The Drut or Druć is a river in Belarus, a right tributary of Dnieper. It originates in the Orsha Upland in the Belarusian Ridge and flows through Vitebsk and Homiel provinces of Belarus. Cities of Tolochin and Rogachev are located on the Drut; the Chihirin Reservoir on the Drut river has an area of 21.1 square kilometers
The Pripyat River or Prypiat River is a river in Eastern Europe 761 km long. It flows east through Ukraine and Ukraine again, draining into the Dnieper; the Pripyat passes through the exclusion zone established around the site of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. The city of Prypiat, Ukraine was evacuated after the Chernobyl disaster. Pripyat has a catchment area of 50,900 km2 of which are in Belarus. 495 km of the whole river length lies within Belarus. Pripyat begins on the Volyn Hill, between the villages of Budnik and Horn Smolars of Lyubomlsky District. After 204 km downstream, it crosses the border of Belarus, where it flies 500 km along the lowland of the Poles in a weakly valued valley; the last 50 kilometers Pripyat flows again in Ukraine and flows several kilometers south of Chernobyl into the Kiev reservoir. The length of the river is 775 kilometers; the area of the pool is 114.3 thousand km² The Pripyat valley in the upper reaches is weak, in the lower reaches it is clearer. The cave is developed all along.
The width of the floodplain in the upper course of 2-4 km and more, in some years, is flooded for several months. In the lower reaches the width of the floodplain reaches 10-15 km; the channel in the upper canalized. The width of the river in the upper reaches is up to 40 m, on the average - 50-70 m, in the lower reaches 100 - predominantly 250 m, with the entrance to the Kiev reservoir - 4-5 km; the bottom is sandy-spruce. The slope of the river is 0.08 m / km Max Vasmer in his etymological dictionary notes that the historical name of the river mentioned in the earliest East Slavic document, Primary Chronicle is Pripet and cites the opinion of other linguists that the name meant "tributary", comparing with Greek and Latin roots. He rejects some opinions which were improperly based on the stem -пять, rather than original -петь, it might derive from the local word pripech used for a river with sandy banks. Pripyat Marshes Pripyat Chernobyl disaster Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Ye. N. Meshechko, A. A. Gorbatsky Belarusian Polesye: Tourist Transeuropean Water Mains, Four Quarters, T.
A. Khvagina POLESYE from the Bug to the Ubort, Minsk Vysheysha shkola, ISBN 985-06-1153-7. Pripyat is an article from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Pripyat // Dictionary of Contemporary Geographical Names / Rus. geogr. oh Moscow center. Ed. acad. V. M. Kotlyakova. Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences. - Yekaterinburg: U-Factorium, 2006. Joint River Management Program. Final Report: River Pripyat Basin Media related to Pripyat River at Wikimedia Commons Pripyat: Radioactive pollution, 2003
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, located in Zaporizhia, Ukraine. It is the fifth step of Dnieper hydroelectric stations cascade that provides electric power for Donets–Kryvyi Rih Industrial region; the station was built in two stages. DniproHES-1 was built between 1927-1932, but was destroyed during World War II to make use of the river as a natural obstacle, it was rebuilt between 1944-1950. DniproHES-2 was built between 1969-1980 and modernized during the 2000s; the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station dam is an important crossing of the Dnieper. It has a water lock that allows navigation around the dam. There is a bridge over the lock that carries a highway that connects the banks of the Dnieper. In the lower reaches of the Dnieper River, there was an 100 kilometres -long-stretch, filled with the Dnieper Rapids; this is the distance between the modern cities Dnipro and Zaporizhia. During the 19th century, engineers worked on the projects to make the river navigable.
The projects for the flooding of the rapids were proposed by N. Lelyavsky in 1893, V. Timonov in 1894, S. Maximov and Genrikh Graftio in 1905, A. Rundo and D. Yuskevich in 1910, I. Rozov and L. Yurgevich in Mohylko. While the main objective of these projects was to improve navigation, hydroelectric power generation was developed concurrently, in terms of the "utilization of the flowing water". G. Graftio's project of 1905 included three dams with a small area of flooding; the Dneprostroi Dam was built on deserted land in the countryside to stimulate Soviet industrialization. A special company was formed called Dniprobud or Dneprostroi that built other dams on the Dnieper and exists to this day; the design for the dam, accepted dates back to the USSR GOELRO electrification plan, adopted in early 1920s. The station was designed by a group of engineers headed by Prof. Ivan Alexandrov, a chief expert of GOELRO, who became a head of the RSFSR State Planning Commission; the station was planned to provide electricity for several aluminum production plants and a high quality iron and steel plant that were to be constructed in the area.
The DniproHES project used the experience gained from the construction of the Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Power Stations at Niagara Falls, the Hydroelectric Island Maligne and the La Gabelle Generating Station on the St. Maurice River. On September 17, 1932, the Soviet government awarded six American engineers with the Order of the Red Banner of Labour for "the outstanding work in the construction of DniproHES". Soviet Industrialization was accompanied by a wide propaganda effort. Leon Trotsky, by out of power, campaigned for the idea within the ruling Politburo in early 1926. In a speech to the Komsomol youth movement, he said: In the south the Dnieper runs its course through the wealthiest industrial lands. We shall compel it! The dam and its buildings were designed by the constructivist architects Viktor Vesnin and Nikolai Kolli. Construction began in 1927, the plant started to produce electricity in October 1932. Generating about 560 MW, the station became the largest Soviet power plant at the time and the third-largest in the world.
American specialists under the direction of Col. Hugh Cooper took part in the construction; the first five giant power generators were manufactured by the General Electric Company. During the second five-year plan, four more generators of similar power that were produced by Elektrosila in Leningrad were installed; the Dneprostroi Dam was the largest dam in Europe at the time of its construction. The industrial centres of Zaporizhia, Kryvy Rih, Dnipro grew from the power provided by the station, including such electricity-consuming industries as aluminium production, vitally important for Soviet aviation. During World War II, the strategically important dam and plant was dynamited by retreating Red Army troops in 1941 after Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union. American journalist H. R. Knickerbocker wrote that year: The Russians have proved now by their destruction of the great dam at Dniepropetrovsk that they mean to scorch the earth before Hitler if it means the destruction of their most precious possessions...
Dnieprostroy was an object of worship to the Soviet people. Its destruction demonstrates a will to resist. I know what that dam meant to the Bolsheviks... It was the largest, most spectacular, most popular of all the immense projects of the First Five-Year Plan... The Dnieper Dam when it was built was the biggest on earth and so it occupied a place in the imagination and affection of the Soviet people difficult for us to realize... Stalin's order to destroy it meant more to the Russians than it would mean to us for Roosevelt to order the destruction of the Panama Canal; the tidal surge killed thousands of unsuspecting civilians, as well as Red Army officers who were crossing over the river. It was dynamited again by retreating German troops in 1943. In the end, the dam suffered extensive damage, the powerhouse hall was nearly destroyed. Both were rebuilt between 1944 and 1949. General Electric built the new
Cherkasy, is a city in central Ukraine. It is the capital of Cherkasy Oblast, as well as the administrative center of surrounding Cherkasky Raion within the oblast; the city itself does not belong to the raion. It is not to be confused with the Russian city of Cherkassk, on the Don River to the east. Population: 281,549 The city is the cultural and industrial center of Cherkasy Oblast and Central Economical Region of Ukraine. Cherkasy played a great role in the history of Ukraine. Cherkasy was the center of Cossacks, citizens took part in Koliyivschyna; the city is located on the right bank of Dnieper River, about 200 km south of the nation's capital, Kiev. The city is divided into 2 boroughs: Pridniprovskiy. In June 2011, the city celebrated its 725th anniversary. Cherkasy is situated on the high right bank of the Dnipro River, in the middle of the Kremenchuk Reservoir. Relief of the historical part of the city was influenced by Zamkova mountain, where Cherkasy Castle was situated; the major part of Cherkasy occurs as lowlands.
The city occupies an area of 69 km2. The city's length is 17 km along the Kremenchuk Reservoir. From the north-west, Cherkasy is surrounded by forest. Known as Cherkaskiy Bir, it is the biggest natural pine forest in Ukraine; the climate of Cherkasy is mild warm summers. The average temperature in the city is +7.7 °C. Winters are cold and snowy, but the last few winters have been rather warm with rare severe frosts. Summers are dry and warm, with occasional highs reaching +35 °C; the ecological situation in the city is quite stable. The cumulative pollution index as of 2008 is average with other Ukrainian cities; the main pollutant in the city is "Azot" plant, so the nearby area is the most polluted. The downtown area is polluted as well, due to high traffic volume; the city itself is clean of nuclear pollution from the Chernobyl disaster, although the northernmost part of Cherkasy may have been influenced a little. According to the newest data, the number of inhabitants of Cherkasy is 284,479 as of 1 October 2015.
This number is decreasing because of rising mortality rate, socio-economic situation, the suburbanisation process in the region. This diagram shows the changes of population in Cherkasy: The majority of citizens are Ukrainians, with a large population of Russians and Jews. 46.4% are males, 53.6% are females. According to the data provided by the municipal health care department, teens under 14 encompass 15% of the population while pensioners are 19%, which indicates the prevalence of aging citizens as compared to younger citizens; the history of Cherkasy has not been explored. The year of establishment is considered to be 1286 on the Kievan Rus territory. There are few facts about the beginning of the city, but it is documented that Cherkasy existed in the 14th century; the first record about Cherkasy dates from 1305 in the Gustynskiy Chronicle, the Kievan Rus chronicle. The city is mentioned as an existing city among other Kievan Rus cities, including Kiev, Kaniv and Ovruch; the city became one of the centers of the Cossack movement.
Citizens took part in the Khmelnychchyna of 1648-1657 and in the Koliyivschyna of 1768-1769. The city was influenced by the cruel social and economical experiments of Soviet authorities and by World War II. In 1954 Cherkasy became the administrative center of Cherkasy Oblast, the youngest oblast of Ukraine. In the 1360s, the city entered a new period in its development, by becoming a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Since Cherkasy has become an important defender of its southern borders. In 1384 the city is recognized as a fortified town on the south edge, along with Vinnytsia and Kaniv making defensive line from Crimean Tatars; the city started to be ruled by headman. During the end of 15th until the beginning of 16th centuries, the post of Cherkasy headman was held by the prominent persons of that time – Bogdan Glinskiy, Kmyta Oleksandrovych, Vasyl Dashkevych, Andriy Nemyrovych, Ostafiy Dashkevych, Vasyl Tyshkevych, Dmytro Baida-Vyshnevetskiy etc. During 15th–16th centuries, Cherkasy was one of the main centers that helped the Cossacks in the population of Ukrainian south.
Citizens took part in military marches against Tatars and Turkish, including operations led by Ivan Pidkova. New Cherkasy Castle was the center of city life, it was built in 1549–52 on the place of the old one. After the Union of Lublin in 1569 Cherkasy became a part of Poland. Cherkasy Regiment, created in 1625, played a big role in history of the city. During the Khmelnytsky Uprising the regiment became administrative-territorial subdivision. During that time Cherkasy's Regiment was one of the most powerful military units and took part in all of the battles for Bohdan Khmelnytsky army. After a successful campaign, Khmelnytsky in 1654 signed an alliance with Muscovy at Pereyaslav; the war ended in 1667 with the Truce of Andrusovo. Cherkasy remained part of Poland, but territories east of the Dnieper River including left-bank Ukraine and Zaporizhia were secured for Muscovy. While in the Poli
Desna is a river in Russia and Ukraine, a major left tributary of the Dnieper river. The word means "right hand" in the Old East Slavic language, its length is 1,130 km, its drainage basin covers 88,900 km2. In Ukraine, the river's width ranges with its average depth being 3 m; the mean annual discharge at its mouth is 360 m3/s. The river freezes over from early December to early April, is navigable from Novhorod-Siverskyi to its mouth, which totals about 535 km; the Desna River originates in the Smolensk Heights of Russia. The river's source lies in Yelninsky District, east-southeast from the city of Smolensk and not far from Yelnya in a forest near the village of Naleti; the Desna flows south through a low and swampy valley toward the city of Bryansk, where the river's right bank rises. After its confluence with the Seim River near the Russian-Ukrainian border, the river widens, splitting into numerous smaller branches, its right bank declines again near the city of Chernihiv, again near one of its tributaries, the Oster, where the Desna continues its course through a low, muddy plain until it reaches its mouth near Kiev at the Dnieper River.
The Desna has 13 left tributaries. The most significant are: The Svensky Monastery is located at the confluence of the Desna and the Sven River. List of rivers of Russia List of rivers of Ukraine Desna River at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary — Desna, tributary of the Dnepr Desna floodplains. Wetlands and swamps of Ukraine
Stuhna is a minor river in Ukraine, a right tributary of Dnieper River. Its length is 68 km; the river was mentioned in the Tale of Igor's Campaign and was a place of the Battle of the Stugna River. Towns located on the river: Vasylkiv