Konjaku Monogatarishū

Konjaku Monogatarishū known as the Konjaku Monogatari, is a Japanese collection of over one thousand tales written during the late Heian period. The entire collection was contained in 31 volumes, of which 28 remain today; the volumes cover various tales from India and Japan. Detailed evidence of lost monogatari exist in the form of literary critique, which can be studied to reconstruct the objects of their critique to some extent; each tale in the Konjaku Monogatarishū starts with the phrase once upon a time, which in its Japanese reading is pronounced ima wa mukashi. The Sino-Japanese reading of this phrase is konjaku, it is from the Chinese-style reading that the collection is named; the Konjaku Monogatarishū is known by the shorter name "Konjaku Monogatari". Since it is an anthology rather than a single tale, the longer title is more accurate; the Konjaku Monogatarishū is divided according to the region of the text. The first five volumes, the 天竺 section, contain tales set in India; the next five volumes, the 震旦 section, contain tales set in China.

The remainder of the anthology, the 本朝 section, contains tales from Japan. It is important to note that the arrangement of the stories is in parallel to how Buddhism travelled to Japan; the collection emphasizes the path in which Buddhism takes to Japan in order to further understand what Buddhism means to Japan. Firstly, Buddhism leaves India and becomes popular in China; as many things have been borrowed from the Chinese, Buddhism travels to Japan. Each move leads to a morphing of the basics of this religion so by that time it arrived in Japan, it became a new Buddhism for the Japanese; the subject-matter is drawn from Buddhist and secular folklore. The anthology contains no mythology, references to Shinto-related themes are notably few; the Buddhist tales cover a wide range of topics, both historical tales about the development and spread of Buddhism, dogmatic tales which emphasize karmic retribution. The folkloric tales depict encounters between human beings and the supernatural; the typical characters are drawn from Japanese society of the time — nobility, monks, doctors, peasant farmers, merchants, bandits, beggars.

Their supernatural counterparts are tengu. The work is anonymous. Several theories of authorship have been put forward: one argues that the compiler was Minamoto no Takakuni, author of Uji Dainagon Monogatari, another suggests the Buddhist monk Tobane Sōjō, a third proposes a Buddhist monk living somewhere in the vicinity of Kyoto or Nara during the late Heian period. So far no substantive evidence has emerged to decide the question, no general consensus has formed; the date of the work is uncertain. From the events depicted in some of the tales it seems that it was written down at some point during the early half of the 12th century, after the year 1120; the oldest extant copy of the Konjaku Monogatarishū is the Suzuka Manuscript. Designated as a National Treasure in 1996, it was assembled by a Shinto priest named Tsuretane Suzuka in the Kamakura period; the manuscript was brought to Kyoto University by a descendant, a librarian at the university for donation and archiving. The manuscript has been made available in digital format on the internet.

In this work, specific human traits and characteristics such as the ability to think and speak in a human method of cognition are assigned to various types of animals. By assigning human traits to the animals, through the utilization of these anthropomorphic animals, the authorship was more able to communicate the various motifs, which impart a variety of moral teachings. To be able to implement such a paradigm, the authorship would have utilized pre-conceived common traits which were attributable to specific animals; the animals and their respective traits would have been common and implicit knowledge in ancient Japan, therefore known ubiquitously. The types of tales in Konjaku which include the use of anthropomorphic animals can be broadly classified into categories, in which a particular moral is accentuated. Many of the tales which appear in the Konjaku are found in other collections, such as ghost story collections. All these tales, having passed into the common consciousness, have been retold many times over the succeeding centuries.

Modern writers have adapted tales from the Konjaku Monogatarishū: a famous example is Akutagawa Ryūnosuke's In a Grove. Other authors who have written stories based on tales from the Konjaku include Jun'ichirō Tanizaki and Hori Tatsuo; the setsuwa in Konjaku Monogatari Shū has two main purposes: secular. The religious aspect is important in leading the reader into a deeper understanding of Buddhism and what it means to the Japanese people; these stories try to appeal to average people of the time by presenting Buddhism is a simple yet meaningful way, one that people from any background can understand. In these tales both the reward for faith and the punishment for sin will be immediate; the secular aspect of these tales is that they can entertain an audience as well as provide enjoyment for an individual reader. A cryptic line in Akutagawa's classic short story "Rashōmon" says 「旧記の記者の語を借りれば、『頭身の毛も太る』ように感じたのである。」 This is a reference to a line from the Konjaku Monogatarishū, the last part figuratively meaning that he was scared.

Chinese Beijing bian

Léonor Jean Christine Soulas d'Allainval

Léonor-Jean-Christin Soulas d'Allainval, called abbé d'Allainval, was an 18th-century French playwright. He died an indigent. None of his plays were successful, except for a short time his first comedy, L'Embarras des richesses, played four times in Paris during his lifetime and considered a comedy "well conducted and well untied" and "one of his best works". Only L'École des bourgeois brought. Presented for the first time at the Comédie-Française in 1728, the play was revived only sixteen years after his death and played intermittently between 1769 and 1848. In 1854, it inspired Émile Augier and Jules Sandeau a new comedy, like a sequel. Theatre1725: L'Embarras des richesses, three-act comedy, Paris, Hôtel de Bourgogne, 9 July. Rrprint: Espaces 34, Montpellier, 2006. Read online 1726: Le Tour de Carnaval, one-act comedy, Paris, Théâtre de l'hôtel de Bourgogne, 24 February Read online 1726: La Fausse Comtesse, comedy in prose, Paris, Théâtre de la rue des Fossés Saint-Germain, 27 July 1727: Le Tour de carnaval, one-act comedy, Paris, Théâtre de l'hôtel de Bourgogne 1728: L'École des bourgeois, three-act comedy with prologue, Paris, Théâtre de la rue des Fossés Saint-Germain, 20 September reprint: Espaces 34, Montpellier, 2006.

Read online 1729: Les Réjouissances publiques, ou le Gratis, one-act comedy, Paris, Théâtre de la rue des Fossés Saint-Germain, 18 September 1731: Le Mari curieux, one-act comedy, Paris, Théâtre de la rue des Fossés Saint-Germain, 17 July 1733: L'Hiver, one-act comedy, Paris, Théâtre de l'hôtel de Bourgogne, 19 February 1734: La Fée Marote, opéra-ballet in one act, Foire Saint-Laurent, 28 August 1747Le Jugement de Pâris, ou le Triomphe de la beauté, one-act comedy, Théâtre de Toulouse, 1 JulyVaria1730: Lettre à mylord *** on Baron and demoiselle Le Couvreur, où l'on trouve plusieurs particularités théâtrales, by Georges Wink. Reprint: Slatkine, Geneva, 1968. Read online 1732–1733: Ana, ou Bigarrures calotines 1745: Anecdotes du regne de Pierre premier, dit le grand, czar de Moscovie, contenant l'histoire d'Eudochia Federowna, & la disgrace du prince de Mencikow 1746: Anecdotes du regne de Pierre premier, dit le grand, czar de Moscovie, contenant son ordonnance du 10-21 février 1720, pour la réformation de son clergé 1785: Œuvres de l'abbé d'Allainval Embarrassment of riches His plays and their presentations on CÉSAR.

Léonor Jean Christine Soulas d'Allainval on Site dédié à la vie et à l'œuvre de Soulas d'Allainval, où un ouvrage "Un littérateur et son théâtre au XVIIIe siècle" lui est consacré

Tokyo String Quartet

The Tokyo String Quartet was an international string quartet that operated from 1969 to 2013. The group formed in 1969 at the Juilliard School of Music; the founding members attended the Toho Gakuen School of Music in Tokyo, where they studied with Professor Hideo Saito. Soon after its formation the Quartet won First Prizes at the Coleman Competition, the Munich Competition and the Young Concert Artists International Auditions; this resulted in a recording contract with Deutsche Grammophon. The quartet recorded over 40 albums, they won the Grand Prix du Disque Montreux, "Best Chamber Music Recording of the Year" awards from both Stereo Review and Gramophone magazines, seven Grammy nominations. In addition to Deutsche Grammophon, for many years they recorded for RCA Victor Red Seal for Angel-EMI, CBS Masterworks, for the last decade for Harmonia Mundi. During their 25th anniversary international tour in 1994, the quartet performed the complete Beethoven String Quartets. On television, the quartet appeared on "Sesame Street," "CBS Sunday Morning," PBS's "Great Performances," "National Arts," and a national broadcast from the Corcoran Gallery of Art.

The members of the quartet served on the faculty of the Yale School of Music from 1976. The group played on a collection of instruments made by the famous luthier Stradivari; the collection is known as the Paganini Quartet. The quartet disbanded at the end of the 2013 season, following the decision by the violist Kazuhide Isomura, an original member, the 2nd violinist Kikuei Ikeda to retire. 1969 Koichiro Harada 1981 Peter Oundjian 1995 Andrew Dawes 1996 Mikhail Kopelman 2002 Martin Beaver 1969 Yoshiko Nakura 1974 Kikuei Ikeda 1969 Kazuhide Isomura 1969 Sadao Harada 2000 Clive Greensmith Official site The Tokyo String Quartet Performs In-depth essay on concert performance of 6 March 2011