Regions of Senegal
Senegal is subdivided into 14 regions, each of, administered by a Conseil Régional elected by population weight at the arrondissement level. Senegal is further subdivided into 45 departments, 103 arrondissements and by collectivités locales which elect administrative officers. Three of these regions were created on 10 September 2008, when Kaffrine Region was split from Kaolack, Kédougou region was split from Tambacounda, Sédhiou region was split from Kolda. To date, all regions take their name from their regional capitals. List of Senegalese regions by Human Development Index Departments of Senegal Arrondissements of Senegal ISO 3166-2:SN List of administrative divisions in Senegal Collectivités locales from Republic of Senegal Government site, l'Agence de l'informatique de l'État. Map of main subdivisions and more detailed maps on subdivisions Décret fixant le ressort territorial et le chef lieu des régions et des départements, décret n°2002-166 du 21 février 2002. Code des collectivités locales, Loi n° 96-06 du 22 mars 1996
Ziguinchor is the capital of the Ziguinchor Region, the chief town of the Casamance area of Senegal, lying at the mouth of the Casamance River. It has a population of over 230,000, it is the second largest city of Senegal, but separated from the north of the country by The Gambia. The city has a tropical savanna climate, with an average annual accumulated rainfall of 1547mm; the first European settlement in the area was founded by the Portuguese in 1645. According to tradition, Ziguinchor's name and meaning comes from the time when Portuguese traders and explorers came to the region to form a trading post, derives from Portuguese Cheguei e choram, "I came and they cry"; the local people, seeing the Europeans, began thinking they were to be enslaved. The Portuguese objective was to form a friendship alliance with the local king; the Portuguese objective was trade with the kingdom of Casamanse, a loyal friend, described by chroniclers as the friendly kingship towards the Portuguese along the Guinean coast.
The king started to live in European manner, with table and western clothing and, in the court, there were several Portuguese merchants. One of the commodities for trade were slaves, Ziguinchor became a slave port during much of the Portuguese rule; the spot was not chosen at random. While a Jola village predated the town, it was situated to trade with the Jola kingdom of Kasso, which dates back to the Mali Empire, when Mandinke people moved into the area from the south and east. Following the end of the slave trade, Portuguese commerce stultified, the town was handed over to France on 22 April 1888, in a deal brokered amongst the colonial powers at the Berlin conference of 1886. Under the French, Ziguinchor became a major trade port due to the intensive groundnut cultivation the colonial government encouraged in the interior. By 1900, the area was converted to Christianity, although significant Syncretist and Muslim communities flourish. Rice growing, the traditional crop of the region, was hurt by the push to cultivate groundnuts, extensive forest areas were cleared.
The French government imported rice across West Africa from the intensive farming they encouraged in French Indochina, shrinking the market for Casamance's main produce. After independence, the city saw its economic growth slow, in part due to the War of Independence in neighboring Guinea-Bissau. Portuguese military crossed into the area at least once, pursuing PAIG rebels, cannon fire could be heard in the city for much of the war. During this period Ziguinchor became a main post for both the Senegalese Army and French forces, guarding the frontier; as the capital of Casamance, Ziguinchor has been at the center of the three decade long conflict with Dakar, that has flared into open civil war on more than one occasion. With a population with a majority of Diola and Christian, the effects of a large migration of Wolof Muslims fleeing drought in the north during the 1970s caused tensions to flare. A 1983 demonstration against price rises in Ziguinchor Market was put down violently by Senegalese forces, an insurgency by the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance followed wrecking the economy of the region.
The 2004 peace accords, signed in Ziguinchor, were hoped to be the end of the violence, but in 2006, sporadic fighting by an MFDC split and laying of land mines again erupted in rural areas nearby. Ziguinchor remains economically dependent on its role as a cargo port, transport hub and ferry terminal; the "Nationale 4" highway crosses the Casamance River just east of the city, linking the region with Bignona about 25 km to the north, the rest of Senegal. A vibrant tourist destination, the beaches of nearby Cap Skirring were discovered by foreign tourists in the 1960s, the location was built up to become one of the first Club Med resorts. Ziguinchor region is known for growing great quantities of rice, mangoes, cashews, tropical fruits and vegetables and prawns, much of which are processed locally and exported from the city, its port, its airport, it is home to a large peanut oil factory. The MV Joola, which sank in 2002, was sailing from Ziguinchor to Dakar; the loss of the ferry, cut the rest of the country.
The new ferry, which began regular runs in 2007, is named for local anti-colonial martyr Aline Sitoe Diatta, promises a boost to the local economy. The city has Ziguinchor Airport. A number of buildings in the town have classified by government decree as historic, including the cathedral of Saint-Antoine de Padoue, the Grand Mosque of Santhiaba, the cemetery and several government buildings, like the Ziguinchor Regional Council. Ziguinchor is a melting pot of all the ethnic groups co-existing in Senegal: Mandinka, Wolof, Fula/Halpulaar, Manjack, Serer, Bainounck and Creole. Jola have been the majority of the population in the region since at least 1500, culturally share much with the people of Guinea-Bissau. One of three dialects of Guinea-Bissau Creole, Cacheu–Ziguinchor, is centered around the city. Resistant to first Islam and Christianity, many Jola retain a degree of animist practices, while Basse Casamance is the only majority Catholic area in Senegal. Ziguinchor is the birthplace of some famous Senegalese writers and filmmakers and sportsmen (Jules Francois Bocande, Bassirou NDiaye, Lansana Coly, Basile de Carvalho In the decades following independence, Zigu
Vélingara is a town located in the Kolda Region of Senegal. It is north of the large 48 km Vélingara crater though the structure's impact origin is still unconfirmed; the population is composed of Fulani, Soninke and Madingo. At the census of 2002 it numbered 20,806. In 2007, according to official estimates, it had grown to 23,775. List of possible impact structures on Earth
Tambacounda is the largest city in eastern Senegal, 400 kilometres southeast of Dakar, is the regional capital of the province of the same name. Its estimated population in 2007 was 78,800. Tambacounda is situated on the sparsely populated sahélien plains of eastern Senegal. Like most of West Africa, the area has two seasons, the rainy season from June to October, characterized by heat and storms, the dry season from November to May. Nearby towns include Madina Maboule, Yoro Sankoule, Djidje Kounda, Afia Seno, Saare Boylii and Kanderi Niana. Between the censuses of 1988 and 2002, Tambacounda grew from 41,885 to 67,543 inhabitants. In 2007, according to official estimates, the population reached 78,800 persons. Settled first by Mandike peoples on the outskirts of the Mali Empire, on the regular transhumance routes of Fula cattle herders, settled again by Wolof farmers in the early 20th century, Tambacounda has a mix of most of the ethnic groups in Senegal; the Tambacounda region is famous for heritage.
Some of the greatest djembe masters from Segu, Mali came to Tambacounda in the mid 1900s, bringing with them their history and secrets of the djembe. Among the famous musicians from Tambacounda is drummer Abdoulaye Diakite; as with most of Senegal, the population is overwhelmingly Muslim, with much of the Wolof population in the region tracing their roots to Mouride sufi adherents who were given wild grassland by the brotherhood to clear and settle at the beginning of the 20th century. There is a Roman Catholic Diocese of Tambacounda, but only 1.8% of the population of the region is Roman Catholic. The city grew from a village along the Dakar – Bamako railway, built in the colonial period, still used today, however passenger travel itself is limited. A branch line junctioning from this station is proposed to serve Kédougou; the city lies on the N7 roads. As a part of the Trans-Sahelian Highway system, these are critical for traffic going between the Kayes Region of Mali and the coastal regions of Sénégal, the most densely populated parts of both these nations.
This east–west travel intersects with Senegal's most important route from Dakar to the Casamance region, cut off by Gambia. Slow river ferries, border posts, corrupt border guards mean that many Senegalese are willing to travel far out of their way to avoid the international border. In 2002 the MV Joola ferry from Dakar to Ziguinchor sank, but since a new ferry has replaced it and the water route to Ziguinchor has reopened; the road through Tambacounda is the only internal route between the two parts of the country, however it is possible to travel through the Gambia. The town has an airport, Tambacounda Airport, serviced by national and international flights. Tambacounda is a center for agricultural processing, with millet, sorgum and cotton grown in the dry plains of the region. Sodefitex operates a large cotton processing plant in the town. Tambacounda was a Mandinka trade center at the beginning of French colonialisation. With the railway came more intensive cultivation of grains and cotton by Wolof peoples seeking arable land.
French colonialists made the town a major transport center, a number of buildings, including the rail station retain the colonial flavor. Tambacounda is the capital of the large Tambacounda Region. Souty Touré, the current mayor, was a government minister under Abdou Diouf, was the founder of the Parti socialiste authentique political party; the PSA has only one seat in the legislature, Tambacounda is its political base. The Niokolo-Koba National Park lies just to the south of the town, is famed for its wildlife. In 2003, the iron-framed rail station, the Hôtel de la Gare, the colonial Préfecture building were placed on Senegal's list of Monuments historiques. Bondy in France. La Roche sur Yon in France Transport in Senegal Translation of fr:Tambacounda. Site officiel de la commune Tambacounda sur Planète Sénégal tambacounda.info: Tambacounda based news and web portal. Peace Corps Senegal, Tambacounda Page Sekna Cissé, Évolution de la population de Tambacounda 1915-1976. Essai d’interprétation, Université de Dakar, 1981, 85 p. Mamadou Issa Diallo, Étude du vent d’une station synoptique, Université de Dakar: 1983, 141 p. Astou Diène, L’évolution économique du cercle de Tambacounda de 1919 à 1946, Université de Dakar: 1986, 99 p. Pascal Handschuhmacher, « Tambacounda, une ville historique sans histoire? » in Jean-Luc Piermay et Cheikh Sarr, La ville sénégalaise.
Une invention aux frontières du monde, Karthala, 2007, p. 200-203 ISBN 978-2-84586-884-7 Abou Ndour, Monographie de la ville de Tambacounda des origines à l’indépendance, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, 1993, 63 p
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland; the city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2.45 million. The area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century; the Portuguese established a presence on the island of Gorée off the coast of Cap-Vert and used it as a base for the Atlantic slave trade. France took over the island in 1677. Following the abolition of the slave trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port and a major city of the French colonial empire. In 1902, Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa. From 1959 to 1960, Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation. In 1960, it became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal. Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations.
From 1978 to 2007, it was the traditional finishing point of the Dakar Rally. Dakar will host the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics, making it the first African city to host the Olympics; the Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, an aquacultural ethnic group related to the neighboring Wolof and Serer. The original villages: Ouakam, Ngor and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today. In 1444, the Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar as slave-raiders. Peaceful contact was opened in 1456 by Diogo Gomes, the bay was subsequently referred to as the "Angra de Bezeguiche"; the bay of "Bezeguiche" would go on to serve as a critical stop for the Portuguese India Armadas of the early 16th century, where large fleets would stop, both on their outward and return journeys from India, to repair, collect fresh water from the rivulets and wells along the Cap-Vert shore and trade for provisions with the local people for their remaining voyage. The Portuguese founded a settlement on the island of Gorée, which by 1536 they began to use as a base for slave exportation.
The mainland of Cap-Vert, was under control of the Jolof Empire, as part of the western province of Cayor which seceded from Jolof in its own right in 1549. A new Lebou village, called Ndakaaru, was established directly across from Gorée in the 17th century to service the European trading factory with food and drinking water. Gorée was captured by the United Netherlands in 1588; the island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23, 1664, to the French in 1677. Though under continuous French administration since, métis families, descended from Dutch and French traders and African wives, dominated the slave trade; the infamous "House of Slaves" was built at Gorée in 1776. In 1795, the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule. A new theocratic state, subsequently called the "Lebou Republic" by the French, was established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim clerical family from Koki in Cayor.
The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru. In 1857 the French established a military post at Ndakaaru and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally; the Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the traditional political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. The slave trade was abolished by France in February 1794. However, Napoleon reinstated it in May 1802 finally abolished it permanently in March 1815. Despite Napoleon's abolition, a clandestine slave trade continued at Gorée until 1848, when it was abolished throughout all French territories. To replace trade in slaves, the French promoted peanut cultivation on the mainland; as the peanut trade boomed, tiny Gorée Island, whose population had grown to 6,000 residents, proved ineffectual as a port. Traders from Gorée decided to move to the mainland and a "factory" with warehouses was established in Rufisque in 1840. Large public expenditure for infrastructure was allocated by the colonial authorities to Dakar's development.
The port facilities were improved with jetties, a telegraph line was established along the coast to Saint-Louis and the Dakar-Saint-Louis railway was completed in 1885, at which point the city became an important base for the conquest of the western Sudan. Gorée, including Dakar, was recognised as a French commune in 1872. Dakar itself was split off from Gorée as a separate commune in 1887; the citizens of the city elected their own mayor and municipal council and helped send an elected representative to the National Assembly in Paris. Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa in 1902. A second major railroad, the Dakar-Niger built from 1906–1923, linked Dakar to Bamako and consolidated the city's position at the head of France's West African empire. In 1929, the commune of Gorée Island, now with only a few hundred inhabitants, was merged into Dakar. Urbanization during the colonial period was marked by forms of racial and social segregation—often expressed in terms of health and hygiene—which continue to structure the city today.
Following a plague epidemic in 1914, the authorities forced most of the African population out of old neighborhoods, o
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe, numbering between 38 and 40 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa dispersed across the region. Inhabiting many countries, they live in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa but in, South Sudan and regions near the Red Sea coast. A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 12 to 13 million – are pastoralists, making them the ethnic group with the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world; the majority of the Fula ethnic group consisted of semi-sedentary people as well as sedentary settled farmers, artisans and nobility. As an ethnic group, they are bound together by their history and their culture. More than 90% of the Fula are Muslims; the Fulas are leaders in many West African countries. These include the president of Muhammadu Buhari, they are leaders in International Institutions such as the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, Amina J. Mohammed. There are many names used in other languages to refer to the Fulɓe.
Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term. Fula, from Manding languages, is used in English, sometimes spelled Fulah or Fullah. Fula and Fulani are used in English, including within Africa; the French borrowed the Wolof term Pël, variously spelled: Peul and Peuhl. More the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Fulɓe, a plural noun has been Anglicised as Fulbe, gaining popularity in use. In Portuguese, the terms Fula or Futafula are used; the terms Fallata Fallatah or Fellata are of Kanuri origins, are the ethnonyms by which Fulani people are identified by in parts of Chad and in Sudan. The Fula people are distributed, across the Sahel from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea in West Africa; the countries where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, the Gambia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Chad, South Sudan the Central African Republic, as far east as the Red Sea in Sudan and Egypt. With the exception of Guinea, where the Fula make up the largest ethnic group, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger, Fulas are either a significant or a minority ethnic group in nearly all other countries they live in.
Alongside, many speak other languages of the countries they inhabit, making many Fulani bilingual or trilingual in nature. Such languages include French, Bambara and Arabic. Major concentrations of Fulani people exist in the Fouta Djallon highlands of central Guinea and south into the northernmost reaches of Sierra Leone; this is the area known as the Fombina meaning "The South" in Adamawa Fulfulde, because it represented the most southern and eastern reaches of Fulɓe hegemonic dominance in West Africa. In this area, Fulfulde is the local lingua franca, language of cross cultural communication. Further east of this area, Fulani communities become predominantly nomadic, exist at less organized social systems; these are the areas of the Chari-Baguirmi Region and its river systems, in Chad and the Central African Republic, the Ouaddaï highlands of Eastern Chad, the areas around Kordofan and the Blue Nile, Kassala regions of Sudan, as well as the Red Sea coastal city of Port Sudan. The Fulani on their way to or back from the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, settled in many parts of eastern Sudan, today representing a distinct community of over 2 million people referred to as the Fellata.
While their early settlements in West Africa were in the vicinity of the tri-border point of present-day Mali and Mauritania, they are now, after centuries of gradual migrations and conquests, spread throughout a wide band of West and Central Africa. The Fulani People occupy a vast geographical expanse located in a longitudinal East-West band south of the Sahara, just north of the coastal rain forest and swamps. There are an estimated 20-25 million Fulani people. There are three different types of Fulani based on settlement patterns, viz: the Nomadic/Pastoral or Mbororo, The Semi-Nomadic and the Settled or "Town Fulani"; the pastoral Fulani move around with their cattle throughout the year. They do not stay around, for long stretches; the semi-nomadic Fulani can either be Fulɓe families who happen to settle down temporarily at particular times of the year, or Fulɓe families who do not "browse" around past their immediate surroundings, though they possess livestock, they do not wander away from a fixed or settled homestead not too far away, they are "In-betweeners".
Settled Fulani live in villages and cities permanently and have given u
Senegal the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal borders The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates Senegal's southern region of Casamance from the rest of the country. Senegal shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar; the unitary semi-presidential republic is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia, owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. Senegal covers a land area of 197,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 15 million; the climate is Sahelian, though there is a rainy season. From a Portuguese transliteration of the name of the Zenaga known as the Sanhaja, or a combination of the supreme deity in Serer religion and o gal meaning body of water in the Serer language.
Alternatively, the name could derive from the Wolof phrase "Sunuu Gaal," which means "our boat." The territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by various ethnic groups since prehistory. Organized kingdoms emerged around the seventh century, parts of the country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire; the present state of Senegal has its roots in European colonialism, which began during the mid-15th century, when various European powers began competing for trade in the area. The establishment of coastal trading posts led to control of the mainland, culminating in French rule of the area by the 19th century, albeit amid much local resistance. Senegal peacefully attained independence from France in 1960, has since been among the more politically stable countries in Africa. Senegal's economy is centered on commodities and natural resources. Major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair.
As in most African nations, agriculture is a major sector, with Senegal producing several important cash crops, including peanuts, cotton, green beans, tomatoes and mangoes. Owing to its relative stability and hospitality are burgeoning sectors. With it being a multiethnic and secular nation, Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi and animist influences. French is the official language, although many native languages are recognized. Since April 2012, Senegal's president has been Macky Sall. Senegal has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since 1970. Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has been continuously occupied by various ethnic groups; some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: Takrur in the 9th century and the Jolof Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. Eastern Senegal was once part of the Ghana Empire. Islam was introduced through Toucouleur and Soninke contact with the Almoravid dynasty of the Maghreb, who in turn propagated it with the help of the Almoravids, Toucouleur allies.
This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of the Serers in particular. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east. In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved as a result of captives taken in warfare. In the 14th century the Jolof Empire grew more powerful, having united Cayor and the kingdoms of Baol, Saloum, Futa Tooro and Bambouk, or much of present-day West Africa; the empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than an empire built on military conquest. The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, a part Serer and part Toucouleur, able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall. In the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Various European powers—Portugal, the Netherlands, Great Britain—competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward.
In 1677, France gained control of what had become a minor departure point in the Atlantic slave trade—the island of Gorée next to modern Dakar, used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. European missionaries introduced Christianity to the Casamance in the 19th century, it was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland after they abolished slavery and began promoting an abolitionist doctrine, adding native kingdoms like the Waalo, Cayor and Jolof Empire. French colonists progressively invaded and took over all the kingdoms except Sine and Saloum under Governor Louis Faidherbe. Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. Senegalese resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Sine, resulting in the Battle of Logandème.
On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of a transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when