Simon Fokke, a Dutch designer and engraver, was born at Amsterdam. Philips, and was employed for the booksellers on small portraits and vignettes, which he executed with spirit. The same must be said of the drawings which he has left. He died at Amsterdam in 1784, there are by him, among others, the following plates, His own Portrait, after himself. A View of the Port of Leghorn, after Vernet, a View near Narni, in Lombardy, after the same. Six plates of Dutch Views, with Rivers and Skaters, several Portraits for Tycho Hofmans Portraits historiques des hommes illustres de Dannemark,1741. Several plates of his own design for Wagenaars Vaderlandsche Historie, 1749-59, the Treaty of Peace at Münster, after Terborch. The Prodigal Son, after Spagnoletto, in the Dresden Gallery, jacob keeping the Flocks of Laban, after the same, in the Dresden Gallery. The Death of Dido, a burlesque, after C
Haarlem is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland and is situated at the edge of the Randstad. Haarlem had a population of 155,758 in 2014 and it is a 15-minute train ride from Amsterdam, and many residents commute to the countrys capital for work. Haarlem was granted city status or stadsrechten in 1245, although the first city walls were not built until 1270, the modern city encompasses the former municipality of Schoten as well as parts that previously belonged to Bloemendaal and Heemstede. Apart from the city, the municipality of Haarlem includes the part of the village of Spaarndam. Newer sections of Spaarndam lie within the municipality of Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude. The city is located on the river Spaarne, about 20 km west of Amsterdam and it has been the historical centre of the tulip bulb-growing district for centuries and bears the nickname Bloemenstad, for this reason. Haarlem has a history dating back to pre-medieval times, as it lies on a thin strip of land above sea level known as the strandwal.
The people on this strip of land struggled against the waters of the North Sea from the west, and the waters of the IJ. Haarlem became wealthy with toll revenues that it collected from ships, however, as shipping became increasingly important economically, the city of Amsterdam became the main Dutch city of North Holland during the Dutch Golden Age. The town of Halfweg became a suburb, and Haarlem became a bedroom community. Nowadays many of them are on the Dutch Heritage register known as Rijksmonuments, the list of Rijksmonuments in Haarlem gives an overview of these per neighbourhood, with the majority in the old city centre. The oldest mentioning of Haarlem dates from the 10th century, the name probably comes from Haarlo-heim. This name is composed of three elements, haar, lo and heim, there is not much dispute about the meaning of lo and heim, in Old Dutch toponyms lo always refers to forest and heim to home or house. Haar, has several meanings, one of them corresponding with the location of Haarlem on a sand dune, the name Haarlem or Haarloheim would therefore mean home on a forested dune.
There was a stream called De Beek, dug from the peat grounds west of the river Spaarne as a drainage canal, over the centuries the Beek was turned into an underground canal, as the city grew larger and the space was needed for construction. Over time it began to silt up and in the 19th century it was filled in, the location of the village was a good one, by the river Spaarne, and by a major road going south to north. By the 12th century it was a town, and Haarlem became the residence of the Counts of Holland
The Wijnbergshofje is a hofje in Haarlem, Netherlands, on the Barrevoetstraat. It was founded in 1662 by the Mennonite Church and it was renovated in 1872 and contains 9 houses for pensioners. The regents room located in the garden has been a national monument in the Netherlands for a long time. In 1999 the 9 houses were declared a national monument. Handout for visitors during Monument Day, September,2008
Naturalis Biodiversity Center
Naturalis Biodiversity Center is a national museum of natural history and a research center on biodiversity in Leiden, Netherlands. Although its current name and organization is relatively recent, its history can be traced back to the early 1800s and its collections contain approximately 37 million specimens, one of the largest natural history collections in the world. In late 2016 the center closed its building for renovations. Temporary exhibitions are open in the entrance building during the renovations. The beginnings of Naturalis go back to the creation of the National Museum of Natural History by King William I on August 9,1820, in 1878, the geological and mineralogical collections of the museum separated into two institutions. In 1986, it was determined that the institution should become a museum. The buildings reception area incorporated the 1657-1661 Pesthuis, designed by Huybert Corneliszoon van Duyvenvlucht, completed in 1998, it was opened on April 7,1998 by Queen Beatrix. The new building cost about €60 million, making it the second most expensive building in the Netherlands.
The combined institute was opened as part of the ‘International Year of Biodiversity 2010’ by Ronald Plasterk. As of 2012 the name became the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Naturalis has partnered with ETI Bioinformatics in support of the Catalogue of Life, and is working with the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Funding is in place to support digitization of the massed collections, as of 2015, further renovation and expansion is planned, with a proposed design from Neutelings Riedijk Architecten to be completed in 2018. However, the Pesthuis will no longer be part of the complex, some parts of the collections are stored in a depot in the former museum building at the Raamsteeg in the city centre of Leiden. Rex in Town exhibition of Trix, a Tyrannosaurus skeleton, September 10,2016 to June,52017, Naturalis had an estimated 285,000 visitors and was the 15th most visited museum of the Netherlands in 2013. The museum had a number of 339,550 visitors in 2015. Naturalis, official website Naturalis extinct birds, 3D presentation Naturalis Biodiversity Center at Google Cultural Institute
Teylers Museum is an art, natural history, and science museum in Haarlem, Netherlands. Established in 1778, Teylers Museum was founded as a centre for contemporary art, the historic centre of the museum is the neoclassical Oval Room, which was built behind the house of Pieter Teyler van der Hulst, the so-called Fundatiehuis. Pieter Teyler was a cloth merchant and banker of Scottish descent, who bequeathed his fortune for the advancement of religion, art. He was a Mennonite and follower of the Scottish Enlightenment, in his will, Pieter Teyler stipulated that his collection and part of his fortune should be used to establish a foundation for their promotion, Teylers Stichting. The executors of Teylers will, the first directors of Teylers Stichting, decided to establish a centre for study, under a single roof, it would house all manner of suitable artifacts, such as books, scientific instruments, drawings and minerals. The concept was based on a revolutionary ideal derived from the Enlightenment, in 1779, Leendert Viervant started on the design of an art and book room behind Teyler’s residence.
The Oval room was opened in 1784, with the scientist Martin van Marum as its first director, a showcase in the centre displays a mineralogical collection from the 18th century and the showcases around hold 18th-century scientific instruments. The upper gallery, which was designed to let in the amount of light for viewing purposes, has 12 built-in bookcases, largely containing period encyclopaedias. Over the ensuing centuries, the museum was gradually extended, the arrangement of each new part was consistent with the insights of the day, thereafter it remained almost wholly unchanged. In the 19th century, the museum was expanded with two painting galleries, Teylers First Painting Gallery in 1838 and Paintings Gallery II in 1892, in 1878, to mark the first centenary, a new entrance on the Spaarne was designed by the Viennese architect Christian Ulrich. The rooms behind it – the Instrument Room, and Fossil Rooms I, at the same time, the library was extended and a 150-seat auditorium was added.
Over a century later, in 1996, a new wing was added. In 2002, a property was added to the museum to serve as the museum shop. Teylers Museum displays a collection of fossils, scientific instruments, coins. In his own contribution to the development of the natural sciences, to study fossils, he purchased fossil material such as the Mosasaurus. To demonstrate the principles of hydraulics, he commissioned models of mills, to disseminate natural and cultural knowledge, public experiments were conducted, such as those with van Marum’s large electrostatic generator built in 1784 by John Cuthbertson in Amsterdam. Lectures were given and scientific literature published, the museum contains nearly the complete graphic work of Rembrandt and Adriaen van Ostade. Teylers Museum holds a collection of more than 10,000 master drawings, various parts of the prints and drawings collection are shown in rotation in a specially prepared room for prints and drawings built behind the Oval Room
Adriaan van der Hoop
Adriaan van der Hoop was a Dutch banker and in the first half of the 19th century one of the richest men in the Netherlands. He was a politician, a member of the city council, the States-Provincial in Haarlem. In his years he became an important art and plant collector, on his death he left 250 paintings to the city of Amsterdam, who could barely pay the inheritance tax. In this way Van der Hoop contributed substantially to the collection of the Rijksmuseum, Adriaan van der Hoop was the son of Joan Cornelis van der Hoop, secretary of the Sociëteit van Suriname, prosecutor for the Admiralty of Amsterdam and Minister of the Navy. Adriaan studied law in Groningen and Kiel, when it was still a Danish city, with his Danish passport he traveled through Germany and England. In 1811, he was hired by the firm Hope & Co. for years an important lender to the Russian state. Back in Holland in 1814 Adriaan van der Hoop was involved in the setting up of the Constitution, in 1815, he was appointed by Alexander Baring to lead the firm Hope & Co.
A debt of 100,000 guilder owed by his brother-in-law Jan Clifford led in 1819 to a court case between the two men. The day after the verdict, four years later, Clifford committed suicide with a pistol, Adriaan raised rare plants on his country estate Spaarnberg, near Santpoort. There he grew 120 kinds of South African Erica, he had two blossoming agaves and ten kinds of orchids, the country house was designed by Jan David Zocher, who on van der Hoops request designed a new stock exchange in Amsterdam. Adriaan owned racehorses and in 1832 he started to collect art objects on a large scale, Adriaan bought works by contemporary painters, including Jan Adam Kruseman, Johannes Christianus Schotel and Barend Cornelis Koekkoek. He had bought this house in 1822
Johann Georg Holtzhey
Johann Georg Holtzhey, was an 18th-century Dutch medallist and mint master. According to the Netherlands Institute for Art History he was the son of Martin Holtzhey, master of the mint in Gelderland and he took over his fathers workshop in Amsterdam in 1749 when his father accepted his duties as muntmeester. He became mint master of the Utrecht mint, and became the teacher of the medallists David van der Kellen, on his death the presses were often purchased back at great expense by the societies. The Teylers Stichting had him design a medal in 1778 that is still used. At 1000 guilders the manufacture of the stamps was costly -a consequence of the size of the medals. Another receipt in the archive of Teylers Stichting testifies to the great care Holtzhey took when sending the medals, after Holtzheys death the Foundation purchased the stamp press for the Teylers prize medal from the Holtzhey estate for 100 guilders. Holland uses a staff to place a Phrygian cap upon Americas head, while America holds a shield bearing thirteen stars, the reverse shows the unicorn of the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, prostrate with its horn broken against a rock cliff. 1755, which was far from complete, though it was quoted in several books on medals.
In 1809 his collection was sold at auction for 4000 guilders, website of Teylers Museum on Holtzheys accounts paid by the stichting in the museums archive
Martin van Marum
Martin van Marum was a Dutch physician, inventor and teacher, who studied medicine and philosophy in Groningen. Van Marum introduced modern chemistry in the Netherlands after the theories of Lavoisier and he became famous for his demonstrations with instruments, most notable the Large electricity machine, to show statical electricity and chemical experiments while curator for the Teylers Museum. He moved to Haarlem in 1776 because the Haarlemmers had more taste in the sciences than anywhere else in the Netherlands, after his arrival in Haarlem he began to practise medicine, but devoted himself mainly to lecturing on physical subjects and creating instruments to demonstrate physical theory. He managed to scare off Linder by obtaining permission from the society to allow his servants to keep tips they received from cabinet visitors, a source of income that Linder had come to rely on. Then van Marum increased this salary to 300 from 100 by adding responsibilities to his list of duties, such as a garden in the Rozenprieel.
In 1779 he was entrusted with the care of the Second society left to Haarlem by Pieter Teyler van der Hulst, which led under his direction to the foundation of the Teylers Museum. The Teyler legacy was split into three societies, one for religion, one for science, and one for the arts, known as the first and third societies. The caretakers had to meet in Teylers home weekly, and each society had 5 caretakers, in 1794 van Marum became secretary as well as director of the Dutch Society of Science. Under his management, both societies were advanced to the position of the most noted in Europe. In 1808 he was asked by Louis Bonaparte to be a member of the committee for the formation of the Koninklijk Instituut along with Jeronimo de Bosch, Jean Henri van Swinden and he became member of the institute the same year. Under his guidance the two societies slowly merged, the demonstration model is still on display, as is a smaller version in the Museum Boerhaave of Leiden. Van Marums researches were remarkable for their number and variety, the Teylers Museum kept its role as a museum of scientific research and is a repository of important scientific demonstration models from the period.
Not only items regarding electricity, but weather stations, industrial models, steam engines, the collection of the Teylers was mostly based on scientific theory, while the collection of the Dutch Society of Science was mostly based on scientific practise. Since Linder had not known any Latin, it was easier for Van Marum to entertain visitors with stories of Linnaean trivia and of course. He left the year because of continuous disagreements with van Marum over art. Van der Vinne was an artist born into an important Haarlem artist family - he was the great-grandson of Vincent van der Vinne, the Teylers museum replaced him with another local artist, Wybrand Hendricks, who painted the famous oval room and many other Haarlem scenes. Hendricks is largely responsible for the Teylers collection of Old Master prints, apparently he got along under van Marum, but when he left in 1819 at the age of 75, the Teylers decided to discontinue the purchase of art for the decline in art enthusiasts in this city.
During the tenure of Hendriks, van Marum himself was giving public demonstrations of electricity in the Oval room
Catharina Cornelia Hodshon
Catharina Cornelia Hodshon, was a wealthy Dutch heiress and regentess of the Wijnbergshofje. She was born in Haarlem as the daughter of Albertus Hodshon, linen dealer, both of her parents died before she was twelve and together with two brothers she became the ward of Pieter Kops. At 22, she was an heiress and regentess of the Wijnbergshofje who hired the leading Amsterdam architect Abraham van der Hart to build the house currently known as Hodshon house on the Spaarne. Her brother married the sister of Adriaan van der Hoop, who bought the house. In 1841, the house was sold for 29.500 gulden to the Hollandsche Maatschappij van Wetenschappen
The Spaarne is a river, in North Holland, Netherlands. This partially canalized river connects the Ringvaart to a branch of the North Sea Canal. It runs through Haarlem and Spaarndam, the historic canals of Haarlems moats are connected to the Spaarne. A lock at Spaarndam separates it from the North Sea Canal, according to Sterck-Proot, a historian, the name Spaarne probably comes from Spier, which means reed in old Dutch. The river formerly flowed from the Haarlemmermeer to the IJ, which used to extend from the Zuiderzee all the way to Velsen, in the 13th century, a dam with locks was constructed at the mouth of the Spaarne where the village of Spaarndam formed. After a century of planning, Haarlems Lake was pumped dry in 3 years from 1850–1853, the Spaarne became a branch of the Ringvaart, lost much of its flow, and became shallower. The construction of the North Sea Canal reduced most of the IJ Bay into polders, the river was deepened for the benefit of industries along its shores. At the juncture of the river and the ringvaart is the Cruquius Museum, steam engines were used to pump the water out from the Haarlemmermeer polder.
On the Heemstede side of the juncture is the old Castle Heemstede, traveling up the river towards Haarlem, on the Heemstede side the dome of the Hageveld high school and former Catholic seminary can be seen. Continuing under the bridge to Schalkwijk, on side is windmill De Hommel. Across from that on the Heemstede side is rowing club K. R. Z. V, het Spaarne and a few buildings by J. B. van Loghem, such as Tuinwijk, an early community living project sharing a garden. In the same block, entering Haarlem, is the old location of the architectural bureau De Voogt Naval Architects in the home of Henri de Voogt. De loop van het Spaarne, de geschiedenis van een rivier, Schuyt,1987
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands. The Academy is housed in the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam, the Academy advises the Dutch government on scientific matters. The Academy offers solicited and unsolicited advice to parliament, ministries and research institutes, funding agencies, nominations for candidate membership by persons or organizations outside the Academy are accepted. The acceptance criterion is delivered scientific achievements, Academy membership is therefore regarded as a great honor, and prestigious. Besides regular members, there are members and corresponding members. Since a new system was introduced in 2011 there will be no new corresponding members. Each year a maximum of sixteen members is appointed to the Academy, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences has long embraced the entire field of learning. The Royal Academy comprises two departments, consisting of around 500 members, Science Humanities and Social Sciences Both departments have their own board, the departments, in turn, are divided into sections.
The highest organ in the Academy is the meeting of members. The president was Frits van Oostrom until 1 May 2008, after which he was succeeded by Robbert Dijkgraaf, in March 2012, Hans Clevers was elected president and took office in June 2012. In 2015 he was succeeded by José van Dijck, during the French occupation of the Dutch Republic, it was founded as the Koninklijk Instituut van Wetenschappen, Letterkunde en Schoone Kunsten by Lodewijk Napoleon on May 4,1808. In 1816, after the occupation had ended, it was renamed to Koninklijk-Nederlandsch Instituut van Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schoone Kunsten, in 1851 it was disbanded and re-established as the Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen and in 1938 obtained its present name. Since 1812 the Academy has resided in the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam, the institute was awarded the Gouden Ganzenveer in 1955. De Jonge Akademie is a society of younger researchers, founded in 2005 as part of the KNAW. Ten members are elected each year for a term of five years, members are scientists between 25 and 45 years old and are selected for a record of excellence in their research.
It was modelled after the similar German Junge Akademie, and both of these academies in turn were used as models for the Global Young Academy, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, official website