Nizam of Hyderabad
The Nizam of Hyderabad was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty; the Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, Asaf Jah became independent of them; when the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until the 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union; the Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers. They were never recognised as rulers; the seventh and last Nizam was Mir Osman Ali Khan, who fell from power when Hyderabad was annexed by India in 1948.
By the time of its annexation, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles of homogeneous territory and had a population of 16.34 million people, of which a majority was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system and radio broadcasting service. Hindus were under-represented in government and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, 121 others were Christians and Sikhs. Of the upper level government officials, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions; the Nizam and his nobles, who were Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state. All kotwals, police commissioners, were Muslims; the name Nizam spelled as Nezam, comes from Urdu /nɪˈzɑːm/, which itself is derived from the ancient Arabic language niẓām which means "order" or "arrangement". Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the whole Empire.
The word is derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi, better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk. According to Sir Roper Lethbridge in "The Golden Book of India"—, the Nizams are lineally descended from the First Caliph Abu Bakr, the successor of the Prophet Muhammed; the family of Nizams in India is descended from Abid Khan, a Turkoman from Samarkand, whose lineage is traced to Sufi Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi of Central Asia. In the early 1650s, on his way to hajj, Abid Khan stopped in Deccan, where the young prince Aurangzeb Governor of Deccan, cultivated him. Abid Khan returned to the service of Aurangzeb to fight in the succession wars of 1657–58. After Aurangzeb's enthronement, Abid Khan was richly rewarded and became Aurangzeb's favourite nobleman, his son Ghazi Uddin Khan received in marriage, Safiya Khanum, the daughter of the former imperial prime minister Sa‘dullah Khan. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, the founder of the line of Nizams, was born of the couple, thus descending from two prominent families of the Mughal court.
Ghazi Uddin Khan rose to become a General of the Emperor Aurangzeb and played a vital role in conquering Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates of Southern India in 1686. He played a key role in thwarting the rebellion by Prince Akbar and alleged rebellion by Prince Mu`azzam.. After Aurangzeb's death and during the war of succession and his father remained neutral thus escaping the risk of being on the losing side, their successor Farrukhsiyar appointed Qamaruddin the governor of Deccan in 1713, awarding him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk. However, the governorship was taken away two years and Qamaruddin withdrew to his estate in Moradabad. Under the next emperor, Muhammad Shah, Qamaruddin accepted the governorship of Deccan for the second time in 1721; the next year, following the death of his uncle Muhammad Amin Khan, a power-broker in the Mughal Court, Qamaruddin returned to the Delhi and was made the wazir. According to historian Faruqui, his tenure as prime minister was undermined by his opponents and a rebellion in Deccan was engineered against him.
In 1724, the Nizam returned to Deccan to reclaim his base, in the process making a transition to a semi-independent ruler. In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region Hyderabad Deccan, started what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. Nizam I never formally declared independence from the Mughals. In Friday prayers, the sermon would be conducted in the name of Aurangzeb, this tradition would continue until the end of Hyderabad State in 1948; the death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned
Bengal is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world. Politically, Bengal is divided between Bangladesh and the Indian territories of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley. In 2011, the population of Bengal was estimated to be 250 million, making it one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Among them, an estimated 160 million people live in Bangladesh and 91.3 million people live in West Bengal. The predominant ethnolinguistic group is the Bengali people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Bengali language. Bengali Muslims are the majority in Bangladesh and Bengali Hindus are the majority in West Bengal and Tripura, while Barak Valley contains equal proportions of Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims. Outside Bengal proper, the Indian territories of Jharkhand and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are home to significant communities of Bengalis.
Dense woodlands, including hilly rainforests, cover Bengal's eastern areas. In the littoral southwest are the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest and home of the Bengal tiger. In the coastal southeast lies Cox's Bazar, the longest beach in the world at 125 km; the region has a monsoon climate. At times an independent regional empire, Bengal was a leading power in Southeast Asia and the Islamic East, with extensive trade networks. In antiquity, its kingdoms were known as seafaring nations. Bengal was known to the Greeks as Gangaridai, notable for mighty military power, it was described by Greek historians that Alexander the Great withdrew from India anticipating a counterattack from an alliance of Gangaridai. Writers noted merchant shipping links between Bengal and Roman Egypt; the Bengali Pala Empire was the last major Buddhist imperial power in the subcontinent, founded in 750 and becoming the dominant power in the northern Indian subcontinent by the 9th century, before being replaced by the Hindu Sena dynasty in the 12th century.
Islam was introduced through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate. The Islamic Bengal Sultanate, founded in 1352, was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576; the Mughal Bengal Subah province became a major global exporter, a center of worldwide industries such as cotton textiles, shipbuilding, 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. Bengal was conquered by the British East India Company in 1757 by Battle of Plassey and became the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj, which experienced deindustrialization under British rule; the Company increased agriculture tax rates from 10 percent to up to 50 causing the Great Bengal famine of 1770 and the deaths of 10 million Bengalis. Bengal played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups were dominant. Armed attempts to overthrow the British Raj began with the rebellion of Titumir, reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army allied with Japan to fight against the British.
A large number of Bengalis died in the independence struggle and many were exiled in Cellular Jail, located in Andaman. The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946, split the region into India and Pakistan, popularly known as partition of Bengal, opposed by the Prime Minister of Bengal Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and nationalist leader Sarat Chandra Bose, they campaigned for a independent nation-state of Bengal. The initiative failed owing to British diplomacy and communal conflict between Hindus. Pakistan ruled East Bengal becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh by Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. Bengali culture has been influential in the fields of literature, shipbuilding, architecture, currency, commerce and cuisine; the name of Bengal is derived from the ancient kingdom of Banga, the earliest records of which date back to the Mahabharata epic in the first millennium BCE. Theories on the origin of the term Banga point to the Proto-Dravidian Bong tribe that settled in the area circa 1000 BCE and the Austric word Bong.
The term Vangaladesa is used to describe the region in 11th-century South Indian records. The modern term Bangla is prominent from the 14th century, which saw the establishment of the Sultanate of Bengal, whose first ruler Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah was known as the Shah of Bangala; the Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the Age of Discovery. The modern English name Bengal is an exonym derived from the Bengal Sultanate period. Most of the Bengal region lies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, but there are highlands in its north and southeast; the Ganges Delta arises from the confluence of the rivers Ganges and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The total area of Bengal is 232,752 km2—West Bengal is 88,752 km2 and Bangladesh 147,570 km2; the flat and fertile Bangladesh Plain dominates the geography of Bangladesh. The Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet regions are home to most of the mountains in Bangladesh. Most parts of Bangladesh are within 10 metres above the sea level, it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 metre.
Because of this l
The Reddy dynasty was established in southern India by Prolaya Vema Reddy. The region, ruled by the Reddy dynasty is now part of modern-day coastal and central Andhra Pradesh. Prolaya Vema Reddy was part of the confederation that started a movement against the invading Turkic armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal; the modern castes of Andhra region did not originate until the late stages of the Vijayanagara Empire. The fall of the Kakatiya Kingdom in 1323, after being subject to seizes by the Tughlaq dynasty, led to a political vacuum in the Andhras; the Islamic conquerors failed to keep the region under effective control and constant infighting among themselves coupled with the martial abilities of the local Telugu warriors led to the loss of the entire region by 1347. Whilst, this led to the rise of the Musunuris and Recharlas in the Telegana regions, the coastal belt saw the rise of a third warrior lineage--the Reddis of the Panta clan. Established in about 1325 by Prolaya Vema Reddi, his territory extended along the coast to Nellore in the south and Srisailam, in the west.
He was succeeded by Anavota Reddi who consolidated the kingdom extensively and established its capital at Kondavidu in Guntur District. By 1395, a second Reddi kingdom was established by a branch of the same lineage, with its capital in Rajahmundry, East Godavari District. None of the Reddi lineages find any mention in Kakatiyan era sources and cannot be traced as to their origins. But,their inscriptions and humble genealogies suggest that they were born out of the late Kakatiya' military milieu' and had a continuity with the local Telugu warrior culture; the Reddy kings ruled coastal and central Andhra for over a hundred years from 1325 to 1448. At its maximum extent, the Reddy kingdom stretched from Cuttack, Orissa to the north, Kanchi to the south and Srisailam to the west; the initial capital of the kingdom was Addanki. It was moved to Kondavidu and a subsidiary branch was established at Rajahmundry; the Reddys were known for their fortifications. Two major hill forts, one at Kondapalli, 20 km north west of Vijayawada and another at Kondavidu about 30 km west of Guntur stand testimony to the fort building skill of the Reddy kings.
The forts of Bellamkonda and Nagarjunakonda in the Palnadu region were part of the Reddy kingdom. The dynasty remained in power till the middle of the 15th century. In 1424, Kondavidu was annexed to the Vijayanagara Empire and Rajahmundry was conquered by the Gajapatis some twenty five years alter; the Gajapatis lost control of coastal Andhra after the defeat of Gajapati Prataprudra Deva by Krishna Deva Raya of Vijaynagara. The territories of the Reddy kingdom thus came under the control of the Vijayanagara Empire; the Reddy rulers played a prominent part in post-Kakatiyas of Telangana. The Kakatiya empire came to an end in 1323 after the army of the Delhi sultanate invaded Warangal and captured Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra. Warangal fell to the invaders and Ulugh Khan commanded Warangal and Telangana. During this time of foreign invasion and chaos in Telugu country, seeds of revolt were sown by two princes, Annaya Mantri and Kolani Rudradeva, they united the Telugu nobles with the purpose of reclaiming the kingdom.
Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka, Prolaya Vema Reddy, Recharla Singama Nayaka, Koppula Prolaya Nayaka and Manchikonda Ganapatinayaka were the prominent nobles. Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka was the chosen leader of this confederation of Telugu nobles who united and vowed to put an end to the Sultanate's rule, they succeeded in repulsing those forces from Warangal and established independent Kingdoms of their own. It was during this chaotic period in Andhra history that Prolaya Vema Reddy established the Reddy kingdom in 1325; the Reddy rulers protected Hinduism and its institutions. The Brahmins were given liberal grants by the Reddy kings and the agraharas of Brahmins were restored. Vedic studies were encouraged; the Hindu temples of Srisailam and Ahobilam were provided with more facilities. Prolaya Vema Reddy bestowed a number of agraharas on the Brahmins, he was revered by the title of Apratima-Bhudana-Parasurama. He commissioned major repairs to the Srisailam Mallikarjuna Swami temple, had a flight of steps built from the Krishna river to the temple.
The Narasimha Swamy temple at Ahobilam was built during his reign. He built 108 temples for Shiva. Telugu literature blossomed under the Reddy kings; the Reddy kings patronized Sanskrit. Several of the Reddy kings themselves were distinguished authors. Kumaragiri Reddy, Kataya Vema Reddy and Pedakomati Vema Reddy were the most outstanding among them. Errapragada and Potana were the remarkable poets of this period. Errapragada, the last of the Kavitraya was the court poet of Prolaya Vema Reddy, he completed the Telugu translation of the Mahabharata. He completed, he wrote Narasimha Purana. Errana's translation of the Ramayana in Chapu form has been lost; the administration was carried according to the "Dharmasutras". One-sixth of agriculture surplus was levied as tax. Under the reign of Anavota Reddy custom duties and taxes on trade were lifted; as a result, trade flourished. Sea trade was carried through the port Motupalli. A large number of merchants settled down near it. Celebrating'Vasantotsavalu' was revived during the rule of Anavema Reddy.
The Brahmins were given liberal grants by the Reddy kings. Caste system was observed. Heavy taxes by Racha Vema Reddy made him unpopular. Prasad, G. Durga, History of the Andhras up to
Andrographis paniculata known as creat or green chireta, is an annual herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to India and Sri Lanka. It is cultivated in Southern and Southeastern Asia, where it has been traditionally used to treat infections and some diseases; the leaves and roots were used for medicinal purposes. The whole plant is used in some cases. Andrographis paniculata is an erect annual herb bitter in taste in all parts of the plant body; the plant is known in north-eastern India as Maha-tikta "king of bitters", known by various vernacular names. As an Ayurveda herb it is known as Kalmegh or Kalamegha, meaning "dark cloud", it is known as Nila-Vembu in Tamil, meaning "neem of the ground", since the plant, though being a small annual herb, has a similar strong bitter taste as that of the large Neem tree. In Malaysia, it is known as Hempedu Bumi, which means'bile of earth' since it is one of the most bitter plants that are used in traditional medicine; the plant grows erect to a height of 30 -- 110 cm in shady places.
The slender stem is dark green, squared in cross-section with longitudinal furrows and wings along the angles. The lance-shaped leaves have hairless blades measuring up to 8 cm long by 2.5 cm. The small flowers are borne in spreading racemes; the fruit is a capsule around 2 cm long and a few millimeters wide. It contains many yellow-brown seeds; the species is distributed in tropical Asian countries in isolated patches. It can be found in a variety of habitats, such as plains, hillsides and disturbed and cultivated areas such as roadsides and wastelands. Native populations of A. paniculata are spread throughout south India and Sri Lanka which represent the center of origin and diversity of the species. The herb is an introduced species in northern parts of India, Malaysia, the West Indies, elsewhere in the Americas; the species occurs in the Philippines, Hong Kong, Brunei and other parts of Asia where it may or may not be native. The plant is cultivated in many areas, as well. Unlike other species of the genus, A. paniculata is of common occurrence in most places in India, including the plains and hilly areas up to 500 m, which accounts for its wide use.
In India the major source of plant is procured from wild habitat. The plant is in Least Concerned in the IUCN category. Under the trade name Kalmegh Annually on an average 2,000–5,000 tonnes of plant is traded in India; the plant does best in a sunny location. The seeds are sown during June; the seedlings are transplanted at a distance of 60 cm x 30 cm. A. paniculata has been used in Siddha and Ayurvedic medicine, is promoted as a dietary supplement for cancer prevention and cure. There is no evidence that it helps cure cancer. Evidence is inconclusive for whether Andrographis paniculata is of any help in treating respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide is the major constituent extracted from the leaves of the plant and is a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone; this bitter principle was isolated in pure form by Gorter. Systematic studies on chemistry of A. paniculata have been carried out. Some known constituents are: "14-Deoxy-11-dehydroandrographolide, Plant 14-Deoxy-11-oxoandrographolide, ahhiajajaiop.
Plant 5-Hydroxy-7,8,2',3'-Tetramethoxyflavone, Plant 5-Hydroxy-7,8,2'-Trimethoxyflavone, Tissue Culture Andrographine, Root Andrographolide, Plant Neoandrographolide, Plant Panicoline, Root Paniculide-A, Plant Paniculide-B, Plant Paniculide-C, Plant" List of ineffective cancer treatments Coon, JT. Planta Medica. 70: 293–8. Doi:10.1055/s-2004-818938. PMID 15095142. Mishra, Siddhartha K. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 1: 283–98. Andrographis Dr. Duke's Todd. Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 978-0-7234-3410-8. Contains a detailed monograph on Andrographis paniculatus as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at https://web.archive.org/web/20110519163542/http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/390-bhunimba Akbar, S. "Andrographis paniculata: A review of pharmacological activities and clinical effects". Alternative Medicine Review. 16: 66–77. PMID 21438648. Andrographis paniculata Nees Medicinal Plant Images Database 穿心蓮, Common Andrographis Herb, Chuan Xin Lian Chinese Medicine Specimen Database Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews
Odisha is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres of coastline along the Bay of Bengal from Balasore to Ganjam, it is the 9th largest state by area, the 11th largest by population. It is the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia is the official and most spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census. The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha; the modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Odisha Day. The region is known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c.
1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha; the term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient Prakrit word "Odda Visaya" as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, dated to 1025. Sarala Das, who translated the Mahabharata into the Odia language in the 15th century, calls the region Odra Rashtra and Odisha; the inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya. The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, the name of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the Orissa Bill, 2010 and the Constitution Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010. On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament passed the bill and the amendment. Prehistoric Acheulian tools dating to Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans.
Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The Sabar people of Odisha have been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic traditions, implying it followed tribal traditions. Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE, the eighth year of his reign. According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000 were captured and more were affected; the resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have affected Ashoka. He converted to Buddhism. By c. 150 BCE, emperor Kharavela, a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a Jain ruler, he built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill. Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as Shashanka, it was a part of Harsha's empire. The kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom.
Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar. They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri, Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple; the Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom. The region resisted integration into the Mughal empire until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal. Mukunda Deva, considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani. In 1591, Man Singh I governor of Bihar, led an army to take Odisha from the Karranis of Bengal, they agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had died. But, they broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Man Singh pacified the region. Orissa was the first subah added to Akbar's fifteen by Shah Jahan, it had Cuttack as seat and bordered Bihar and Golconda subahs as well as the remaining independent and tributary chiefs.
From 1717, the Orissa and Bihar governors were reduced to deputies of the Nawab of the pseudo-autonomous Bengal Subah. In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan ceded the region to the Maratha Empire; the British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War; the northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency. The Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths. Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken. In 1903, the Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state. On 1 April 1912, the Orissa Province was formed. On 1 April 1936, Orissa were split into separate provinces; the new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as
Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water. The Ancient Egyptians were the first to use lime mortars. About 6,000 years ago, they used lime to plaster the pyramids at Giza. In addition, the Egyptians incorporated various limes into their religious temples as well as their homes. Indian traditional structures built with lime mortar, which are more than 4,000 years old like Mohenjo-daro is still a heritage monument of Indus valley civilization in Pakistan, it is one of the oldest known types of mortar used in ancient Rome and Greece, when it replaced the clay and gypsum mortars common to ancient Egyptian construction. With the introduction of Portland cement during the 19th century, the use of lime mortar in new constructions declined; this was due to the ease of use of Portland cement, its quick setting, high compressive strength. However, the soft and porous properties of lime mortar provide certain advantages when working with softer building materials such as natural stone and terracotta.
For this reason, while Portland cement continues to be used in new constructions of brick and concrete construction, in the repair and restoration of brick and stone-built structures built using lime mortar, the use of Portland cement is not recommended. Despite its enduring utility over many centuries, lime mortar's effectiveness as a building material has not been well understood. Only during the last few decades has empirical testing provided a scientific understanding of its remarkable durability. Lime comes from Old English lim "sticky substance, mortar, gluten", is related to Latin limus "slime, mire", linere "to smear". Mortar comes from Old French mortier "builder's mortar, plaster. Lime is a cement, a binder or glue which holds things together but cement is reserved for Portland cement. Lime mortar today is used in the conservation of buildings built using lime mortar, but may be used as an alternative to ordinary portland cement, it is made principally of water and an aggregate such as sand.
Portland cement has proven to be incompatible with lime mortar because it is harder, less flexible, impermeable. These qualities lead to premature deterioration of soft, historic bricks so the traditionally, low temperature fired, lime mortars are recommended for use with existing mortar of a similar type or reconstruction of buildings using correct methods. In the past, lime mortar tended to be mixed on site. Since the sand influences the colour of the lime mortar, colours of pointing mortar can vary from district to district. Hydraulic lime sets by hydration. Non-hydraulic lime sets by carbonatation and so needs exposure to carbon dioxide in the air and cannot set under water or inside a thick wall. For natural hydraulic lime mortars, the lime is obtained from limestone containing a sufficient percentage of silica and/or alumina. Artificial hydraulic lime is produced by introducing specific types and quantities of additives to the source of lime during the burning process, or adding a pozzolan to non-hydraulic lime.
Non-hydraulic lime is produced from a high purity source of calcium carbonate such as chalk, limestone or oyster shells. Non-hydraulic lime is composed of calcium hydroxide, Ca2. Non-hydraulic lime is produced by first heating sufficiently pure calcium carbonate to between 954° and 1066 °C, driving off carbon dioxide to produce quicklime; this is done in a lime kiln. The quicklime is slaked: hydrated by being mixed with enough water to form a slurry, or with less water to produce dry powder; this hydrated lime turns back into calcium carbonate by reacting with carbon dioxide in the air, the entire process being called the lime cycle. The slaking process involved in creating a lime putty is an exothermic reaction which creates a liquid of a creamy consistency; this is matured for 2 to 3 months—depending upon environmental conditions—to allow time for it to condense and mature into a lime putty. A matured lime putty is thixotropic, meaning that when a lime putty is agitated it changes from a putty into a more liquid state.
This aids its use for mortars. If left to stand following agitation a lime putty will revert from a thick liquid to a putty state; as well as calcium-based limestone, dolomitic limes can be produced which are based on calcium magnesium carbonate. A frequent source of confusion regarding lime mortar stems from the similarity of the terms hydraulic and hydrated. Hydrated lime is any lime other than quicklime, can refer to either hydraulic or non-hydraulic lime. Lime putty will keep indefinitely stored under water; as the name suggests, lime putty is in the form of a putty made from water. If the quicklime is slaked with an excess of water putty or slurry is produced. If just the right quantity of water is used, the result is a dry material; this is ground to make hydrated lime powder. Hydrated, non-hydraulic lime powder can be mixed with water to form lime putty. Before use putty is left in the absence of carbon dioxide to mature. Putty can be matured for as little
Golkonda known as Golconda, Gol konda, or Golla konda, is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad. It is a tehsil of Hyderabad district, India; the region is known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond, Nassak Diamond and the Noor-ul-Ain. Golkonda was known as Mankal. Golkonda Fort was first built by the Kakatiyas as part of their western defenses along the lines of the Kondapalli Fort; the city and the fortress were built on a granite hill, 120 meters high, surrounded by massive battlements. The fort was strengthened by Rani Rudrama Devi and her successor Prataparudra; the fort came under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. It was ceded by the Musunuri Kapaya Bhupathi to the Bahmani Sultanate as part of a treaty in 1364. Under the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda rose to prominence.
Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, sent as a governor of Telangana, established it as the seat of his government around 1501. Bahmani rule weakened during this period, Sultan Quli formally became independent in 1538, establishing the Qutb Shahi dynasty based in Golkonda. Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi sultans into the present structure, a massive fortification of granite extending around 5 km in circumference, it remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort; the fort fell into ruin in 1687, after an eight-month-long siege led to its fall at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The Golkonda Fort used to have a vault where the famous Koh-i-Noor and Hope diamonds were once stored along with other diamonds. Golkonda is renowned for the diamonds found on the south-east at Kollur Mine near Kollur, Guntur district and Atkur in Krishna district and cut in the city during the Kakatiya reign.
At that time, India had the only known diamond mines in the world. Golkonda's mines yielded many diamonds. Golkonda was the market city of the diamond trade, gems sold there came from a number of mines; the fortress-city within the walls was famous for diamond trade. However, Europeans believed. Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including the Daria-i-Noor or "Sea of Light", at 185 carats, the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran, its name has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete lack of nitrogen. Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda, such as: Daria-i-Noor Noor-ul-Ain Koh-i-Noor Hope Diamond Princie Diamond Regent Diamond Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond By the 1880s, "Golkonda" was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any rich mine, to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name "Golkonda" acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous for vast wealth.
The mines brought riches to the Qutb Shahis of Hyderabad State, who ruled Golkonda up to 1687 to the Nizam of Hyderabad, who ruled after the independence from the Mughal Empire in 1724 until 1948, when the Indian integration of Hyderabad occurred. The Golkonda fort is listed as an archaeological treasure on the official "List of Monuments" prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India under The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act. Golkonda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall with 87 semicircular bastions, eight gateways, four drawbridges, with a number of royal apartments and halls, mosques, stables, etc. inside. The lowest of these is the outermost enclosure into which we enter by the "Fateh Darwaza" studded with giant iron spikes near the south-eastern corner. An acoustic effect can be experienced at Fateh Darwazaan, characteristic of the engineering marvels at Golkonda. A hand clap at a certain point below the dome at the entrance reverberates and can be heard at the'Bala Hisar' pavilion, the highest point a kilometer away.
This worked. The whole of the Golkonda Fort complex and its surrounding spreads across 11 km of total area and discovering its every nook is an arduous task. A visit to the fort reveals the architectural beauty in many of the pavilions, gates and domes. Divided into four district forts, the architectural valour still gleams in each of the apartments, temples and stables; the graceful gardens of the fort may have lost their fragrance, for which they were known 400 years ago, yet a walk in these former gardens should be in your schedule when exploring the past glories of Golkonda Fort. Bala Hissar Gate is the main entrance to the fort located on the eastern side, it has a pointed arch bordered by rows of scroll work. The spandrels have yalis and decorated roundels; the area above the door has peacocks with ornate tails flanking an ornamental arched niche. The granite block lintel below has sculpted yalis flanking a disc; the design of peacocks and lions is t