The banded pig known as the Indonesian wild boar is a subspecies of wild boar native to the Thai-Malay Peninsula and many Indonesian islands, including Sumatra and the Lesser Sundas as far east as Komodo. It is known as the wild boar in Singapore, it is the most basal subspecies, having the smallest relative brain size, more primitive dentition, unspecialised cranial structure. It is a short-faced subspecies with a white band on the muzzle, as well as sparse body hair, no underwool, a long mane, a broad reddish band extending from the muzzle to the sides of the neck, it is much smaller than the mainland S. s. cristatus subspecies, with the largest specimens on Komodo weighing only 48 kg. In some areas, it differs from most other boar populations by being frugivorous, with specimens in Ujung Kulon National Park in Java eating around 50 different fruit species figs, thus making them important seed dispersers. On the islands of Komodo and Rinca, its diet is more varied, encompassing roots, grasses, fruits and carrion.
It frequently eats crabs during low tide. Piglets are born from December to March in litters of two to six, are raised in grass nests constructed by their mother, they are much less vividly striped than the young of S. s. scrofa. On the islands of Komodo and Flores, the banded pig is a primary food source for Komodo dragons
Sulawesi known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia. One of the four Greater Sunda Islands, the world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, south of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Within Indonesia, only Sumatra and Papua are larger in territory, only Java and Sumatra have larger populations; the landmass of Sulawesi includes four peninsulas: the northern Minahasa Peninsula. Three gulfs separate these peninsulas: the Gulf of Tomini between the northern Minahasa and East peninsulas; the Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island and separates the island from Borneo. The name Sulawesi comes from the words sula and besi and may refer to the historical export of iron from the rich Lake Matano iron deposits; the name came into common use in English following Indonesian independence. The name Celebes was given to the island by Portuguese explorers. While its direct translation is unclear, it may be considered a Portuguese rendering of the native name "Sulawesi".
Sulawesi is the world's eleventh-largest island, covering an area of 174,600 km2. The central part of the island is ruggedly mountainous, such that the island's peninsulas have traditionally been remote from each other, with better connections by sea than by road; the three bays that divide Sulawesi's peninsulas are, from north to south, the Tomini, the Tolo and the Boni. These separate the Minahassa or Northern Peninsula, the East Peninsula, the Southeast Peninsula and the South Peninsula; the Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island. The island is surrounded by Borneo to the west, by the Philippines to the north, by Maluku to the east, by Flores and Timor to the south; the Selayar Islands make up a peninsula stretching southwards from Southwest Sulawesi into the Flores Sea are administratively part of Sulawesi. The Sangihe Islands and Talaud Islands stretch northward from the northeastern tip of Sulawesi, while Buton Island and its neighbours lie off its southeast peninsula, the Togian Islands are in the Gulf of Tomini, Peleng Island and Banggai Islands form a cluster between Sulawesi and Maluku.
All the above-mentioned islands, many smaller ones are administratively part of Sulawesi's six provinces. The island slopes up from the shores of the deep seas surrounding the island to a high non-volcanic, mountainous interior. Active volcanoes are found in the northern Minahassa Peninsula, stretching north to the Sangihe Islands; the northern peninsula contains several active volcanoes such as Mount Lokon, Mount Awu and Karangetang. According to plate reconstructions, the island is believed to have been formed by the collision of terranes from the Asian Plate and from the Australian Plate, with island arcs in the Pacific; because of its several tectonic origins, various faults scar the land and as a result the island is prone to earthquakes. Sulawesi, in contrast to most of the other islands in the biogeographical region of Wallacea, is not oceanic, but a composite island at the centre of the Asia-Australia collision zone. Parts of the island were attached to either the Asian or Australian continental margin and became separated from these areas by vicariant processes.
In the west, the opening of the Makassar Strait separated West Sulawesi from Sundaland in the Eocene c. 45 Mya. In the east, the traditional view of collisions of multiple micro-continental fragments sliced from New Guinea with an active volcanic margin in West Sulawesi at different times since the Early Miocene c. 20 Mya has been replaced by the hypothesis that extensional fragmentation has followed a single Miocene collision of West Sulawesi with the Sula Spur, the western end of an ancient folded belt of Variscan origin in the Late Paleozoic. Before October 2014, the settlement of South Sulawesi by modern humans had been dated to c. 30,000 BC on the basis of radiocarbon dates obtained from rock shelters in Maros. No earlier evidence of human occupation had at that point been found, but the island certainly formed part of the land bridge used for the settlement of Australia and New Guinea by at least 40,000 BCE. There is no evidence of Homo erectus having reached Sulawesi. Following Peter Bellwood's model of a southward migration of Austronesian-speaking farmers, radiocarbon dates from caves in Maros suggest a date in the mid-second millennium BC for the arrival of a group from east Borneo speaking a Proto-South Sulawesi language.
Initial settlement was around the mouth of the Sa'dan river, on the northwest coast of the peninsula, although the south coast has been suggested. Subsequent migrations across the mountainous landscape resulted in the geographical isolation of PSS speakers and the evolution of their languages into the eight families of the South Sulawesi language group. If each group can be said to have a homeland, that of the Bugis – today the most numerous group – was around lakes Témpé and Sidénréng in the Walennaé depression. Here for some 2,000 years lived the linguistic group. Despite the fact that today they are link
Bogor is a city in the West Java province, Indonesia. Located around 60 kilometers south of the national capital of Jakarta, Bogor is the 6th largest city of Jabodetabek and the 14th nationwide; the city covers an area of 118.5 km2, it had a population of 950,334 at the 2010 Census. Bogor is an important economic, scientific and tourist center, as well as a mountain resort. In the Middle Ages, the city served as the capital of Sunda Kingdom and was called Pakuan Pajajaran or Dayeuh Pakuan. During the Dutch colonial era, it was named Buitenzorg and served as the summer residence of the Governor-General of Dutch East Indies. With several hundred thousand people living on an area of about 20 km2, the central part of Bogor is one of the world's most densely populated areas; the city has a presidential palace and a botanical garden – one of the oldest and largest in the world. It bears the nickname "the Rain City", because of frequent rain showers, it nearly always rains during the dry season. The first mentioning of a settlement at present Bogor dates to the 5th century when the area was part of Tarumanagara, one of the earliest states in Indonesian history.
After a series of defeats from the neighboring Srivijaya, Tarumanagara was transformed into the Sunda Kingdom, in 669, the capital of Sunda was built between two parallel rivers, the Ciliwung and Cisadane. It was named Pakuan Pajajaran, that in old Sundanese means "a place between the parallel ", became the predecessor of the modern Bogor. Over the next several centuries, Pakuan Pajajaran become one of the largest cities in medieval Indonesia with population reaching 48,000; the name Pajajaran was used for the entire kingdom, the capital was called Pakuan. The chronicles of that time were written in Sanskrit, the language used for official and religious purposes, using the Pallava writing system, on rock stellas called prasasti; the prasasti found in and around Bogor differ in shape and text style from other Indonesian prasasti and are among the main attractions of the city. In the 9–15th centuries, the capital was moving between Pakuan and other cities of the kingdom, returned to Pakuan by King Siliwangi on 3 June 1482 – the day of his coronation.
Since 1973, this date is celebrated in Bogor as an official city holiday. In 1579, Pakuan was captured and completely destroyed by the army of Sultanate of Banten, ceasing the existence of the State of Sunda; the city remained uninhabited for decades. In the second half of the 17th century, the abandoned Pakuan as most of West Java, while formally remaining under the Sultanate of Banten passed under control of the Dutch East India Company; the formal transition occurred on 17 April 1684 by signing an agreement between the Crown Prince of Banten and the VOC. The first, temporal, colonial settlement at Pakuan was a camp of lieutenant Tanoejiwa, a Sundanese employed by the VOC, sent in 1687 to develop the area, it was damaged by the eruption on 4–5 January 1699 of the Mount Salak volcano, however the concomitant forest fires removed much forest, leaving much area for the planned rice and coffee plantations. In a short time, several agricultural settlements appeared around Pakuan, the largest being Kampung Baru.
In 1701, they were combined into an administrative district. The district was further developed during the 1703 Dutch mission headed by the Inspector General of the VOC Abraham van Riebeeck; the expedition of van Riebeeck performed a detailed study of the Pakuan ruins and described many archaeological artifacts, including prasasti, erected buildings for the VOC employees. The area attracted the Dutch by a favorable geographical position and mild climate, preferred over the hot Batavia, the administrative center of the Dutch East Indies. In 1744–1745, the residence of the Governor-General was built in Pakuan, hosting the government during the summer. In 1746, by the order of the Governor-General Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff, the Palace, a nearby Dutch settlement and nine native settlements were merged into an administrative division named Buitenzorg Around the same time, the first reference to Bogor as the local name of the city was documented; this name became used for the whole city as the local alternative to Buitenzorg.
This name is believed to originate from the Javanese word bogor meaning sugar palm, still used in the Indonesian language. Alternative origins are the old-Javanese word bhagar, or the misspelling of "Buitenzorg" by the local residents; the city grew in the late 18th – early 19th centuries. This growth was stimulated by the temporary liberation of the Dutch East Indies by United Kingdom in 1811–1815 – the British landed on Java and other Sunda Islands to prevent their capture by Napoleonic France which conquered the Netherlands; the head of the British administration Stamford Raffles moved the admin
The Komodo dragon known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca and Gili Motang. A member of the monitor lizard family Varanidae, it is the largest living species of lizard, growing to a maximum length of 3 metres in rare cases and weighing up to 70 kilograms, their unusually large size has been attributed to island gigantism, since no other carnivorous animals fill the niche on the islands where they live. However, recent research suggests the large size of Komodo dragons may be better understood as representative of a relict population of large varanid lizards that once lived across Indonesia and Australia, most of which, along with other megafauna, died out after the Pleistocene. Fossils similar to V. komodoensis have been found in Australia dating to greater than 3.8 million years ago, its body size remained stable on Flores, one of the handful of Indonesian islands where it is found, over the last 900,000 years, "a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island's megafauna, the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka."As a result of their size, these lizards dominate the ecosystems in which they live.
Komodo dragons hunt and ambush prey including invertebrates and mammals. It has been claimed; the biological significance of these proteins is disputed, but the glands have been shown to secrete an anticoagulant. Komodo dragons' group behaviour in hunting is exceptional in the reptile world; the diet of big Komodo dragons consists of Timor deer, though they eat considerable amounts of carrion. Komodo dragons occasionally attack humans. Mating begins between May and August, the eggs are laid in September. About 20 eggs are deposited in a self-dug nesting hole; the eggs are incubated for seven to eight months, hatching in April, when insects are most plentiful. Young Komodo dragons are vulnerable and therefore dwell in trees, safe from predators and cannibalistic adults, they take 8 to 9 years to mature, are estimated to live up to 30 years. Komodo dragons were first recorded by Western scientists in 1910, their large size and fearsome reputation make them popular zoo exhibits. In the wild, their range has contracted due to human activities, they are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN.
They are protected under Indonesian law, a national park, Komodo National Park, was founded to aid protection efforts. Komodo dragons were first documented by Europeans in 1910, when rumors of a "land crocodile" reached Lieutenant van Steyn van Hensbroek of the Dutch colonial administration. Widespread notoriety came after 1912, when Peter Ouwens, the director of the Zoological Museum at Bogor, published a paper on the topic after receiving a photo and a skin from the lieutenant, as well as two other specimens from a collector; the first two live Komodo dragons to arrive in Europe were exhibited in the Reptile House at London Zoo when it opened in 1927. Joan Beauchamp Procter made some of the earliest observations of these animals in captivity and she demonstrated the behaviour of one of these animals at a Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London in 1928; the Komodo dragon was the driving factor for an expedition to Komodo Island by W. Douglas Burden in 1926. After returning with 12 preserved specimens and 2 live ones, this expedition provided the inspiration for the 1933 movie King Kong.
It was Burden who coined the common name "Komodo dragon." Three of his specimens were stuffed and are still on display in the American Museum of Natural History. The Dutch, realizing the limited number of individuals in the wild, outlawed sport hunting and limited the number of individuals taken for scientific study. Collecting expeditions ground to a halt with the occurrence of World War II, not resuming until the 1950s and 1960s, when studies examined the Komodo dragon's feeding behavior and body temperature. At around this time, an expedition was planned in which a long-term study of the Komodo dragon would be undertaken; this task was given to the Auffenberg family, who stayed on Komodo Island for 11 months in 1969. During their stay, Walter Auffenberg and his assistant Putra Sastrawan captured and tagged more than 50 Komodo dragons; the research from the Auffenberg expedition would prove to be enormously influential in raising Komodo dragons in captivity. Research after that of the Auffenberg family has shed more light on the nature of the Komodo dragon, with biologists such as Claudio Ciofi continuing to study the creatures.
The Komodo dragon is known as the Komodo monitor or the Komodo Island monitor in scientific literature, although this is not common. To the natives of Komodo Island, it is referred to buaya darat, or biawak raksasa; the evolutionary development of the Komodo dragon started with the genus Varanus, which originated in Asia about 40 million years ago and migrated to Australia, where it evolved into giant forms, helped by the absence of competing placental carnivorans. Around 15 million years ago, a collision between Australia and Southeast Asia allowed these larger varanids to move back into what is now the Indonesian archipelago, extending their range as far east as the island of Timor; the Komodo dragon was believed to have differentiated from its Australian ancestors 4 million years ago. However, recent fossil evidence from Queensland suggests the Komodo dragon evolved in Australia before spreading to Indonesia. Dramatic lowering of sea level during the last
Pink is a pale red color, named after a flower of the same name. It was first used as a color name in the late 17th century. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, pink is the color most associated with charm, sensitivity, sweetness, childhood and the romantic. A combination of pink and white is associated with chastity and innocence, whereas a combination of pink and black links to eroticism and seduction; the color pink is named after the flowers, flowering plants in the genus Dianthus, derives from the frilled edge of the flowers. The verb "to pink" dates from the 14th century and means "to decorate with a perforated or punched pattern". While the word "pink" was first used as a noun to refer to a color in the 17th century, the verb "pink" continues to be reflected today as the name of hand-held scissors that cut a zig-zagged line to prevent fraying that are referred to as pinking shears; the color pink has been described in literature since ancient times. In the Odyssey, written in 800 BCE, Homer wrote "Then, when the child of morning, rosy-fingered dawn appeared..." Roman poets described the color.
Roseus is the Latin word meaning "rosy" or "pink." Lucretius used the word to describe the dawn in his epic poem On the Nature of Things. Pink was not a common color in the fashion of the Middle Ages. However, it did appear in women's fashion, in religious art. In the 13th and 14th century, in works by Cimabue and Duccio, the Christ child was sometimes portrayed dressed in pink, the color associated with the body of Christ. In the high Renaissance painting the Madonna of the Pinks by Raphael, the Christ child is presenting a pink flower to the Virgin Mary; the pink was a symbol of marriage, showing a spiritual marriage between the child. During the Renaissance, pink was used for the flesh color of faces and hands; the pigment used for this was called light cinabrese. In his famous 15th century manual on painting, Il Libro Dell'Arte, Cennino Cennini described it this way: "This pigment is made from the loveliest and lightest sinopia, found and is mixed and mulled with St. John’s white, as it is called in Florence.
And when these two pigments have been mulled together, make little loaves of them like half walnuts and leave them to dry. When you need some, take however much of it seems appropriate, and this pigment does you great credit if you use it for painting faces and nudes on walls..." The zenith of the color pink was the 18th century, when pastel colors became fashionable in all the courts of Europe. Pink was championed by Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France, who wore combinations of pale blue and pink, had a particular tint of pink made for her by the Sevres porcelain factory, created by adding nuances of blue and yellow. While pink was quite evidently the color of seduction in the portraits made by George Romney of Emma, Lady Hamilton, the future mistress of Admiral Horatio Nelson, in the late 18th century, it had the opposite meaning in the portrait of Sarah Barrett Moulton painted by Thomas Lawrence in 1794. In this painting, it symbolized childhood and tenderness. Sarah Moulton was just eleven years old when the picture was painted, died the following year.
In 19th century England, pink ribbons or decorations were worn by young boys. In fact the clothing for children in the 19th century was always white, before the invention of chemical dyes, clothing of any color would fade when washed in boiling water. Queen Victoria was painted in 1850 with her seventh child and third son, Prince Arthur, who wore white and pink. In late nineteenth-century France, Impressionist painters working in a pastel color palette sometimes depicted women wearing the color pink, such as Edgar Degas’ image of ballet dancers or Mary Cassatt’s images of women and children; the US presidential inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953 when Eisenhower's wife Mamie Eisenhower wore a pink dress as her inaugural gown is thought to have been a key turning point to the association of pink as a color associated with girls. Mamie's strong liking of pink led to the public association with pink being a color that "ladylike women wear." The 1957 American musical Funny Face played a role in cementing the color's association with women.
In the 20th century, pinks became bolder and more assertive, in part because of the invention of chemical dyes which did not fade. The pioneer in the creation of the new wave of pinks was the Italian designer Elsa Schiaparelli, aligned with the artists of the surrealist movement, including Jean Cocteau. In 1931 she created a new variety of the color, called shocking pink, made by mixing magenta with a small amount of white, she launched a perfume called Shocking, sold in a bottle in the shape of a woman's torso, said to be modelled on that of Mae West. Her fashions, co-designed with artists such as Cocteau, featured the new pinks. In Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, inmates of Nazi concentration camps who were accused of homosexuality were forced to wear a pink triangle; because of this, the pink triangle has become a symbol of the modern gay rights movement. The transition to pink as a sexually differentiating color f
Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than coarser than silt. Sand can refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; the composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example, created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. For example, it is the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean. Sand is a non-renewable resource over human timescales, sand suitable for making concrete is in high demand. Desert sand, although plentiful, is not suitable for concrete, 50 billion tons of beach sand and fossil sand is needed each year for construction; the exact definition of sand varies.
The scientific Unified Soil Classification System used in engineering and geology corresponds to US Standard Sieves, defines sand as particles with a diameter of between 0.074 and 4.75 millimeters. By another definition, in terms of particle size as used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between silt; the size specification between sand and gravel has remained constant for more than a century, but particle diameters as small as 0.02 mm were considered sand under the Albert Atterberg standard in use during the early 20th century. The grains of sand in Archimedes Sand Reckoner written around 240 BCE, were 0.02 mm in diameter. A 1953 engineering standard published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials set the minimum sand size at 0.074 mm. A 1938 specification of the United States Department of Agriculture was 0.05 mm. Sand feels gritty when rubbed between the fingers.
Silt, by comparison, feels like flour). ISO 14688 grades sands as fine and coarse with ranges 0.063 mm to 0.2 mm to 0.63 mm to 2.0 mm. In the United States, sand is divided into five sub-categories based on size: fine sand, fine sand, medium sand, coarse sand, coarse sand; these sizes are based on the Krumbein phi scale, where size in Φ = -log2D. On this scale, for sand the value of Φ varies from −1 to +4, with the divisions between sub-categories at whole numbers; the most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica in the form of quartz, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is the most common mineral resistant to weathering. The composition of mineral sand is variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions; the bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material, suggesting sand formation depends on living organisms, too.
The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are famous for their bright, white color. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with considerable feldspar content, derived from weathering and erosion of a granitic rock outcrop; some sands contain magnetite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derived from volcanic basalts and obsidian. Chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are green in color, as are sands derived from basaltic lava with a high olivine content. Many sands those found extensively in Southern Europe, have iron impurities within the quartz crystals of the sand, giving a deep yellow color. Sand deposits in some areas contain garnets and other resistant minerals, including some small gemstones. Rocks erode/weather over a long period of time by water and wind, their sediments are transported downstream; these sediments continue to break apart into smaller pieces. The type of rock the sediment originated from and the intensity of the environment gives different compositions of sand.
The most common rock to form sand is Granite, where the Feldspar minerals dissolve faster than the Quartz, causing the rock to break apart into small pieces. In high energy environments rocks break apart much faster than in more calm settings. For example, Granite rocks this means more Feldspar minerals in the sand because it wouldn't have had time to dissolve; the term for sand formed by weathering is epiclastic. Sand from rivers are collected either from the river itself or its flood plain, accounts for the majority of the sand used in the construction industry; because if this, many small rivers have been depleted, causing environmental concern and economic losses to adjacent land. The rate of sand mining in such areas outweighs the rate the sand can replenish, making it a non-renewable resource. Sand dunes are a consequence of wind deposition; the Sahara Desert is dry because of its geographic location and is known for its vast sand dunes. They exist here because little vegetation is able to grow and there's not a lot of water.
Over time, wind blow
Komodo National Park
Komodo National Park is a national park in Indonesia located within the Lesser Sunda Islands in the border region between the provinces of East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. The park includes the three larger islands Komodo and Rinca, 26 smaller ones, with a total area of 1,733 km2; the national park was founded in 1980 to protect the world's largest lizard. It was dedicated to protecting other species, including marine species. In 1991 the national park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Komodo National Park has been selected as one of the New7Wonders of Nature; the waters surrounding Komodo island contain rich marine biodiversity. Komodo islands is a part of the Coral Triangle, which contains some of the richest marine biodiversity on Earth. Komodo National Park was established in 1980, it was declared a World Heritage Site and a Man and Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1991. The park was established to conserve the unique Komodo dragon, first discovered by the scientific world in 1912 by Lieutenant J. K. H. van Steyn van Henbroek, the Civil Administrator in Reo, Flores Island.
Since conservation goals have expanded to protecting the entire biodiversity of the region, both marine and terrestrial. The majority of the people in and around the park are fishermen from Bima, South Flores, South Sulawesi; those from South Sulawesi are from the Suku Bugis ethnic groups. The Suku Bajau were nomadic and moved from location to location in the region of Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku, to make their livelihoods. Descendants of the original people of Komodo, the Ata Modo, still live in Komodo, but there are no pure blood people left and their culture and language is being integrated with the recent migrants. Little is known of the early history of the Komodo islanders, they were subjects of the Sultanate of Bima, although the island’s remoteness from Bima meant its affairs were little troubled by the Sultanate other than by occasional demands for tribute. The park comprises a coastal section of western Flores, the three larger islands of Komodo and Rinca, 26 smaller islands and the surrounding waters of the Sape Straights.
The islands of the national park are of volcanic origin. The terrain is rugged, characterized by rounded hills, with altitudes up to 735 m; the climate is one of the driest of Indonesia with annual rainfall between 1000 mm. Mean daily temperatures in the dry season from May to October are around 40 °C; the hot and dry climate of the park, characterized by savannah vegetation, makes it a good habitat for the endemic Komodo dragon. Their populations are restricted to the islands of Komodo, Gili Motang, Gili Dasami, Flores, while extinct on Padar. Cloud forests appear only in few areas above 500 metres but they provide habitat to several endemic flora. Coastal vegetation includes mangrove forest, which appear in the sheltered bays of the three larger islands. Fringing and patch coral reefs are extensive and best developed on the north-east coast of Komodo; the park is rich in marine life, including whale sharks, ocean sunfish, manta rays, eagle rays, pygmy seahorse, false pipefish, clown frogfish, blue-ringed octopus, sponges and coral.
Varieties of cetaceans inhabit in adjacent waters from smaller sized dolphins to sperm whales and blue whales. Omura's whales, one of the least known of rorquals have been confirmed to range waters within the park. Endangered dugongs still live in Komodo areas as well; the terrestrial fauna is of rather poor diversity in comparison to the marine fauna. The number of terrestrial animal species found in the park is not high, but the area is important from a conservation perspective as some species are endemic. Many of the mammals are Asiatic in origin Including the Timor deer, wild boar, water buffalo, crab eating macaques and civet. Several of the reptiles and birds are Australian in origin; these include the orange-footed scrubfowl, the lesser sulpher crested cockatoo, the helmeted friarbird. The most famous of Komodo National Park's reptiles is the Komodo dragon, it is the world's largest lizard and is among the world's largest reptiles and can reach 3m or more in length and weigh over 70 kg. Twelve terrestrial snake species are found on the island in addition to marine species.
Snakes include the Javan spitting cobra, Russell’s viper, white-lipped pit viper, blue lipped sea krait, Timor python. Lizards include nine skink species, limbless lizards, the monitor lizards such as the Komodo dragon. Frogs include the endemic Komodo cross frog and Oreophryne darewskyi. Frogs are found at higher, moister altitudes; the saltwater crocodile was once present within the park in coastal areas including mangrove swamps but is now extinct within the area. Mammals found within the park include the Timor rusa deer, the main prey of the Komodo dragon, water buffalo, wild boar, crab-eating macaque, Asian palm civet, the endemic Rinca rat, fruit bats. Domestic mammals on within the park include goats and dogs which are feral. One of the main bird species is a ground dwelling bird. In areas of savanna, 27 species were observed; the zebra dove