Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
The Tlingit are indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. Their language is the Tlingit language, in which the name means "People of the Tides"; the Russian name Koloshi or the related German name Koulischen may be encountered referring to the people in older historical literature, such as Shelikhov's 1796 map of Russian America. The Tlingit have a matrilineal kinship system, with children considered born into the mother's clan, property and hereditary roles passing through the mother's line, their culture and society developed in the temperate rainforest of the southeast Alaska coast and the Alexander Archipelago. The Tlingit maintained a complex hunter-gatherer culture based on semi-sedentary management of fisheries. An inland group, known as the Inland Tlingit, inhabits the far northwestern part of the province of British Columbia and the southern Yukon Territory in Canada; the greatest territory occupied by the Tlingit extended from the Portland Canal along the present border between Alaska and British Columbia, north to the coast just southeast of the Copper River delta in Alaska.
The Tlingit occupied all of the Alexander Archipelago, except the southernmost end of Prince of Wales Island and its surroundings, where the Kaigani Haida moved just before the first encounters with European explorers. The Coastal Tlingit tribes controlled. Inland, the Tlingit occupied areas along the major rivers that pierce the Coast Mountains and Saint Elias Mountains and flow into the Pacific, including the Alsek, Chilkat and Stikine rivers. With regular travel up these rivers, the Tlingit developed extensive trade networks with Athabascan tribes of the interior, intermarried with them. From this regular travel and trade, a few large populations of Tlingit settled around Atlin and Tagish Lakes, whose headwaters flow from areas near the headwaters of the Taku River. Delineating the modern territory of the Tlingit is complicated because they are spread across the border between the United States and Canada, they lack designated reservations, other complex legal and political concerns make the situation confusing, there is a high level of mobility among the population.
They overlap in territory with various Athabascan peoples, such as the Tahltan and Tagish. In Canada, the modern communities of Atlin, British Columbia, Teslin and Carcross, Yukon have reserves and are the representative Interior Tlingit populations; the territory occupied by the modern Tlingit people in Alaska is not restricted to particular reservations, unlike most tribes in the lower contiguous 48 states. This is the result of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, which established regional corporations throughout Alaska with complex portfolios of land ownership rather than bounded reservations administered by tribal governments; the corporation in the Tlingit region is Sealaska Corporation, which serves the Tlingit as well as the Haida and Tsimshian in Alaska. Tlingit people as a whole participate in the commercial economy of Alaska; as a consequence, they live in American nuclear family households with private ownership of housing and land. Many possess land allotments from Sealaska or from earlier distributions predating ANCSA.
Despite the legal and political complexities, the territory occupied by the Tlingit can be reasonably designated as their modern homeland. Tlingit people today consider the land from around Yakutat south through the Alaskan Panhandle, including the lakes in the Canadian interior, as being Lingít Aaní, the Land of the Tlingit; the extant Tlingit territory can be divided into four major sections, paralleling ecological and cultural divisions: The Southern Tlingit occupy the region south of Frederick Sound, live in the northernmost reaches of the Western Red cedar forest. Northern Tinglit live north of Frederick Sound to Cape Spencer, including Glacier Bay and the Lynn Canal; the Inland Tlingit live along large interior lakes and the drainage of the Taku River as well as in the southern Yukon, subsist in a manner similar to their Athabascan neighbors in the mixed spruce taiga. The Gulf Coast Tlingit live along a narrow strip of coastline backed by steep mountains and extensive glaciers, north of Cape Spencer, along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska to Controller Bay and Kayak Island.
Their territory can be battered by Pacific storms. The trade and cultural interactions between each of these Tlingit groups and their disparate neighbors, the differences in food harvest practices, dialectical differences in language contribute to these identifications; these academic classifications are supported by similar self-identification among the Tlingit. The Tlingit culture is multifaceted and complex, a characteristic of Northwest Pacific Coast people with access to exploited rich resources. In Tlingit culture a heavy emphasis is placed upon family and kinship, on a rich tradition of oratory. Wealth and economic power are important indicators of rank, but so is generosity and proper behavior, all signs of "good breeding" and ties to aristocracy. Art and spirituality are incorporated in nearly all areas of Tlingit culture, with even
Yengejeh-ye Molla Mohammad Reza
Yengejeh-ye Molla Mohammad Reza is a village in Dowlatabad Rural District, in the Central District of Namin County, Ardabil Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 355, in 97 families
Ardabil Province is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran. It is in the northwest of the country, in Regions 3, bordering the Republic of Azerbaijan, the provinces of East Azerbaijan and Gilan, its administrative centre is the city of Ardabil. The province was established in 1993 from the eastern part of East Azerbaijan. Many tourists come to the region for its cool climate during the hot summer months; the winters are bitterly cold, with temperatures plummeting to −25 °C. Its famous natural region is the Sabalan mountains; the province is considered the coldest province in Iran by many. Large parts of the province are forested. Athletes such as Ali Daei and Hossein Rezazade are from Ardabil. Ardabil's capital stands about 70 km from the Caspian Sea and has an area of 18011 km². Neighbouring the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, the city is of political and economic significance; the natural features of the province of Ardabil are mentioned in the Avesta, according to which Zoroaster was born by the river Aras and wrote his book in the Sabalan Mountains.
During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Ardabil was the largest city in Azarbaijan, remained so until the Mongol invasion period. Shah Ismail I started his campaign to nationalize Iran's government and land from here, but announced Tabriz as his capital in 1500 CE, yet Ardabil remained an important city both politically and economically until modern times. The province is divided into 10 counties: Ardabil, Germi, Kowsar, Namin, Sarein and Parsabad. District of Arasbaran was transferred to the province of Ardabil from East Azerbaijan in 2010 and now appears on the more recent maps of Ardabil Province produced by the Iranian official organs. Ardabil is the seat of the sanctuary and tomb of Shaikh Safî ad-Dîn, eponym of the Safavid Dynasty Kulliye, it has natural landscapes which attract tourists. The mineral springs of Ardabil are Beele-Darreh, Sareyn and Booshloo, which are known throughout Iran for their medicinal qualities, it has a number of lakes: the largest of which are Ne'or, ShoorGel, NouShahr and Alooche, which are the habitats of some species of water birds.
Lake Ne'or is located in a mountainous area 48 km south-east of the city of Ardabil. It has an average depth of 3 metres, it is fed by springs in the lake bed. Lake Shoorabil is located in a hilly area south of the city of Ardabil and covers an area of 640,000 m²; the surface of the lake is covered with a thin white layer of minerals, useful for healing skin diseases and rheumatism. Near the lake there is the leisure complex of Shoorabil. Ardabil is a city of great antiquity, its origins go back 4000 to 6000 years. This city was the capital of Azerbaijan province in different times, but its golden age was in the Safavid period. One of the most ancient cities in Iran is Meshkin Shahr, it is located in the north-west of Iran in 839 kilometers from Tehran. It is the closest city to the Sabalan mountains. In the past, it was called "Khiav", "Orami", "Varavi"; the most important places to visit in the district of Meshkin Shahr are the following: – The hot water springs of Moiel and Qaynarja, located in the suburb of the city.
– Qara Soo River Sides. – The spring of Qotur Suie, located 42 kilometers from Meshkin shahr. – The old Castle of Meshkin Shahr. – Qahqaheh castle, located 80 kilometers from Meshkin Shahr. – Deev castle, located in Kavij. – The petrograph of Shapour Sasani in Meshkin Shahr. – The old cemetery in Oonar. – The tomb of Sheykh Haydar in Meshkin Shahr. – Imamzadeh Seyyed Soleyman. The other significant historical monuments are as follows: the mausoleum of Sheikh Jebra'il, located 2 km north of Ardabil, the old but always lively bazaar, the babadavood anbaran, the Friday mosque, a few ancient bridges. In addition to these, in many villages of Ardabil, including Sadeqlu, relics of ancient monuments, including tombs, have been found. Ardabil University of Medical Sciences Mohaghegh Ardabili University Islamic Azad University of Ardabil Payam Noor University of Ardabil Soureh University of Ardabil Islamic Azad University of Khalkhal The primary language of Ardebil province is Azerbaijani, a branch of Turkic.
Other languages in Ardabil include Talysh. Encyclopedia of Orient About Ardabil Ardabil-Iran Carvan Tourism at the Wayback Machine Ardabil entries in the Encyclopædia Iranica site of meshkin shahr at the Wayback Machine site of khalkhal site of ardebil