Kundapur spelled Kundapura, is a coastal town in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is administered by the Kundapur Town Municipal Council and serves as a headquarter of the Kundapura Taluk. Kundapura railway station, along with the Konkan railway, is useful for Kerala pilgrims who visit Kolluru Mookambika Temple as best transport connection to Kollur along with facilities like lodges, many more tourist attraction such as beaches and resorts are near to the station; the name Kundapura can be traced to the Kundeshwar temple built by Kundavarma in the vicinity of the Panchagangavalli river. The name of the town may be derived from Kundavarma. Kunda means ` pillar' in kannada. Pura means town. Kundapura is surrounded by water from three sides. To the north lies the Panchagangavali river. To the east lies the Kalaghar river. To the west lie the Kodi backwaters and the Arabian Sea, leaving the south side as the main connecting land mass. All connecting roads to Kundapura enter the city from the southern direction.
North side of the town is vast backwaters of Panchagangavali river and a bridge has been constructed across it. The town consists of speakers of Kundagannada dialect of Kannada and a few Konkani speakers; the Hindu and Christian populations speak Konkani. Muslim community people speak Beary languages. Tulu is one of the native langugae; as of the 2001 India census, Kundapur has a population of 30,450. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Literacy rate of 92%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 94%, female literacy is 88%. 9% of the population are under 6 years of age. Kundapur is well connected to other parts of the country by NH66. SH52 is the main State Highway; this Highway connects towns of different states. Kundapur is connected to the Konkan Railway, which runs from Mumbai to Mangalore; the railway station is about 4 kilometres from the town. The nearest airport is Mangalore International Airport, situated at Bajpe around 87 kilometres from Kundapur.
The major part of transportation around the town are private local buses and some out of the town is serviced by government owned. A High frequency of buses can be found for Mangalore. Another used mode of transportation is auto rikshaw
Udupi is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the administrative headquarters of Udupi District, it is one of the fastest growing cities in Karnataka & the city has got a modern touch due to its educational suburb Manipal, a part of the city. Udupi is one of the top tourist attractions in Karnataka, it is notable for the Krishna Temple. It lends its name to the popular Udupi cuisine, it is known as Lord Parashurama Kshetra, is famous for Kanakana Kindi. A centre of pilgrimage, Udupi is known as Rajata Shivalli, it is known as the temple city. Udupi is situated about 55 km north of the educational, commercial & industrial hub Mangalore and about 422 km west of state capital Bangalore by road. Udupi is one of the districts of Karnataka in India. There are 233 villages and 21 towns in Udupi district; as per the Census India 2011, Udupi district has 2,53,078 households, population of 11,77,361 of which 5,62,131 are males and 6,15,230 are females. The population of children between age 0-6 is 1,03,160, 8.76% of the total population.
The sex-ratio of Udupi district is around 1094 compared to 973, average of Karnataka state. The literacy rate of Udupi district is 78.69% out of which 82.85% males are literate and 74.89% females are literate. The total area of Udupi is 3,582 sq.km with a population density of 329 per sq.km. Out of the total population, 71.63% of the population lives in the Urban area and 28.37% lives in Rural area. There are 4.49 % Scheduled Tribe of the total population in Udupi district. Sthanika Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins, Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins, Billavas, Mangalorean Catholics, Beary, Padmashalis, Ramakshatriyas are some prominent communities in Udupi. Udupi, which had a Town Municipal Council now has a City Municipal Council which came into existence in 1995. Areas around Udupi, such as Manipal, Malpe and Santhekatte were merged to form the City Municipal Council. Udupi was carved out as a separate district from the erstwhile Dakshina Kannada district on 25 August 1997. Udupi and Karkala were bifurcated from the Dakshina Kannada District and the Udupi District was formed.
Dinakar Babu and Sheela K Shetty of the Bharatiya Janata Party are the current president and vice-president of the Udupi Zilla Panchayat after the election held at the Zilla Panchayat on 27 April 2016. In February 2018, the district was split to into 3 more taluks, with Byndoor being carved out of Kundapur taluk and the Udupi taluk being split into three parts. Along with the initial Udupi taluk and Brahmavar were created. Tulu and Kannada are the most spoken languages in Udupi. Other spoken languages include Konkani, English and Kundagannada. Muslims in Udupi speak Urdu and Beary. Udupi has an elevation of 27 m above mean sea level; the climate in Udupi is hot in pleasant in winter. During summers the temperature reaches up to 38 °C and in winters it is between 32 °C and 20 °C; the monsoon period is from June to September, with rainfall averaging more than 4000 mm every year and heavy winds. Bhuta Kola, Aati kalenja and Nagaradhane are some cultural traditions of Udupi; the residents celebrate festivals such as Makara Sankranti, Krishna Janmashtami, Deepavali, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr and Christmas.
Folk arts like Yakshagana are popular. Rathabeedhi Geleyaru and Kalavrinda are local non-profit organisations, founded to encourage creative pursuits those that keep alive the traditions of the region, its primary focus has been historical dramas. The term Udupi is synonymous with vegetarian food now found all over the world; the origin of this cuisine is linked to Krishna Matha. Lord Krishna is offered food of different varieties every day, there are certain restrictions on ingredients during Chaturmasa; these restrictions coupled with the requirement of variety led to innovation in dishes incorporating seasonal and locally available materials. This cuisine was developed by Shivalli Madhwa Brahmins who cooked food for Lord Krishna, at Krishna Matha in Udupi, the food is provided free of cost. Restaurants specialised in Udupi cuisine can be seen in most metropolitan and large cities around the length and breadth of India. Although popular for its vegetarian cuisine, Udupi has its fair share of non-vegetarian dishes that are similar to Tuluva or Mangalorean cuisine.
Some of these include Kori Roti, Kori Pulimunchi, Chicken Sukka, more. Udupi is becoming a major town in Karnataka. Udupi is the birthplace of the Syndicate Bank, Corporation Bank and Harsha Retail, the leading retailer of coastal Karnataka. Udupi's economy consists of agriculture and fishing. Small-scale industries like the cashew industry, other food industries and milk cooperatives are the most prominent. Udupi is making its mark in the real estate industry influenced by its neighboring spearhead Mangalore; the Karnataka government had signed a memorandum of understanding with the Cogentrix Light and Power Industry to set up a thermal power plant in the district at Nandikur. However, because of stiff opposition from citizens and environmentalist groups, the project has been temporarily suspended. An attempt by the Nagarjuna Power Corporation to set up a similar plant at nearby Padubidri met strong opposition. Now, the power plant has been set up, generating 1,200 MW of power under the name of Udupi Power Corporation Limited, a subsidiary of Lanco Infra, an Andhra Pradesh-based infrastruc
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Raja Ravi Varma
Raja Ravi Varma was a celebrated Indian Malayali painter and artist. He is considered among the greatest painters in the history of Indian art for a number of aesthetic and broader social reasons. Firstly, his works are held to be among the best examples of the fusion of European techniques with a purely Indian sensibility. While continuing the tradition and aesthetics of Indian art, his paintings employed the latest European academic art techniques of the day. Secondly, he was notable for making affordable lithographs of his paintings available to the public, which enhanced his reach and influence as a painter and public figure. Indeed, his lithographs increased the involvement of common people with fine arts and defined artistic tastes among common people for several decades. In particular, his depictions of Hindu deities and episodes from the epics and Puranas have received profound acceptance from the public and are found as objects of worship, across the length and breadth of India. Raja Ravi Varma was related to the royal family of Travancore of present day Kerala state in India.
In his life, two of his granddaughters were adopted into that royal family, their descendants comprise the totality of the present royal family of Travancore, including the latest three Maharajas. Raja Ravi Varma was born M. R. Ry. Ravi Varma, Koil Thampuran of Kilimanoor at Kilimanoor palace in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore into an aristocratic family that for over 200 years produced consorts for the princesses of the matrilineal Travancore royal family; the title Raja was conferred as a personal title by the Governor-General of India. Ravi Varma was the son of Ezhumavil Neelakanthan Umayamba Thampurratti, his mother Uma Ambabayi Thampuratty belonged to the baronial family which ruled the Kilimanoor feudal estate within the kingdom of Travancore. She was a poet and writer of some talent, her work Parvati Swayamvaram was published by Varma after her death. Ravi Varma's father was a scholar of Sanskrit and Ayurveda and hailed from the Ernakulam district in Kerala. Ravi Varma had three siblings, a sister named Mangala Bayi and two brothers named Goda Varma and Raja Varma.
The last-named was a painter and worked with Ravi Varma all his life. In 1866, at the age of 18, Varma was married to 12-year-old Bhageerthi Bayi of the royal house of Mavelikkara, another major fief of Travancore kingdom. Notably, the house of Mavellikara was a branch of the Royal House of Travancore. Bhageerthi was the youngest of three sisters, both of her elder sisters had been adopted into the royal family of Travancore in 1857 in order to carry on the lineage, they were known as the Senior and Junior Rani of Attingal, in their progeny was vested the succession to the throne of Travancore. Therefore, Ravi Varma's connection to the royal family became close due to his marriage with Bhageerthi. Indeed, his children would be royal by birth; the marriage, arranged by the parents in the proper Indian manner, was harmonious and successful. The couple were blessed with two sons and three daughters, their elder son, Kerala Varma was of an excessively spiritual temperament. He never married and renounced the world, leaving home for good in 1912.
The younger son, Rama Varma, inherited his father's artistic talent and studied at the JJ School of Arts, Mumbai. He was married to Gowri Kunjamma, sister of Dewan PGN Unnithan, became the father of seven children, it was however Ravi Varma's daughters who were singled out by destiny for greatness, although not in the field of art, nor but through their daughters. The three daughters of Ravi Varma and Bhageerthi Bayi were Mahaprabha Amma, Uma Amma and Cheria Kochamma. In 1900 CE, the Royal House of Travancore once again faced a succession crisis. Bhageerthi's two elder sisters, adopted in order to carry forward the lineage, had failed to produce the desired heirs, they had had six children between them, but only two of those had survived, both were boys. According to the matrilineal Marumakkathayam system, the succession to the throne could only progress through females, therefore it was necessary to make an adoption. Tradition dictated, they would be designated the Senior and Junior Rani of Attingal, the succession to the throne of Travancore would be vested in their progeny, in accordance with the unusual and unique Marumakkathayam system of succession.
Two of Varma's grand-daughters were marked by destiny to receive this honour, the main reason being that they were the nearest matrilineal kin to the incumbent Rani of Attingal. In August 1900, Mahaprabha's eldest daughter Lakshmi Bayi and Uma's eldest daughter Parvati Bayi were adopted into the Royal family of Travancore, it was their surviving grand-aunt, who formally adopted them. She died within one year of doing this, the two girls were installed as the Senior and Junior Ranis of Attingal respectively, they were married while yet in their early teens to two gentleman from suitable aristocratic families. It was the Junior Rani, Sethu Parvathi Bayi, who gave birth to the much-awaited heir in 1912 a day after her sixteenth birthday. Incidentally, her husband was a grand-nephew of Raja R
Maravanthe is a village and a beach near Kundapura, India. Outlook travel considers it one of Karnataka's most beautiful beaches.it is about 115km from industrial hub mangalore and 55 km from Udupi. NH-66 runs next to the beach and the Suparnika River flows on the other side of the road, creating a spectacular scenery, considered the only one of its kind in India; the Suparnika, which touches Arabian Sea here, makes a U-turn and goes westward to join the sea after a journey of nearly more than 10 km. Maraswamy temple is on the beach near Maravanthe, this temple has three garbha griha where three deities are worshiped. One is Sri Vishnu and God Narasimha the incarnation of lord vishnu; this makes it a rare temple of India. It is called Varahaswamy temple. Tortoise and fish are part of worship in this temple, as depicted by rock drawings in front of garbhagudi of three deities. Souparnika river makes a U-turn in the east side of temple, This river makes islands, which are called kudru; the eastern view from this point is beautiful with palm trees, green fields and Kodachadri peak visible at the far eastern end and makes a reflection in the river.
Fishing is main activity of the fisher folk of this area, but infrastructure for marketing the marine produce is not well developed. Native boats and small diesel trawlers are used for fishing. Seafaring is avoided during the monsoons. Agriculture is another important activity, with coconut and onion being the main crops. Education in the village is improving, with high School education available. Students go to Kundapura for higher education; the Maravanthe beach is a beautiful beach town with white sand spread miles and miles along the coast fetches the beach a nickname of Virgin Beach. This place has been identified by government agencies as having potential for tourism with leaflets proclaiming several facilities. There are places to stay on the highway. At the nearby Gangoli port, tourists can request fishermen and, for a fee, accompany them to the sea the next day, at 4am, stay fishing with the locals till noon. Kollur Gokarna Om beach Mangalore Udupi Murdeshwara
A lingam, sometimes referred to as linga or Shiva linga, is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva in Shaivism. It is a votary symbol revered as self-manifested natural objects; the lingam is represented within a lipped, disc-shaped platform called a yoni that symbolizes the goddess Shakti. Lingayats wear a lingam inside a necklace, called Ishtalinga. Lingam is additionally found in Sanskrit texts with the meaning of "evidence, proof", or in sexual context where it means the "male generative organ, phallus". Lingam iconography found at archaeological sites of the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia includes simple cylinders set inside a yoni, rounded pillars with carvings such as of one or more mukha, anatomically realistic representations of a phallus such as at Gudimallam. In the Shaiva traditions, the lingam is regarded as a form of spiritual iconography. Lingam, states Monier Monier-Williams, appears in the Upanishads and epic literature, where it means a "mark, emblem, characteristic".
Other contextual meanings of the term include "evidence, symptom", "gender, male organ, phallus". The term appears in early Indian texts on logic, where an inference is based on a sign, such as "if there is smoke, there is fire" where the linga is the smoke. According to James Lochtefeld, it is sometimes "simplistically called a phallic symbol", it is a religious symbol in Hinduism representing Shiva as the generative power, all of existence, all creativity and fertility at every cosmic level. The lingam of the Shaivism tradition is a short cylindrical pillar-like symbol of Shiva, made of stone, gem, clay or disposable material. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the lingam is a votary aniconic object found in the sanctum of Shiva temples and private shrines that symbolizes Shiva and is "revered as an emblem of generative power", it is found within a lipped, disked structure, an emblem of goddess Shakti and this is called the yoni. Together they symbolize the union of the feminine and the masculine principles, "the totality of all existence", states Encyclopædia Britannica.
According to Rohit Dasgupta, the lingam symbolizes Shiva in Hinduism, it is a phallic symbol. Since the 19th-century, states Dasgupta, the popular literature has represented the lingam as the male sex organ; this view contrasts with the traditional abstract values they represent in Shaivism wherein the lingam-yoni connote the masculine and feminine principles in the entirety of creation and all existence. According to Wendy Doniger, for many Hindus, the lingam is not a "male sexual organ" but of a spiritual icon and their faith, just like for the Christians the cross is not an "instrument of execution" but a symbol of Christ and the Christian faith. According to Alex Wayman, given the Shaiva philosophical texts and spiritual interpretations, various works on Shaivism by some Indian authors "deny that the linga is a phallus". To the Shaivites, a linga is neither a phallus nor do they practice the worship of erotic penis-vulva, rather the linga-yoni is a symbol of cosmic mysteries, the creative powers and the metaphor for the spiritual truths of their faith.
According to Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, the lingam signifies three perfections of Shiva. The upper oval part of the Shivalingam represent Parashiva and lower part of the Shivalingam called the pitha represents Parashakti. In Parashiva perfection, Shiva is the absolute reality, the timeless and spaceless. In Parashakti perfection, Shiva is all-pervasive, pure consciousness and primal substance of all that exists and it has form unlike Parashiva, formless. According to Nagendra Singh, some believe. According to Chakrabarti, "some of the stones found in Mohenjodaro are unmistakably phallic stones"; these are dated to some time before 2300 BCE. States Chakrabarti, the Kalibangan site of Harappa has a small terracotta representation that "would undoubtedly be considered the replica of a modern Shivlinga." According to Encyclopædia Britannica, while Harappan discoveries include "short cylindrical pillars with rounded tops", there is no evidence that the people of Indus Valley Civilization worshipped these artifacts as lingams.
The colonial era archaeologists John Marshall and Ernest Mackay proposed that certain artifacts found at Harappan sites may be evidence of yoni-linga worship in Indus Valley Civilization. Scholars such as Arthur Llewellyn Basham dispute whether such artifacts discovered at the archaeological sites of Indus Valley sites are yoni. For example and Ryan state that lingam/yoni shapes have been recovered from the archaeological sites at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, part of the Indus Valley Civilisation. In contrast, Indologist Wendy Doniger states that this rare artifact can be interpreted in many ways and has unduly been used for wild speculations such as being a linga. Another postage stamp sized item found and called the Pashupati seal, states Doniger, has an image with a general resemblance with Shiva and "the Indus people may well have created the symbolism of the divine phallus", but given the available evidence we cannot be certain, nor do we know that it had the same meaning as some project them to might have meant.
According to the Indologist Asko Parpola, "it is true that Marshall's and Mackay's hypotheses of linga and yoni worship by the Harappans has rested on rather slender grounds, that for instance the interpretation of the so-called ring-stones as yonis seems untenable". He quotes Dales 1984 paper, which states "with the single exception of the unidentified photography of a realistic phallic object in Marshall's repo
Shakti is the primordial cosmic energy and represents the dynamic forces that are thought to move through the entire universe in Hinduism and Shaktism. Shakti is the concept or personification of divine feminine creative power, sometimes referred to as "The Great Divine Mother" in Hinduism; as a mother, she is known as "Adi Shakti" or "Adi Parashakti". On the earthly plane, Shakti most manifests herself through female embodiment and creativity/fertility, though it is present in males in its potential, unmanifest form. Hindus believe that Shakti is both responsible for the agent of all change. Shakti is cosmic existence as well as liberation, its most significant form being the Kundalini Shakti, a mysterious psychospiritual force. In Shaktism, Shakti is worshipped as the Supreme Being. Shakti embodies the active feminine energy of Shiva and is synonymously identified with Tripura Sundari or Parvati. David Kinsley mentions the "shakti" of Lord Indra's as Sachi. Indrani is part of a group of seven or eight mother goddesses called the Matrikas, who are considered shaktis of major Hindu gods.
The Shakti goddess is known as Amma in south India in the states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. There are many temples devoted to various incarnations of the Shakti goddess in most of the villages in South India; the rural people believe that Shakti is the protector of the village, the punisher of evil people, the curer of diseases, the one who gives welfare to the village. They celebrate Shakti Jataras with great interest once a year; some examples of Shakti incarnations are Mahalakshmi, Parvati, Bhuvaneshwari, Meenakshi, Yellamma and Perantalamma. One of the oldest representations of the goddess in India is in a triangular form; the Baghor stone, found in a Paleolithic context in the Son River valley and dating to 9,000–8,000 years BCE, is considered an early example of a yantra. Kenoyer, part of the team that excavated the stone, considered that it was probable that the stone is associated with Shakti. Shaktism regards Devi as the Supreme Brahman itself with all other forms of divinity considered to be Her diverse manifestations.
In the details of its philosophy and practice, Shaktism resembles Shaivism. However, practitioners of Shaktism, focus most or all worship on Shakti, as the dynamic feminine aspect of the Supreme Divine. Shiva, the masculine aspect of divinity, is considered transcendent, Shiva's worship is secondary. From Devi-Mahatmya: By you this universe is borne, By you this world is created, Oh Devi, by you it is protected. From Shaktisangama Tantra: Woman is the creator of the universe, the universe is her form. In woman is the form of all things, of all that lives and moves in the world. There is no jewel rarer than woman, no condition superior to that of a woman. Adi Parashakti, whose material manifestation is Parvati and Tripura Sundari, is a Hindu concept of the Ultimate Shakti or Mahashakti, the ultimate power inherent in all Creation; this is prevalent in the Shakta denomination within Hinduism, which worships the Goddess Devi in all her manifestations. Her human or Shakti Svarūpa, was married to Shiva, while her Gyān Svarūpa, weds Brahma and her Dhan Svarūpa, becomes the consort of Vishnu.
In the Smarta Advaita sect of Hinduism, Shakti is considered to be one of five equal personal forms of God in the panchadeva system advocated by Adi Shankara. According to some schools, there are four Adi Shakti Pitha and 51 Shakti centers of worship located in South Asia, they can be found in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. These are called Shakti Peethas; the list of locations varies. A accepted list of Shakti Peethas and their temple complexes includes: Hinglaj Mataji Balochistan Jwalaji Tara Tarini Katyayani Bhadrakali Kamakhya Kali at Kalighat Naina Devi Temple Guhyeshwari Temple Devi Ambaji Vishalakshi Temple Chandranath Temple Other pithas in Maharashtra are: Tuljapur Kolhapur vani-Nashik Mahurgadh There are many ancient Shakti devotional songs and vibrational chants in the Hindu and Sikh traditions; the recitation of the Sanskrit mantras is used to call upon the Divine Mother. Kundalini-Shakti-Bhakti Mantra Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Namo Namo! Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Namo Namo!
Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Namo Namo! Kundalini Mata Shakti, Mata Shakti, Namo Namo! Translation: Primal Shakti, I bow to Thee! All-Encompassing Shakti, I bow to Thee! That through which Divine Creates, I bow to Thee! Creative Power of the Kundalini, Mother of all Mother Power, To Thee I Bow!"Merge in the Maha Shakti. This is enough to take away your misfortune; this will carve out of you a woman. Woman needs her own Shakti, not anybody else will do it... When a woman chants the Kundalini Bhakti mantra, God clears the way; this is not a religion, it is a real