Turgenevskaya is a station on the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It was named after Turgenevskaya Square; the station was designed by Yu. Vdovin, I. Petukhova and opened on 5 January 1972. Turgenevskaya has simple white marble pylons which follow the curve of the station tube and a ceiling composed of reinforced plastic panels. Metal cornices run the length of the station along the base of the ceiling; the walls, which are faced with white and black marble, are decorated with chased brass panels by Kh. Rysin and D. Bodniek. From this station, passengers can transfer to Sokolnicheskaya Line at Chistye Prudy station and to Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line at Sretensky Bulvar station
Leninsky Prospekt (Moscow Metro)
Leninsky Prospekt is a station on the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It was built in 1962 to a variant of the standard column tri-span design, which included a more vaulted central span; the pillars are faced with white marble with a strip of gray at the base and the outer walls are tiled. The original metal light fixtures still run the length of each platform span were replaced in 2004 with more utilitarian fluorescent fixtures; the architects of the station are A. Strelkov, Nina Alexandrovna Aleshin, Yuriy Vdovin, V. Polikarpov and A. Marova. Leninsky Prospekt has two entrances, interlinked with subways on the east side of the Leninsky Avenue after which it was named and with exists to both sides of the Yuri Gagarin Square; the station serves 61,600 passengers daily. In the middle of a platform there is a staircase allowing transfer to Ploschad Gagarina station of the Moscow Central Circle. Since the station was built, until this staircase was a unique feature of the station, that led nowhere for years.
The staircase was intended to be a part of this transfer since inception, but though passenger service on the Moscow Little Ring Railway was in planning since 1960s, the preparatory works for that only began in the 21st century, the transfer only opened for passengers on 10 September 2016, more than 50 years later
Sretensky Bulvar is a Moscow Metro station in the Meshchansky District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is located between Trubnaya and Chkalovskaya stations. Sretensky Bulvar opened on 29 December 2007 after more than 25 years since groundbreaking; the construction, which began in the late 1980s, has stalled as a result of continuous lack of funds. Only in 2004 did proper funding resume, which allowed finishing the construction; the station opening had been long-awaited, as it is an interchange: Chistye Prudy of the Sokolnicheskaya Line and Turgenevskaya of the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line. The projected passenger dynamics for the station are 10,800 per hour on entry and 20,100 on exit, which allows for a dramatic occupancy decrease on the Koltsevaya Line on the Komsomolskaya — Kurskaya path; the station, designed by architects N. Shumakov and G. Mun, features a standard Lyublinskaya pylon-trivault design with the base set as a monolith concrete plate. White fibreglass is used on the vaults of the central and the platform halls as well as the escalator and transfer corridor ceilings, which doubles the hydroisolation.
It was thought that the station's main decorative feature would include a set of three metre high bronze and rock sculptures in the niches of all 30 pylons. Made by leading Russian sculptors, they would stand on granite pedestals with luminescent lamps lighting down on top of them; however it has emerged that this would be too costly, hence the pylon design was altered to now include a set of metallic artworks on themes of the Boulevard Ring. White marble covers the floors, whilst flooring are done with granite. There are two escalator tunnels leading from both ends of the station: one directly to Chistye Prudy station, the other to a combined transfer to Turgenevskaya as well as a diversion to a second escalator tunnel to the surface; the combined vestibule will be located underground the Turgenevskaya Square at the beginning of Academician Sakharov Avenue and next to the Sretensky Boulevard for which the station is named. In an effort to conserve the spendings and time, the vestibule and the escalator tunnel to the surface will open later
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
This article is about a river in Moscow, a tributary of the Moskva River. There are three other Yauza rivers in Central Russia: tributaries of the Lama and Sestra; the Yauza is a river in a tributary of the Moskva River. It originates in the Losiny Ostrov National Park northeast of Moscow, flows through Mytishchi, enters Moscow in the Medvedkovo District and flows through the city in an irregular, meandering north-south direction; the Yauza joins the Moskva River in Tagansky District just west of Tagansky Hill, now marked by the Kotelnicheskaya Embankment tower. Valleys of the Yauza, from the MKAD beltway in the north to the Moscow-Yaroslavl railway west of Sokolniki Park, are protected as natural reserves; the Yauza has been mentioned in Russian chronicles since 1156. Moscow crossed its former natural eastern boundary in the beginning of the 16th century; the banks of the Yauza within the Garden Ring were densely urbanized by the middle of the 17th century. Settlements along the Yauza played a significant role in the history of Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Industrialization in the 19th and 20th centuries made the Yauza "the biggest gutter for waste in Moscow". In the 2000s the ecology improved, with the closing or conversion of old factories and cleanup efforts by the city government. In 2007 the Yauza waters were reclassified from "dirty" to "polluted" status, but in 2008 the trend reversed and pollution in the Yauza exceeded its 2006 levels; as of 2008, Yauza water passing the Moscow city boundary is rated as "polluted", reaches a "very dirty" level at its inlet. Untreated surface runoff in the Central Administrative District remains the main source of pollution; the Yauza is arguably one of the most ancient European rivers. A proto-Yauza River first appeared in Permian-Triassic period, at which time it flowed to the east of its present riverbed, down today's Izmailovo Gully. After being periodically submerged during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, the region became land in the Tertiary period. Due to minor elevation changes, the Yauza diverted into its present course, with its former riverbed taken over by the present-day Serebryanka River, which forms part of Yauza basin and flows in the westward direction opposite to the original Yauza.
The contemporary Yauza consists of three parts: The Yauza collects waters from many tributaries, most of them confined to underground sewers. The few that remain on the surface, at least are: The flow of the Yauza is regulated and reinforced with water from the Volga River that reaches the city through the Moscow Canal. 80 million cubic meters of Volga water is sourced each year from the Khimki Reservoir in northwest Moscow and fed through underground pipes and an open channel to Golovinsky Ponds and the Likhoborka River. The water level in the lower Yauza is regulated by the Pererva Dam on the Moskva River, by the locks on the Yauza itself east of Kursky Rail Terminal. Raised water levels in the downtown portion of the Yauza basin led to long-term flooding and death of trees deep inside Losiny Ostrov. Within the city of Moscow the Yauza is spanned by 21 road bridges, five railroad bridges, one dedicated tram bridge, two Moscow Metro bridges, numerous pedestrian bridges and the historical Rostokino Aqueduct.
Spring floods due to low clearance under old bridges were common, with four in the 1950s alone. The most recent flash flood on the Yauza occurred August 14, 2003, following a record-setting rainfall; the Yauza and its valleys are not prone to the landslides and erosion common in the western and southern districts of Moscow. There were two minor landslides on the Yauza in 2008, compared with 40 on the Chertanovka River and 33 on the Gorodnya River. There is no commercial or recreational shipping, although the river is accessible to small motor boats as far as Preobrazhenskaya Square; the first mention of the Yauza in Russian chronicles is directly connected to the foundation of Moscow: according to the chronicles, in 1156 Yury Dolgoruky "founded Moscow at the estuary of Neglinnaya above the Yauza" on the site owned by Stepan Kuchka and known through another chronicle since 1147. There is no accepted etymology for Yauza or Auza. Similar toponyms exist in modern Latvia. Medieval Moscow grew from its Kremlin in a northeasterly direction, towards the Yauza.
St. Andronik Monastery on the Yauza formed the eastern defence arc, together with the Pokrovsky and Novospassky monasteries; the Yauza was used as a commercial waterway from Moscow to Vladimir until the 16th century. After the fire of 1494, Ivan III of Russia set up his country residence on the western bank of the Yauza in Vorontsovo. During the same period potters and other craftsmen deemed a fire hazard were evicted from Moscow proper onto the opposite, eastern bank of the Yauza, thus beginning the industrialization of the river. Slobodas of metalworkers' guilds expanded, in the 17th century Taganka became the most densely populated, remote area of the city of Moscow; the lower Yauza was used by numerous wa
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
Oktyabrskaya (Kaluzhsko–Rizhskaya line)
Oktyabrskaya is a Moscow Metro station in the Yakimanka District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is between Shabolovskaya and Tretyakovskaya stations. Oktyabrskaya opened on 13 October 1962 and was the northern terminus of the Kaluzhskaya line before the latter extended northwards in 1970; the architects were Nina Aleshina, Yu. Vdovin. Oktyabrskaya has block white marble walls faced with white ceramic tile; the station's freestanding entrance vestibule is located on Ulitsa Bolshaya Yakimanka about half a block north of Kaluzhskaya Square. From this station it is possible to transfer to Oktyabrskaya on the Koltsevaya line