History of the Jews in the Soviet Union
The history of the Jews in the Soviet Union is inextricably linked to much earlier expansionist policies of the Russian Empire conquering and ruling the eastern half of the European continent before the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. "For two centuries – wrote Zvi Gitelman – millions of Jews had lived under one entity, the Russian Empire and the USSR. They had now come under the jurisdiction of fifteen states, some of which had never existed and others that had passed out of existence in 1939." Before the revolutions of 1989 which resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, a number of these now sovereign countries constituted the component republics of the Soviet Union. The history of the Jews in Armenia dates back more than 2,000 years. After Eastern Armenia came under Russian rule in the early 19th century, Jews began arriving from Poland and Iran, creating Ashkenazic and Mizrahi communities in Yerevan. More Jews moved to Armenia during its period as a Soviet republic finding more tolerance in the area than in Russia or Ukraine.
After World War II, the Jewish population rose to 5,000. However, with the dissolution of the Soviet Union many left due to inadequate services and today the country's Jewish population has shrunk to 750. Despite small numbers, a high intermarriage rate, relative isolation, a great deal of enthusiasm exists to help the community meet its needs. There are about 100 Jews presently living in the Republic of Armenia in the capital Yerevan, they are of Ashkenazi origin and some are Mizrahi Georgian Jews. The History of the Jews in Azerbaijan dates back to Late Antiquity. Jews in Azerbaijan have been represented by various subgroups Mountain Jews, Ashkenazi Jews and Georgian Jews. After Sovietization all Zionism-related activities including those of cultural nature that were carried out in Hebrew were banned. In the early 1920s a few hundred Mountain Jewish families from Azerbaijan and Dagestan left for Palestine and settled in Tel Aviv; the next aliyah did not take place until the 1970s, after the ban on Jewish immigration to Israel was lifted.
Between 1972 and 1978 around 3,000 people left Azerbaijan for Israel. 1970 was the demographic peak for Azerbaijani Jews after World War II. Many Jewish émigrés from Azerbaijan settled in Haifa. There are large communities of Mountain Jewish expatriates from Azerbaijan in New York City and Toronto. Similar to many immigrant communities of the Czarist and Soviet eras in Azerbaijan, Ashkenazi Jews appear to be linguistically Russified; the majority of Ashkenazi Jews speak Russian as their first language with Azeri sometimes being spoken as the second. The number of Yiddish-speakers is unknown; the Jews in Belarus known as Byelorussia were the third largest ethnic group in the country in the first half of the 20th century. Before World War II, Jews were the third among the ethnic groups in Belarus and comprised more than 40% of the population in cities and towns; the population of cities such as Minsk, Mahiliou, Babrujsk and Homiel was more than 50% Jewish. In 1897 there were 13.6 % of the total population.
Some 800,000 Jews—90% of the Jewish population—were killed in Belarus during the Holocaust. According to the 2009 census, there were 12,926 Jews in Belarus; the Jewish Agency estimates the community of Jews in Belarus at 70,000. Marc Chagall, Mendele Mocher Sforim, Chaim Weizmann and Menachem Begin were born in Belarus. By the end of the 19th century, many Belarusian Jews were part of the general flight of Jews from Eastern Europe to the New World due to conflicts and pogroms engulfing the Russian Empire and the anti-Semitism of the Russian czars. Millions of Jews, including tens of thousands of Jews from Belarus, emigrated to the United States of America and South Africa. A small number emigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine. During the first years of Soviet occupation of Belarus, Jews were able to get managing positions in the country. In WW II, atrocities against the Jewish population in the German-conquered areas began immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen to round up Jews and shoot them.
In the second half of the 20th century, there was a large wave of Belarusian Jews immigrating to Israel, as well as to the United States. In 1979, there were 135,400 Jews in Belarus; the collapse of the Soviet Union and Belarusian independence saw most of the community, along with the majority of the former Soviet Union's Jewish population, leave for Israel, when most of the former Soviet Union's Jewish population left for Israel. The 1999 census estimated. However, local Jewish organizations put the number at 50,000, the Jewish Agency believes that there are 70,000. About half of the country's Jews live in Minsk. Despite anti-semitic government policies, national Jewish organizations, local cultural groups, religious schools, charitable organizations, organizations for war veterans and Holocaust survivors have been formed. Since the mass immigration of the 1990s, there has been some continuous immigration to Israel. In 2002, 974 Belarusians moved to Israel, between 2003 and 2005, 4,854 followed suit.
The history of the Jews in Estonia starts with individual reports of Jews in what is now Estonia from as early as the 14th century. However, the process of permanent Jewi
Pale of Settlement
The Pale of Settlement was a western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish residency, permanent or temporary, was forbidden. Most Jews were still excluded from residency in a number of cities within the Pale as well. A limited number of Jews were allowed to live outside the area, including those with university education, the ennobled, members of the most affluent of the merchant guilds and particular artisans, some military personnel and some services associated with them, including their families, sometimes the servants of these; the archaic English term pale is derived from the Latin word palus, a stake, extended to mean the area enclosed by a fence or boundary. The Pale of Settlement included all of Belarus and Moldova, much of present-day Ukraine, parts of eastern Latvia, eastern Poland, some parts of western Russia corresponding to the Kresy macroregion and modern-day western border of Russia.
It extended from the eastern pale, or demarcation line, to the Russian border with the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Furthermore, it comprised about 20% of the territory of European Russia and corresponded to historical lands of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Cossack Hetmanate, the Ottoman Empire; the Russian Empire in the period of the existence of the Pale was predominantly Orthodox Christian. The area included in the Pale, with its large Jewish and Catholic populations, was acquired through a series of military conquests and diplomatic maneuvers, between 1654 and 1815. While the religious nature of the edicts creating the Pale are clear, historians argue that the motivations for its creation and maintenance were economic and nationalistic in nature; the end of the enforcement and formal demarcation of the Pale coincided with the beginning of the First World War, with the February and October Revolutions of 1917, i.e. the fall of the Russian Empire. The Pale was first created by Catherine the Great in 1791, after several failed attempts by her predecessors, notably the Empress Elizabeth, to remove Jews from Russia unless they converted to Russian Orthodoxy, the state religion.
The institution of the Pale became more significant following the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, until Russia's Jewish population had been rather limited. At its height, the Pale, including the new Polish and Lithuanian territories, had a Jewish population of over five million, represented the largest component of the world Jewish population at that time. From 1791 to 1835, until 1917, there were differing reconfigurations of the boundaries of the Pale, such that certain areas were variously open or shut to Jewish residency, such as the Caucasus. At times, Jews were forbidden to live in agricultural communities, or certain cities, were forced to move to small provincial towns, thus fostering the rise of the shtetls. Jewish merchants of the First Guild, people with higher or special education, University students, army tailors, ennobled Jews and their families had the right to live outside the Pale of Settlement. In some periods, special dispensations were given for Jews to live in the major imperial cities, but these were tenuous, several thousand Jews were expelled to the Pale from Saint Petersburg and Moscow as late as 1891.
During World War I, the Pale lost its rigid hold on the Jewish population when large numbers of Jews fled into the Russian interior to escape the invading German army. On March 20, 1917, the Pale was abolished by the Provisional Government decree, On abolition of confessional and national restrictions. A large portion of the Pale, together with its Jewish population, became part of Poland. Subsequently, most of this population would perish in The Holocaust one generation later. Jewish life in the shtetls of the Pale of Settlement was poverty-stricken. Following the Jewish religious tradition of tzedakah, a sophisticated system of volunteer Jewish social welfare organizations developed to meet the needs of the population. Various organizations supplied clothes to poor students, provided kosher food to Jewish soldiers conscripted into the Tsar's army, dispensed free medical treatment for the poor, offered dowries and household gifts to destitute brides, arranged for technical education for orphans.
According to historian Martin Gilbert's Atlas of Jewish History, no province in the Pale had less than 14% of Jews on relief. The concentration of Jews in the Pale, coupled with Tzar Alexander III's "fierce hatred of the Jews", the rumors that Jews had been involved in the assassination of his father Tzar Alexander II made them easy targets for pogroms and anti-Jewish riots by the majority population. These, along with the repressive May Laws devastated whole communities. Though attacks occurred throughout the existence of the Pale devastating anti-
Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1864, Swarthmore was one of the earliest coeducational colleges in the United States, it was established to be a college "...under the care of Friends, at which an education may be obtained equal to that of the best institutions of learning in our country." By 1906, Swarthmore had dropped its religious affiliation and became non-sectarian. Swarthmore is a member of the Tri-College Consortium along with Bryn Mawr and Haverford College, a cooperative academic arrangement between the three schools. Swarthmore is affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania through the Quaker Consortium, which allows for students to cross-register for classes at all four institutions. Swarthmore offers over 600 courses a year in more than 40 areas of study, including an ABET accredited engineering program which culminates with a Bachelor of Science in engineering. Swarthmore has a variety of sporting teams with a total of 22 Division III Varsity Intercollegiate Sports Teams and competes in the Centennial Conference, a group of private colleges in Pennsylvania and Maryland.
Despite the school's small size, Swarthmore alumni have attained prominence in a broad range of fields. Graduates include five Nobel Prize winners, 11 MacArthur Foundation fellows, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 27 Truman Scholars, 10 Marshall Scholars, 201 Fulbright Grantees, many noteworthy figures in law, science, business and other fields. Swarthmore counts 49 alumni as members of the National Academies of Science and Medicine. Swarthmore is ranked 3rd best liberal arts college in the country by U. S. News and World Report; the name "Swarthmore" has its roots in early Quaker history. In England, Swarthmoor Hall near the town of Ulverston, was the home of Thomas and Margaret Fell in 1652 when George Fox, fresh from his epiphany atop Pendle Hill in 1651, came to visit; the visitation turned into a long association, as Fox persuaded Thomas and Margaret Fell of his views. Swarthmoor was used for the first meetings of; the College was founded in 1864 by a committee of Quakers who were members of the Philadelphia, New York and Baltimore Yearly Meetings of the Religious Society of Friends.
Edward Parrish was its first president. Lucretia Mott and Martha Ellicott Tyson were among those Friends, who insisted that the new college of Swarthmore be coeducational. Edward Hicks Magill, the second president, served for 17 years, his daughter, Helen Magill, was in the first class to graduate in 1873. In the early 1900s, the College had a major collegiate American football program during the formation period of the soon-to-be nationwide sport, an active fraternity and sorority life; the 1921 appointment of Frank Aydelotte as President began the development of the school's current academic focus with his vision for the Honors program based on his experience as a Rhodes Scholar. During World War II, Swarthmore was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a U. S. Navy commission. Wolfgang Köhler, Hans Wallach and Solomon Asch were noted psychologists who became professors at Swarthmore, a center for Gestalt psychology.
Both Wallach, Jewish, Köhler, not, had left Nazi Germany because of its discriminatory policies against Jews. Köhler came to Swarthmore in 1935 and served until his retirement in 1958. Wallach came in 1936, first as a researcher, teaching from 1942 until 1975. Asch, Polish-American and had immigrated as a child to the US in 1920, joined the faculty in 1947 and served until 1966, conducting his noted conformity experiments at Swarthmore; the 1960s and 1970s saw the construction of new buildings – the Sharples Dining Hall in 1964, the Worth Health Center in 1965, the Dana/Hallowell Residence Halls in 1967, the Lang Music Building in 1973. They saw a 1967 review of the college initiated by President Courtney Smith, a 1969 black protest movement, in which African-American students conducted an eight-day sit-in in the admissions office to demand increased black enrollment, the establishment of the Black Cultural Center and the Women's Resource Center; the Environmental Studies program and the Intercultural Center were established in 1992, in 1993 the Lang Performing Arts Center was opened.
In 1999 the college began purchasing renewable energy credits in the form of wind power, in the 2002–2003 academic year it constructed its first green roof. In 2008, Swarthmore's first mascot, Phineas the Phoenix, made its debut. Swarthmore's Oxbridge tutorial-inspired Honors Program allows students to take double-credit seminars from their third year and write honors theses. Seminars are composed of four to eight students. Students in seminars will write at least three ten-page papers per seminar, one of these papers is expanded into a 20–30 page paper by the end of the seminar. At the end of their final year, Honors students take oral and written examinations conducted by outside experts in their field. One student in each discipline is awarded
Crimea is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe, completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge; the Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey. Crimea has been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe, its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Alans, Huns, Kipchaks and the Golden Horde.
Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century. In 1783, Crimea became a part of the Russian Empire as the result of the Russo-Turkish War. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was formed as an independent state in 1991 and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine; the 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russian's Black Sea Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol.
Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas. In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces took over the territory. A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions, was held on the issue of reunification with Russia which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans. Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia; the classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική, after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. Strabo and Ptolemy refer variously to the Strait of Kerch as the Κιμμερικὸς Βόσπορος, its easternmost part as the Κιμμέριον Ἄκρον (Kimmerion Akron, Roman name: Promontorium Cimmerium, as well as to the city of Cimmerium and whence the name of the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
The earliest recorded use of the toponym “Crimea” for the peninsula occurred between 1315-1329 AD by the Arab writer Abū al-Fidā where he recounts a political fight in 1300-1301 AD resulting in a rival's decapitation and having “sent his head to the Crimea”. The Crimean Tatar name of the peninsula is Qırım and so for the city of Krym, now called Stary Krym which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde; some sources hold that the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty. The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain. Suggestions argued in various sources: a corruption of Cimmerium. A derivation from the Turkic term qirum, from qori-. Other suggestions either unsupported or contradicted by sources based on similarity in sound, include: a derivation from the Greek Cremnoi. However, Herodotus identifies the port not in Crimea, but as being on the west coast of the Sea of Azov. No evidence has been identified that this name was in use for the peninsula.
The Turkic term is related to the Mongolian appellation kerm "wall", but sources indicate that the Mongolian appellation of the Crimean peninsula of Qaram is phonetically incompatible with kerm/kerem and therefore deriving from another original term. The name "Crimea" is the Italian form, i.e. la Crimea, since at least the 17th century and the "Crimean peninsula" becomes current during the 18th century replacing the classical name of Tauric Peninsula in the course of the 19th century. In English usage since the early modern period the Crimean Khanate is referred to as Crim Tartary; the omission of the definite article in English became common during the 20th century. The classical name was used in 1802 in the name of the Russian
Organization for Jewish Colonization in Russia
The Organization for Jewish Colonization in Russia known by its transliterated acronym of ICOR, was a Communist-sponsored mass organization in North America devoted to supporting the settlement of Jews in new collective settlements, firstly in the newly established Ukrainian Soviet Republic and Southern Russia, latterly in the Jewish socialist republic of Birobidzhan in the Soviet Union. The organization was soon spread to Canada. In 1934 the original ICOR organization was supplemented by a new fundraising and solidarity organization, the American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan; the two groups merged into a unified organization in 1946. The founding meeting was held in New York City in December 1924 and the initial mission of the organization was to raise money to fund Jewish collective farms in Crimea and to provide a humanitarian alternative for Jews facing anti-Semitism in Europe. ICOR was motivated by the situation of the Jews of Eastern Europe who had faced decades of pogroms and turmoil in the Pale of Settlement and constant threat of anti-Semitism in their countries of refuge in Central and Western Europe.
Alternatively, the relative safety and welcome in the New World yielded what many saw as a trend towards the dissipation of Jewish culture, "nationality". The committee worked in partnership with its American contributors and Soviet authorities in order to support the newly founded large Jewish collective farms in the former Pale of Settlement, notably Southern Ukraine and the Crimea; these "kolkhozes" attracted many former shtetl Jews from Ukraine and Belorussia who had fled to larger cities for safety, as well as those whose livelihoods had been disrupted in the requisitions and economic restructuring of the early period of Soviet consolidation. When, in 1928, the Soviet Union abandoned the idea of Jewish settlement in Crimea and endorsed instead the eventual formation of a Jewish Autonomous Republic in the eastern USSR, ICOR followed suit. ICOR worked with the Komzet, the Soviet agency facilitating Jewish settlement, its partner, the OZET. One of ICOR's initial patrons was Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears and Company who contributed more than $2 million to ICOR.
Rosenwald and many other prominent and wealthy American Jews contributed to ICOR's efforts, their contributions were supplemented by those of working and middle class readers of the Yiddish press in the United States that carried appeals for funding and support. The Canadian wing became a separate organization in 1935; the ICOR was active among first and second generation Yiddish speaking Jewish immigrants and was intended as a rival to the Zionist movement and its agitation for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. In the 1930s the organization was involved in protests against Nazi Germany and encouraged a boycott of German goods and fundraised for the International Brigades fighting in the Spanish Civil War. ICOR was associated with the Communist Party, USA and the Communist Party of Canada and followed the Comintern's party line; the organization declined following the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan was established on February 27, 1934, at a meeting held in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in New York City.
The meeting was addressed by Lord Marley, Dudley Leigh Aman, a British Labour Party Member of Parliament and leading spokesman for the Birobidzhan project in the United Kingdom. The chief American behind the establishment of the new organization was William W. Cohen, a banker and stockbroker, a Congressman from New York's 17th Congressional District from 1926 to 1928. Cohen saw the establishment of a Jewish Autonomous Region in the USSR as providing an important "haven for the salvage and rehabilitation of many thousands of Jews suffering in the infernos of central and eastern Europe" and supported the establishment of Ambidjan with his money and effort. Ambidjan began formal operations in September 1935 with the establishment of an office located at 285 Madison Avenue in New York City. Lord Marley was named honorary president with Cohen the president of the organization. A key figure behind the scenes at Ambidjan was Jacob M. Budish, a member of the Communist Party USA and employee of Amtorg, the New York-based Soviet foreign trade office in the United States.
Budish's close ties with Soviet Ambassador Alexander Troyanovsky and position in the Communist Party apparatus made him the ideal conduit for information to Ambidjan regarding developments in the Soviet Union. In the summer of 1935 Budish travelled to Birobidzhan to tour the region and conduct talks with government officials regarding the future role of Ambidjan. Following Budish's 1935 talks, Soviet authorities gave Ambidjan permission to proceed with its efforts to subsidize the emigration of European Jews to Birobidzhan. Selection of settlers from Poland, Lithuania and Germany, was to be made by Ambidjan in consultation with Soviet officials. Ambidjan would provide a grant of $350 per family selected to aid in the costs of relocation. Ambidjan's efforts attracted a wide spectrum of Americans to membership in its ranks, including a substantial contingent from the middle and upper classes, some of whom were non-Jews. Dues in the organization cost $5. In 1946 ICOR and Ambijan merged to form a unified organization.
The organization was unable to withstand the anti-Communism of the McCarthy era. The organization was dissolved in 19
Russian Far East
The Russian Far East comprises the Russian part of the Far East, the eastermost territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean. The Far Eastern Federal District shares land borders with Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to its south, shares maritime borders with Japan to its southeast and with the United States to its northeast. Although geographically part of Siberia, the Russian Far East is categorized separately from the Siberian Federal District to its west in Russian geographical schemes. In Russia, the region is referred to as just "Far East". What is known in English as the Far East is referred to as "the Asia-Pacific Region", or "East Asia". Beyenchime-Salaatin crater Klyuchevskaya Sopka volcano Kuril–Kamchatka Trench Lake Baikal Manchurian wapiti Siberian musk deer Amur leopard Amur tiger Asian black bear Brown bear Polar bear Picea obovata Pinus pumila Russia reached the Pacific coast in 1647 with the establishment of Okhotsk, consolidated its control over the Russian Far East in the 19th century, after the annexation of part of Chinese Manchuria.
Primorskaya Oblast was established as a separate administrative division of the Russian Empire in 1856, with its administrative center at Khabarovsk. Several entities with the name "Far East" had existed in the first half of the 20th century, all with rather different boundaries: 1920–1922: the Far Eastern Republic, which included Transbaikal, Amur and Kamchatka Oblasts and northern Sakhalin; until 2000, the Russian Far East lacked defined boundaries. A single term "Siberia and the Far East" was used to refer to Russia's regions east of the Urals without drawing a clear distinction between "Siberia" and "the Far East". In 2000, Russia's federal subjects were grouped into larger federal districts, the Far Eastern Federal District was created, comprising Amur Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Oblast with Koryak Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, the Sakha Republic, Sakhalin Oblast. In November 2018, Zabaykalsky Krai and the Republic of Buryatia were added being considered part of the Siberian Federal District.
Since 2000, the term "Far East" has been used in Russia to refer to the federal district, though it is also used more loosely. Defined by the boundaries of the federal district, the Far East has an area of 6.2 million square kilometres —over one-third of Russia's total area. Russia in the early 1900s persistently sought a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean for the navy as well as to facilitate maritime trade; the established Pacific seaport of Vladivostok was operational only during the summer season, but Port Arthur in Manchuria was operational all year. After the First Sino-Japanese War and the failure of the 1903 negotiations between Japan and the Tsars's government, Japan chose war to protect its domination of Korea and adjacent territories. Russia, saw war as a means of distracting its populace from government repression and of rallying patriotism in the aftermath of several general strikes. Japan issued a declaration of war on 8 February 1904. However, three hours before Japan's declaration of war was received by the Russian Government, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the Russian Far East Fleet at Port Arthur.
Eight days Russia declared war on Japan. The war ended in September 1905 with a Japanese victory following the fall of Port Arthur and the failed Russian invasion of Japan through the Korean Peninsula and Northeast China; the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed and both Japan and Russia agreed to evacuate Manchuria and return its sovereignty to China, but Japan was allowed to lease the Liaodong Peninsula, the Russian rail system in southern Manchuria with its access to strategic resources. Japan received the southern half of the Island of Sakhalin from Russia. Russia was forced to confiscate land from Korean settlers who formed the majority of Primorsky Krai's population due to a fear of an invasion of Korea and ousting of Japanese troops by Korean guerrillas. Between 1937 and 1939, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin deported over 200,000 Koreans to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, fearing that the Koreans might act as spies for Japan. Many Koreans died on the way in cattle trains due to illness, or freezing conditions.
Many community leaders were purged and executed, Koryo-saram were not allowed to travel outside of Central Asia for the next 15 years. Koreans were not allowed to use the Korean language and its use began to become lost with the involvement of Koryo-mar and the use of Russian. Development of numerous remote locations relied on GULAG labour camps during Stalin's rule in the region's northern half. After that, the large-scale use of forced labour waned and was superseded by volunteer employees attracted by high wages. During the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Soviets occupied Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, Yinlong Island, several adjacent islets to separate the city of Khabarovsk from the territory controlled by a hostile power. Indeed, Japan turned its military interests to Soviet territories. Conflicts between the Jap
The Jewish diaspora or exile refers to the dispersion of Israelites or Jews out of their ancestral homeland and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe. In terms of the Hebrew Bible, the term "Exile" denotes the fate of the Israelites who were taken into exile from the Kingdom of Israel during the 8th century BCE, the Judahites from the Kingdom of Judah who were taken into exile during the 6th century BCE. While in exile, the Judahites became known as "Jews", "Mordecai the Jew" from the Book of Esther being the first biblical mention of the term; the first exile was the Assyrian exile, the expulsion from the Kingdom of Israel begun by Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria in 733 BCE. This process was completed by Sargon II with the destruction of the kingdom in 722 BCE, concluding a three-year siege of Samaria begun by Shalmaneser V; the next experience of exile was the Babylonian captivity, in which portions of the population of the Kingdom of Judah were deported in 597 BCE and again in 586 BCE by the Neo-Babylonian Empire under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar II.
A Jewish diaspora existed for several centuries before the fall of the Second Temple, their dwelling in other countries for the most part was not a result of compulsory dislocation. Before the middle of the first century CE, in addition to Judea and Babylonia, large Jewish communities existed in the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Egypt and Cyrenaica, in Rome itself. In 6 CE the region was organized as the Roman province of Judea; the Judean population revolted against the Roman Empire in 66 CE in the First Jewish–Roman War which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE. During the siege, the Romans destroyed most of Jerusalem; this watershed moment, the elimination of the symbolic centre of Judaism and Jewish identity constrained many Jews to reformulate a new self-definition and adjust their existence to the prospect of an indefinite period of displacement. In 132 CE, Bar Kokhba led a rebellion against Hadrian, a revolt connected with the renaming of Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina.
After four years of devastating warfare, the uprising was suppressed, Jews were forbidden access to Jerusalem. During the Middle Ages, due to increasing migration and resettlement, Jews divided into distinct regional groups which today are addressed according to two primary geographical groupings: the Ashkenazi of Northern and Eastern Europe, the Sephardic Jews of Iberia, North Africa and the Middle East; these groups have parallel histories sharing many cultural similarities as well as a series of massacres and expulsions, such as the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the expulsion from England in 1290, the expulsion from Arab countries in 1948–1973. Although the two branches comprise many unique ethno-cultural practices and have links to their local host populations, their shared religion and ancestry, as well as their continuous communication and population transfers, has been responsible for a unified sense of cultural and religious Jewish identity between Sephardim and Ashkenazim from the late Roman period to the present.
Diaspora has been a common phenomenon for many peoples since antiquity, but what is particular about the Jewish instance is the pronounced negative, indeed metaphysical connotations traditionally attached to dispersion and exile, two conditions which were conflated. The English term diaspora, which entered usage as late as 1876, the Hebrew word galut though covering a similar semantic range, bear some distinct differences in connotation; the former has no traditional equivalent in Hebrew usage. Steven Bowman argues that diaspora in antiquity connoted emigration from an ancestral mother city, with the emigrant community maintaining its cultural ties with the place of origin. Just as the Greek city exported its surplus population, so did Jerusalem, while remaining the cultural and religious centre or metropolis for the outlying communities, it could have two senses in Biblical terms, the idea of becoming a'guiding light unto the nations' by dwelling in the midst of gentiles, or of enduring the pain of exile from one's homeland.
The conditions of diaspora in the former case were premised on the free exercise of citizenship or resident alien status. Galut implies by comparison living as a denigrated minority, stripped of such rights, in the host society. Sometimes diaspora and galut are defined as'voluntary' as opposed to'involuntary' exile. Diaspora, it has been argued, has a political edge, referring to geopolitical dispersion, which may be involuntary, but which can assume, under different conditions, a positive nuance. Galut is more teleological, connotes a sense of uprootedness. Daniel Boyarin defines diaspora as a state where people have a dual cultural allegiance, productive of a double consciousness, in this sense a cultural condition not premised on any particular history, as opposed to galut, more descriptive of an existential situation, that properly of exile, conveying a particular psychological outlook; the Greek word διασπορά first appears as a neologism in the translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint, where it occurs 14 times, starting with a passage reading: ἔση διασπορὰ ἐν πάσαις βασιλείαις τῆς γῆς, translating'ləza‘ăwāh', whose root suggests'trouble, terror'.
In these contexts i