast and avoid meat. A popular afternoon snack, it is best served. Others serve it chilled or frozen, eating the dessert much like ice cream. Ginataan Ginataang mais Halo-halo Kolak List of soups Lugaw