Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, GIS data onto a 3D globe, allowing users to see cities and landscapes from various angles. Users can explore the globe by using a keyboard or mouse; the program can be downloaded on a smartphone or tablet, using a touch screen or stylus to navigate. Users may use the program to add their own data using Keyhole Markup Language and upload them through various sources, such as forums or blogs. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client. In addition to Earth navigation, Google Earth provides a series of other tools through the desktop application. Additional globes for the Moon and Mars are available, as well as a tool for viewing the night sky. A flight simulator game is included. Other features allow users to view photos from various places uploaded to Panoramio, information provided by Wikipedia on some locations, Street View imagery.
The web-based version of Google Earth includes Voyager, a feature that periodically adds in-program tours presented by scientists and documentarians. Google Earth has been viewed by some as a threat to privacy and national security, leading to the program being banned in multiple countries; some countries have requested that certain areas be obscured in Google's satellite images areas containing military facilities. The core technology behind Google Earth was developed at Intrinsic Graphics in the late 1990s. At the time, the company was developing 3D gaming software libraries; as a demo of their 3D software, they created a spinning globe that could be zoomed into, similar to the Powers of Ten film. The demo was popular, but the board of Intrinsic wanted to remain focused on gaming, so in 1999, they created Keyhole, Inc. headed by John Hanke. Keyhole developed a way to stream large databases of mapping data over the internet to client software, a key part of the technology, acquired patchworks of mapping data from governments and other sources.
The product, called "Keyhole EarthViewer", was sold on CDs for use in fields such as real estate, urban planning and intelligence. Despite making a number of capital deals with Nvidia and Sony, the small company was struggling to make payroll, employees were leaving. Fortunes for the company changed in early 2003 when CNN received a discount for the software in exchange for placing the Keyhole logo on-air whenever the map was used. Keyhole did not expect it would amount to more than brief 5 or 10 second prerecorded animation clips, but it was used extensively by Miles O'Brien live during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, allowing CNN and millions of viewers to follow the progress of the war in a way that had never been seen before. Public interest in the software exploded and Keyhole servers were not able to keep up with demand. Keyhole was soon contacted by the Central Intelligence Agency's venture capital firm, In-Q-Tel, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, for use with defense mapping databases, which gave Keyhole a much-needed cash infusion.
Intrinsic Graphics was sold in 2003 to Vicarious Visions after its gaming libraries did not sell well, its core group of engineers and management transitioned to Keyhole with Hanke remaining at the head. At the time, Google was finding that over 25% of its searches were of a geospatial character, including searches for maps and directions. In October 2004, Google acquired Keyhole as part of a strategy to better serve its users. Google Earth's imagery is displayed on a digital globe, which displays the planet's surface using a single composited image from a far distance. After zooming in far enough, the imagery transitions into different imagery of the same area with finer detail, which varies in date and time from one area to the next; the imagery is retrieved from satellites or aircraft. Before the launch of NASA and the USGS's Landsat 8 satellite, Google relied on imagery from Landsat 7, which suffered from a hardware malfunction that left diagonal gaps in images. In 2013, Google used datamining to remedy the issue, providing what was described as a successor to the Blue Marble image of Earth, with a single large image of the entire planet.
This was achieved by combining multiple sets of imagery taken from Landsat 7 to eliminate clouds and diagonal gaps, creating a single "mosaic" image. Google now uses Landsat 8 to provide imagery with greater frequency. Imagery is hosted on Google's servers, which are contacted by the application when opened, requiring an Internet connection. Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters. For much of the Earth, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission; this creates the impression of three-dimensional terrain where the imagery is only two-dimensional. Every image created from Google Earth using satellite data provided by Google Earth is a copyrighted map. Any derivative from Google Earth is made from copyrighted data which, under United States Copyright Law, may not be used except under the licenses Google provides. Google allows non-commercial personal use of the images as long as copyrights and attributions are preserved.
By contrast, images created with NASA's globe software World Wind use The Blue Marble, Landsat, or USGS imagery, each of, in the public domain. In version 5.0, Google introduced Historical Imagery. Clicking the clock icon in the toolbar opens a time slider, which marks the tim
The Nordenskiöld Archipelago or Nordenskjold Archipelago is a large and complex cluster of islands in the eastern region of the Kara Sea. Its eastern limit lies 120 km west of the Taymyr Peninsula. There are about 90 cold and desolate islands in this archipelago; these are formed by igneous rocks and are covered with tundra vegetation. Except for two polar stations, one, permanent in Russky Island between 1935 and 1999 and a temporary one in Tyrtov Island, there is no permanent human presence in any island of the archipelago; the Nordenskiöld Archipelago stretches for 100 km from west to east and about 90 km from north to south in the Kara Sea, off the Siberian shores, where there are large coastal islands around Taymyr Island. The average elevation of the islands is low; the highest point of the archipelago is located in Chabak, one of the islands of the Vilkitsky subgroup. Some of the islands have wetlands; the climate in the Nordenskiöld Archipelago is severe. The sea surrounding the multitude of island groups is covered with fast ice in the winter and it is obstructed by pack ice in the summer, which lasts only about two months in a normal year.
This island group belongs to the Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of the Krasnoyarsk Krai administrative division of Russia. The Nordenskiöld Archipelago has been divided for geographical purposes into groups; the main ones are from west to east: The Tsivolko Islands 76°44′N 94°38′E is the westernmost group. The Vilkitsky Islands known as'Dzhekman Islands' 76°25′N 95°15′E, located north of the Matisen Strait; the Pakhtusov Islands 76°37′N 95°53′E, located south of the Lenin Strait. The Litke Islands, 76°49′N 96°36′E; this group includes Russky Island 77°03′N 96°09′E. Located at the archipelago's northern end, this is the largest island of the Nordenskiöld group; the Vostyochnyye Islands, latitude 76° 38' N and longitude 97° 30' E. This group includes the Kolomeitsev Islands 76°56′N 97°48′E; the southern extension of the wider archipelago, consisting of the islands located south of the Matisen Strait near and around Taymyr Island. Kolchak Island, located further south, is not geographically part of the wider Nordenskiöld Archipelago.
This archipelago was first reported in 1740 by Nikifor Chekin, who accompanied Semion Chelyuskin in the Great Northern Expedition. Many years it was named after arctic explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld by Norwegian polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen in his maps of the northern coasts and seas of Siberia. In 1893, when Fridtjof Nansen's Fram was near the Nordenskjold Archipelago, it got stuck in dead water; this is a strange phenomenon that occurs in fjords, as glaciers melt and a form a shallow layer of freshwater ice over salty water. This is how Nansen described the phenomenon: Towards the end of August 1893, when the Fram was off the Taymyr Peninsula, near the Nordenskiöld Archipelago, "dead water" was encountered; this is a peculiar phenomenon, which occurs where a surface layer of fresh water rests upon the salt water of the sea. It manifests itself in the form of larger or smaller ripples or waves stretching across the wake, the one behind the other, arising sometimes as far forward as midships.
When caught in dead water, Fram appeared to be held back, as if by some mysterious force, she did not always answer the helm. In calm weather, with a light cargo, Fram was capable of 6 to 7 knots; when in dead water she was unable to make 1.5 knots. We made loops in our course turned sometimes right around, tried all sorts of antics to get clear of it, but to little purpose. In 1900 the islands of the Nordenskiöld Archipelago were explored and mapped with accuracy by Captain Fyodor Andreyevich Matisen during the Russian polar expedition of 1900–1902; this venture was led by Baron Eduard Von Toll on behalf of the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences aboard ship Zarya. Toll sent Matisen to make a survey of the archipelago in the early spring while the Zarya was wintering close to Taymyr Island. Most islands of the Nordenskiöld Archipelago were named during this effort. Matisen crisscrossed the whole vast frozen area on dogsled twice, he divided the archipelago into four of the five main groups mentioned above and named more than forty islands.
Like Nansen, Eduard Toll observed that it was difficult to navigate through the archipelago on account of the ice. After the Russian Revolution, the archipelago was explored in the 1930s by a Soviet expedition on the icebreaker Sedov. In 1937 the Arctic Institute of the USSR organized an expedition on ship Toros; the purpose of this expedition was to explore the Nordenskiöld Archipelago and to investigate the Northern Sea Route in the Kara Sea. The Toros overwintered in Ledyanaya Bay on Bonevi Island west of Taymyr Island and sailed back to Archangelsk during the summer thaw after having explored many Kara Sea islands. On 25 August 1942, during Operation Wunderland, Kriegsmarine cruiser Admiral Scheer fell upon the Russian icebreaker Sibiryakov off the northwest coast of Russky Island at the northern end of the Nordenskiöld Archipelago; the Sibiryakov was sunk by the German warship. Admiral Scheer headed southwest in order to attack the Soviet military installations at Dikson. Since May 1993 the Nordenskiöld Archipelago is part of the Great Arctic State Nature Reserve, the largest nature reserve of Russia.
The Arctic sta
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Krasnoyarsk Krai is a federal subject of Russia, with its administrative center in the city of Krasnoyarsk—the third-largest city in Siberia. Comprising half of the Siberian Federal District, Krasnoyarsk Krai is the largest krai in the Russian Federation, the second largest federal subject and the third largest subnational governing body by area in the world, after Sakha and the Australian state of Western Australia; the krai covers an area of 2,339,700 square kilometers, nearly one quarter the size of the entire country of Canada, constituting 13% of the Russian Federation's total area and containing a population of 2,828,187, or just under 2% of its population, per the 2010 Census. The krai lies in the middle of Siberia, occupies nearly half of the Siberian Federal District splitting it in half, stretching 3,000 km from the Sayan Mountains in the south along the Yenisei River to the Taymyr Peninsula in the north, it borders the Sakha Republic, the Tuva Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Kemerovo and Tyumen Oblasts, the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea of the Arctic Ocean in the north.
The krai is located in the basin of the Arctic Ocean. The main rivers of the krai are the Yenisei, its tributaries: the Kan, the Angara, the Podkamennaya Tunguska, the Nizhnyaya Tunguska. There are several thousand lakes in the krai; the largest lakes include Beloye, Glubokoye, Khantayskoye, Lama, Pyasina and Yessey. The rivers and lakes are rich with fish; the climate is continental with large temperature variations during the year. For the central and southern regions where most of the krai's population lives, long winters and short, hot summers are characteristic; the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai experiences conditions of three climate belts: Arctic and moderate. In the north there are less than 40 days with temperature above 10 °C, while in the south there are 110–120 such days; the average temperature in January is − 18 °C in the south. The average temperature in July is +20 °C in the south; the annual precipitation is 316 millimeters. Snow covers the central regions of the krai from early November until late March.
The peaks of the Sayan Mountains higher than 2,400–2,600 m and those of the Putorana Plateau higher than 1,000–1,300 m are covered with permanent snow. Permafrost is widespread in the north; the coastline contains a number of prominent peninsulas - from west to east the main ones are the Minina Peninsula, Mikhaylova Peninsula, the Taymyr Peninsula and the Khara-Tumus Peninsula. There are a large number of islands off the krai's coast, the most prominent of which are Sibiryakov Island, Nosok Island, Dikson Island, Vern Island, Brekhovskiye Island, Krestovskiy Island, the Kamennye Islands, the Zveroboy Islands, the Labyrintovye Islands, the Plavnikovye Islands, Kolosovykh Island, the Mona Islands, Rykacheva Island, Gavrilova Island and Prodolgovatyy Islands, the Nordenskiöld Archipelago, the Firnley Islands, the Heiberg Islands, Starokadomsky Island, Maly Taymyr Island, the Komsomolskaya Pravda Islands, the Faddey Islands, the Saint Peter Islands. There are a number of islands further out that fall under the administration of Krasnoyarsk Krai - the most prominent being Bolshoy Island, Sverdrup Island, the Izvestiy TSIK Islands, the Arkticheskiy Institut Islands, the Kirov Islands, Uyedineniya Island, Voronina Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Ushakov Island.
The highest point of the krai is Grandiozny Peak in the East Sayan Mountains at an elevation of 2,922 meters. According to archaeologists, the first people reached Siberia circa 40,000 BCE; the grave-mounds and monuments of the Scythian culture in Krasnoyarsk Krai belong to the 7th century BCE and are ones of the oldest in Eurasia. A prince's grave, the Kurgan Arshan, discovered in 2001, is located in the krai. Russian settlement of the area began in the 17th century. After the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway the Russian colonization of the area increased. During both the Tsarist and the Bolsheviks' times the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai was used as a place of exile of political enemies; the first leaders of the Soviet state, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin were exiled to what is now the krai in 1897–1900 and 1903, respectively. In Stalin's era numerous Gulag camps were located in the region. In 1822, the Yeniseysk Governorate was created with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center that covered territory similar to that of the current krai.
On June 30, 1908, in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River, there occurred a powerful explosion most to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometers above Earth's surface. The force of the explosion is estimated to be about 10–15 megatons, it killed thousands of reindeer. Krasnoyarsk Krai was created in 1934 after disaggregation of the West Siberian and East Siberian Krais and included Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Okrugs and Khakas Autono
Great Arctic State Nature Reserve
The Great Arctic State Nature Reserve is a nature reserve in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. With an area of 41,692 square kilometers, it is the largest reserve of Russia and Eurasia, as well as one of the largest in the world; the Great Arctic State Nature Reserve was founded on May 11, 1993 by Resolution No.431 of the Government of the Russian Federation. The Nature Reserves in Russia are known as zapovedniks; the Great Arctic State Nature Reserve is divided into nine sections: Dikson - Sibiryakov section. The Kara Sea Islands section, with a surface of 4,000 square kilometers, it includes the Sergei Kirov Islands, the Voronina Island, the Izvestiy TSIK Islands, the Arkticheskiy Institut Islands, the Sverdrup Island, the Uedineniya Island and a number of smaller islands. This section represents rather the natural and biological diversity of Arctic Sea islands of the eastern part of the Kara Sea; the Pyasino section. Includes the Pyasino Gulf and the Pyasina River basin; the Middendorff Bay The Nordenskiöld Archipelago The Lower Taimyr section.
Includes the basin of the Taimyr River, as well as Lake Taimyr. The Chelyuskin Peninsula. Includes the northern end of the Taimyr Peninsula The Northern Reserve; the Brekhovsky Islands Natural Reserve Many animals and plants are meant to thrive within the Great Arctic State Nature Reserve without human disturbance. Among the animals that are protected by this reserve, some of the most important are the polar bear, the Arctic fox, the snowy owl, the reindeer and the beluga. Nature Reserve Bolshoi Arkticheskiy state nature reserve Map and pictures