Electoral district of Tamworth
Tamworth is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is represented by Kevin Anderson of the National Party. Tamworth was held by independent member Tony Windsor between 1991 and 2001 when he was elected to the Australian House of Representatives as the Member for New England. Tamworth covers the entirety of Tamworth Regional Council, Gunnedah Shire, Walcha Shire and a small part of Liverpool Plains Shire around Werris Creek. Tamworth was created in 1880 and it elected two members between 1891 and 1894. In 1894, with the abolition of multi-member electorates, new electorates were established such as Quirindi and Uralla-Walcha, Tamworth became a single-member electorate. Proportional representation was introduced in 1920 and Tamworth, along with Gwydir, was absorbed into Namoi. In 1927 single-member electorates were re-established, including Tamworth. "Tamworth". New South Wales Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2011-09-28
Tamworth, New South Wales
Tamworth is a city and the major regional centre in the New England region of northern New South Wales, Australia. Situated on the Peel River within the local government area of Tamworth Regional Council, about 318 km from the Queensland border, it is located midway between Brisbane and Sydney. According to the 2016 Census, the city had a population around 60,000; the Kamilaroi people are the traditional custodians of Tamworth. The city is known as the "First Town of Lights", being the first place in Australia to use electric street lights in 1888. Tamworth is famous as the "Country Music Capital of Australia", annually hosting the Tamworth Country Music Festival in late January; the city is recognised as the National Equine Capital of Australia because of the high number of equine events held in the city and the construction of the world-class Australian Equine and Livestock Events Centre, the biggest of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. The Kamilaroi people, from whose language comes the word "budgerigar", inhabited the area before European contact.
In 1818, John Oxley passed through the Peel Valley and commented, "it would be impossible to find a finer or more luxuriant country than its waters... No place in this world can afford more advantages to the industrious settler than this extensive vale". In 1831, the first sheep stations and cattle stations were formed, in the same year, the Australian Agricultural Company was granted a lease of 127,000 hectares of land at Goonoo Goonoo, south of the present location of Tamworth, extending to present-day Calala. In the 1830s, a company town began to develop on the Peel's southwest bank, the present site of West Tamworth. In 1850, a public town was gazetted on the opposite side of the river from the existing settlement; this town became the main town, called "Tamworth" after Tamworth, represented at the time in parliament by Robert Peel. The town prospered, was reached by the railway in 1878; the first streetlights used in Australia were commercially owned in Waratah Tasmania in 1886, but on 9 November 1888, Tamworth became the first location in Australia to have electric street lighting powered by a municipally owned power station, giving the town the title of "First Town of Light".
1818 – Explorer John Oxley passes through the area on his exploration mission. Names the river that now runs through the town: Peel River, after British Prime Minister Robert Peel. 1831 – First sheep and cattle stations, namely Joseph Brown's'Wallamoul' and William Dangar's'Waldoo'. The exploring expedition led by Major Mitchell visited'Wallamoul' in December 1831 on its way to the north-west. 1834 – 6000 sheep of the Australian Agriculture Company were the first to be brought to the Tamworth region. 1851 – The white population of the village of Tamworth was 254. 1852 – John Barnes built the Royal Oak Hotel. 1861 – Population 654. 1866 – Tamworth Mechanics' Institute opened. 1882 - Tamworth railway station opened. 1883 - Tamworth base hospital opened. 1888 – Power station opened and enables beginning of electric street lighting. The first electric streetlights in Australia. 1918 – An anchor is unveiled as a memorial to the discovery of Tamworth district. 1946 – Proclaimed a town. 1947 – East-West Airlines was established in Tamworth, flying Tamworth to Sydney.
1947 – Institution for Boys home for criminal youth opened. 1973 – The first Australasian Country Music Festival was hosted in Tamworth by radio station 2TM, which has led to the extraordinary success of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, held every year in Summer, at the end of January, a celebration that runs continuously for 11 days. 1988 – A country music icon, the 12 m tall Golden Guitar is erected as a symbol of the town's country music roots. 1990s – The Local Council embarks on a successful campaign of urban and streetscape renewal, including the greening of Peel Street. 1999 – Tamworth Regional Entertainment Centre is opened. 2004 – A new local government area, Tamworth Regional Council, is formed from Tamworth town, Manilla Shire and parts of Parry and Barraba Shires. 2006 – In December the Tamworth Regional Council voted 6 to 3 against an offer from the Federal Government to take part in a one-year trial rural refugee resettlement programme. Mayor of Tamworth, Cr James Treloar, argued that the refugees being resettled were tuberculous and criminal.
The decision resulted in international media attention on the town. The public outrage unleashed by his comments and the summary decision to reject the refugees forced a reversal of the bill one month and Tamworth will now take part in the resettling program. 2008 – The Australian Equine and Livestock Events Centre is opened in September. 2016 – Tamworth hosts the annual town vs Country Origin match. It was held at Scully Park Regional Sporting Precinct Tamworth is located on the western side of the Great Dividing Range, on the banks of the Peel River, about 420 km north of Sydney on the New England Highway, 280 km inland from Port Macquarie on the Oxley Highway; the town is situated at a narrow point on the Peel River floodplain, nestled at the base of the Wentworth Mounds, a spur of the Moonbi Range, where the Northwest Slopes rise to the Northern Tablelands. The elevation is around 400 m AHD; the Peel River runs southeast to northwest through Tamworth. The main town centre is on the northeast bank, between the river and the Wentworth Mounds, which rise to heights of 800 m, towering over the town.
The southwest bank is much flatter, the town's suburbs sprawl to the south. Water for residents and the town's industry is supplied by Chaffey Dam, 44 km south
Gowrie, New South Wales
Gowrie is a locality situated 1.6km to the West of the New England Highway and 29 km South of Tamworth in the New England area of New South Wales. Australia Post identifies the district as a'Delivery Area' within NSW post code area of 2340. Australian Bureau of Statistics identifies the area as a Community with a population of 92 as at the 2016 census; the district is the area bounded by the New England Highway in the east, from Bartons Lane south to Mt. Sugarloaf. From Mt Sugarloaf the boundary follows the Peel Range in a north-westerly direction to Mt. Emblem, Mt. Heath and to where Heath Road meets the Werris Creek Road, it follows Heath Road back to Bartons Lane, which forms the northern boundary. This is the area regarded as Gowrie; the land North of Gowrie between Bartons Lane and the Duri-Dungowan Road was once part of Walhallow Station, whose headquarters was at Caroona. All connections with Walhallow were severed when the last of the land not settled on, was sold off in 1910 - refer Early Settlement below.
Mr H. E. Whitten acquired a grazing property in the district about 1870-71 and named it'Gowrie'. R S Ryan in his listing of Australian Place Names suggests that Mr Whitten took the name from Gowrie in Perthshire, Scotland however both Mr and Mrs Whitten immigrated from Ireland and it is not known if they had a connection to Scotland. Russ Bell in his book "The Whitten History" suggests that it is more named after Gowran, a town in Tipperary 100km from the family homes of the Masons and Whittens.. It has been suggested that Gowrie may be the anglicized version of the local aboriginal word meaning'down of the eagle hawk'; the implementation of the Robertson Land Acts in 1861 saw settlers moving in and taking up land in the Gowrie area. They were allowed to take up from 40 to 320 acres at a price of £1 per acre and had to reside on the block for a minimum of 3 years. In February 1910 a land ballot under the Closer Settlement Act saw 22 blocks taken up in the Gowrie area. April of the same year saw another 13 blocks auctioned off with the successful bidders paying between £3.16.0 and £9.10.10 per acre.
The Gowrie Rural Fire Service and community hall are situated at 238 Sweeneys Lane, Gowrie, NSW 2340, Australia. The Community Hall was built on the same site as the Gowrie Public School The Gowrie Brigade of the New South Wales Rural Fire Service was established in 1965 with the inaugural meeting on Wednesday 17 February 1965 and supported by the Peel Shire Council; the Gowrie Brigade remains active with volunteers drawn from the district. The residents of Gowrie made an application for the establishment of a school in 1880 and appropriate land had been identified by July 1881. A 0.8 hectare block was formally dedicated for school use on 12 January 1883 and a further 8 hectares were added on 21 August of the same year. Inspector Mr W. F. Thompson recommended the building of a weatherboard school to accommodate forty-five pupils and a residence with three rooms and a kitchen at an estimated total cost of £650, his recommendation was adopted and tenders were called in August 1882. The school opened in February 1884 with John Reily as its teacher.
He was to remain there until August 1886."The school was fortunate to have a residence built to accommodate the teacher and his family. But then conditions were severe. Most children rode horses or drove sulkies in the pre-car days, some walked 3 or 4 miles, in bare feet and summer."The original brick building and residence was condemned and demolished after many years of service and replaced with a weather board building brought up from Willow Tree. The school closed December 1969 The exhibition was held to mark the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus arriving in the New World; the female pupils of Gowrie Public School won a medallion in an international competition at the Chicago Exhibition on 20 October 1892. All the girls attending the school that year sent a parcel of sewing to the Exhibition; each girl was given a piece of material and was required to design an article, cut it out and hand-sew it. One article, a pair of "knickers", still exists, the bottom of each leg broadly crocheted and carrying a neatly hand-sewn button hole!
The medallion was some time in reaching the school because, apart from the local people, no one connected with the exhibition knew where Gowrie was! The medallion was displayed in the school for many years but its present whereabouts are unknown. Many of the girls who contributed to the competition are in the photos opposite. With the closure of the Gowrie School the community formed a Progress Association with the inaugural meeting held on 21 May 1970; the association was permitted to use the school buildings as a community centre. After a Christmas Party for the local children that year, the school building burned down. Gowrie was provided with a new hall when the old Narrabri School building was transported to Gowrie; this met with disaster when the constructed building was destroyed by a windstorm. This was sometime in 1973; the current community hall was erected shortly after. The Progress Association is still active as a Section 355 approved organisation under the Local Government Act 1993 with the official purposes being to a) submit recommendations and advice to Tamworth Regional Council in respect of the social and economic development of the Gowrie district and b) to manage and operate the Gowrie Community Hall including the collection of income from all users.
A receiving office f
The Moonbi Range, a mountain range, part of the Great Dividing Range, is located in the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. The range is located 20 kilometres north east of the city of Tamworth situated at the bottom of the Wentworth Mounds, part of the Moonbi Range; these mounds form a spur of the Great Dividing Range where the North West Slopes meet to the Northern Tablelands. The Moonbi Range rises from 500–1,300 metres above sea level and it forms the divide between the watersheds of the Cockburn River to the south, the Macdonald River to the north, which are both themselves tributaries of the Namoi River; the higher parts of the area receive a snowfall in the winter, the highest peak in the range is called Black Jack Mountain at 1,300 metres. The original inhabitants of the Ranges were Aborigines of the Kamilaroi clan. To the road traveller on the New England Highway, the Moonbi Range is notable as it is a major uphill climb on the highway as the motorist ascends from Moonbi at the foot of the 1st Moonbi Hill to the Northern Tablelands and the village of Bendemeer.
In 1832 Edward Gostwyck Cory blazed a track over the range that the existing highway has followed. A granite boulder named Cory’s Pillar commemorates where Cory is believed to have rested during his travels. In his poem Over the Range, Andrew "Banjo" Paterson wrote of the obstacle that the Moonbi Range created for travelers to the Northern Tablelands; when Banjo Paterson was born in 1864, the Great North Road was still in poor condition making travel to the New England district for wagon teams difficult. The mountain range was immortalised in the annals of Australian country and western music by Buddy Williams, his song, The Mighty Moonbi Range, fitted into the truckdriving genre and included spellbinding verses such as, "Big Jim was a timber man with muscles made of steel. An iron nerve to hold two big hands on the wheel, but twenty tonnes of ironbark, the devils fatal load, went crashing off the Moonbi... the end of Big Jim's road." ‘The Pinch’ was a pass over the First Moonbi Hill near Cory’s Pillar which involved a steep climb of about 200 metres.
Here teamsters used to hitch several teams together to haul their wagons up this section. Descending the range loaded, they dragged felled trees behind them to slow their descent down these steep slopes. Capt. B. H. Martindale, the Commissioner for Internal Communication, in his fourth report in 1860 was able to refer to "2 miles of road at the Moonbi’s Pass, improved." By 1865, the road section between Tamworth and Bendemeer had been fenced. A second route was found through the Moonbi Ranges in the early 1870s which eliminated the steep section of "The Pinch." In 1937 a new bitumen sealed route to eliminate the earlier “S-Bend” deviation and a steep section was built from Moonbi over the range. Reconstruction on the First Moonbi Hill which began in 1975 now continues on a 5 kilometres section, which has double traffic lanes in each direction. Emergency stopping beds have been built running off the highway of both of the hills in case of vehicle brake failure; the Moonbi Park lookout situated in a high area just off the New England Highway 25 kilometres north of Tamworth, offers views of the area south of the mountain from a huge granite boulder.
In August 1998 The New England Highway was closed for eight hours after two truck-sized boulders fell onto the northbound highway, blocking it. List of mountains in New South Wales
Aboriginal Australian is a collective term for all the indigenous peoples from the Australian mainland and Tasmania. This group contains many separate cultures that have developed in the various environments of Australia for more than 50,000 years; these peoples have a broadly shared, though complex, genetic history, but it is only in the last two hundred years that they have been defined and started to self identify as a single group. The exact definition of the term Aboriginal Australian has changed over time and place, with the importance of family lineage, self identification and community acceptance all being of varying importance. In the past Aboriginal Australians lived over large sections of the continental shelf and were isolated on many of the smaller offshore islands, once the land was inundated at the start of the inter-glacial. However, they are distinct from the Torres Strait Islander people, despite extensive cultural exchange. Today Aboriginal Australians comprise 3.1% of Australia's population.
They live throughout the world as part of the Australia diaspora. Before extensive European settlement, there were over 200 Aboriginal languages. However, today most Aboriginal people speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, they have a number of health and economic deprivations in comparison with the wider Australian community. A new definition was proposed in the Constitutional Section of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs' Report on a Review of the Administration of the Working Definition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and is accepted as such by the community in which he lives. Justice Gerard Brennan in his leading judgment in Mabo v Queensland stated: Membership of the Indigenous people depends on biological descent from the Indigenous people and on mutual recognition of a particular person's membership by that person and by the elders or other persons enjoying traditional authority among those people.
The category "Aboriginal Australia" was coined by the British after they began colonising Australia in 1788, to refer collectively to all people they found inhabiting the continent, to the descendants of any of those people. Until the 1980s, the sole legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race, classified according to visible physical characteristics or known ancestors; as in the British slave colonies of North America and the Caribbean, where the principle of partus sequitur ventrem was adopted from 1662, children's status was determined by that of their mothers: if born to Aboriginal mothers, children were considered Aboriginal, regardless of their paternity. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to basic human rights depended upon your race. If you were a "full-blooded Aboriginal native... any person having an admixture of Aboriginal blood", a half-caste being the "offspring of an Aboriginal mother and other than Aboriginal father", a "quadroon", or had a "strain" of Aboriginal blood you were forced to live on Reserves or Missions, work for rations, given minimal education, needed governmental approval to marry, visit relatives or use electrical appliances.
The Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament a power to legislate with respect to "the people of any race" throughout the Commonwealth, except for people of "the aboriginal race"; the purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, who would follow work opportunities interstate. The only other reference, Section 127, provided that "aboriginal natives shall not be counted" in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it; the purpose of Section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in Section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories. After these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals. Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to mention Indigenous Australians.
The change to Section 51 enabled the Commonwealth parliament to enact laws with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a "race". In the Tasmanian Dam Case of 1983, the High Court of Australia was asked to determine whether Commonwealth legislation, whose application could relate to Aboriginal people—parts of the World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983 as well as related legislation—was supported by Section 51 in its new form; the case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve the cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians. It was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, any part of either, could be regarded as a "race" for this purpose; as to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a "race", the definition by Justice Deane has become accepted as current law. Deane said: It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase "people of any race" in s. 51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning....
The phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in that regard, is removed
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Inglis County is one of the 141 Cadastral divisions of New South Wales. It contains Bendemeer. Inglis County was named in honour of Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis. A full list of parishes found within this county.