Roog

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Roog or Rog (Koox in the Cangin languages) is the Supreme God and Creator of the Serer religion of the Senegambia region.[1]

Names and titles[edit]

In Serer, roog means sky or the heavens.[2]

Roog is sometimes referred to as Roog Sene (Rog Seen, Rog Sene, Rooh Seen, etc.) which means Roog the Immensity, or by extension, the merciful god.[3] Other titles which are used outside of prayers include Roog Dangandeer Seen ("Roog the omnipresent", by extension it can also mean "the Omnipresent God"), Roog o Caaci’in Seen (Roog our ancestor), Roog o maak Seen [or "Roog a faha"] (Roog is great), Roog a yaal'in Seen (Roog our Lord), Roog o Ndimaan Seen (Roog! The giver of the fruit [or life]),[1] and "The Master of the World".[4]

The name Roog is probably a corruption of the deity Koox.[5][clarification needed] This may stem from the Serers of Kaabu or Tekrur (present-day Futa Tooro in Senegal)[6] after their exodus in the 11th century following a religious war. According to the oral tradition of the Cangin, the original name of the supreme being was Kooh.

Beliefs[edit]

Roog is the Supreme being and Creator God of the Serer pantheon.[1][4][7] He is the source of life and everything returns to him,[4] he is "the point of departure and conclusion, the origin and the end".[8][clarification needed] The practitioners of the Serer traditional religion do not directly pray to Roog, choosing instead to pray through ancestral spirits known as pangool,[9] and as a result Roog has no place of worship,[7] it is considered blasphemous to make images of Roog.[7]

Gender[edit]

The Serer believe that Roog is an incorporeal and hermaphroditic being, possessing both a male and female nature. Depending on the situation, an individual may attempt to evoke its male or female side by using whichever pronoun is appropriate,[citation needed] although in scholarly works written in French and English the masculine pronoun is usually used.[citation needed] Saltigues refer to Roog as "father and mother" during their consecration rituals,[4] while in the Serer creation myth it is both grandfather and grandmother, with the grandmother aspect giving birth to humanity.[11]

Further reading[edit]

  • Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation sereer, Cosaan : les origines", vol. 1, Nouvelles Editions africaines (1983), ISBN 2-7236-0877-8
  • Kalis, Simone, "Médecine traditionnelle, religion et divination ches les Seereer Siin du Sénégal" – La connaissance de la nuit, L’Harmattan (1997), ISBN 2-7384-5196-9
  • Becker, Charles: "Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé clans les pays sereer". Dakar. 1993. CNRS - ORS TO M. [4] (Retrieved : 25 May 2012)
  • Gastellu, Jean-Marc, L'égalitarisme économique des Serer du Sénégal, ORSTOM, Paris (1981), ISBN 2-7099-0591-4 (Thèse de Sciences économiques soutenue à l'Université Paris 10 en 1978
  • Galvan, Dennis Charles, "The State Must be our Master of Fire" - How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal, Berkeley, University of California Press (2004), ISBN 0-520-23591-6

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c (in French) Thiaw, Issa Laye, "La Religiosite de Seereer, Avant et pendant leur Islamisation". Ethiopiques no: 54, Revue semestrielle de Culture Négro-Africaine, Nouvelle série, volume 7, 2e Semestre (1991) [1] (Retrieved : 25 May 2012)
  2. ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 176
  3. ^ (in French) Faye, Louis Diène, "Mort et Naissance le monde Sereer", Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines (1983), p 44, ISBN 2-7236-0868-9
  4. ^ a b c d Gravrand, "Pangool", p 183
  5. ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", pp 169-171
  6. ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", p 169
  7. ^ a b c (in French) Thiaw, Issa laye, "Mythe de la création du monde selon les sages sereer", pp 45-50, 59-61 [in] "Enracinement et Ouverture" – "Plaidoyer pour le dialogue interreligieux", Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (23 and 24 June 2009), Dakar [2] (Retrieved : 25 May 2012)
  8. ^ (in English) Madiya, Clémentine Faïk-Nzuji, "Canadian Museum of Civilization", Canadian Centre for Folk Culture Studies, "International Centre for African Language, Literature and Tradition", (Louvain, Belgium), pp 27, 155, ISBN 0-660-15965-1
  9. ^ (in French) Kesteloot, Lilyan, "Introduction aux religions d'Afrique noire", s.n., 2007, p 50,
  10. ^ (in French) Saltigue Geej Seen (1 September 1983) [in] Thiaw, Issa laye, "Mythe de la création du monde selon les sages sereer", p 50 [in] "Enracinement et Ouverture" – "Plaidoyer pour le dialogue interreligieux", Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (23 and 24 June 2009), Dakar [3] (Retrieved : 25 May 2012)
  11. ^ Henry Gravrand, "La civilisation Sereer - Pangool", in Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frobenius-Institut, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kulturmorphologie, Frobenius Gesellschaft, "Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, Volumes 43-44", F. Steiner (1997), pp 144-5, ISBN 3515028420

Bibliography[edit]

  • Thiaw, Issa Laye, "La Religiosite de Seereer, Avant et pendant leur Islamisation", [in] Ethiopiques no: 54, Revue semestrielle de Culture Négro-Africaine, Nouvelle série, volume 7, 2e Semestre (1991) [5] (Retrieved : 25 May 2012)
  • Thiaw, Issa laye, "Mythe de la création du monde selon les sages sereer", pp 45–50, 59-61 [in] "Enracinement et Ouverture" - "Plaidoyer pour le dialogue interreligieux", Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (23 and 24 June 2009), Dakar [6] (Retrieved : 25 May 2012)
  • Ndiaye, Ousmane Sémou, "Diversité et unicité sérères : l’exemple de la région de Thiès", Éthiopiques, no. 54, vol. 7, 2e semestre 1991 [7] (Retrieved : 25 May 2012)
  • Faye, Louis Diène, "Mort et Naissance le monde Sereer", Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines (1983), ISBN 2-7236-0868-9
  • Gravrand, Henry, "La Civilisation Sereer - Pangool", vol. 2. Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal (1990), ISBN 2-7236-1055-1
  • Gravrand, Henry, "Le Symbolisme sereer : Mythe du Saas et symboles", « Revue de Psycho-Pathologie » vol. 9 No 2 Dakar (1971) (Published and reviewed under the title "Le symbolisme serer" [in] Psychopath. Afric. 1973, IX, 2, 237-265 [in] Psychopathologie africaine) - (Link retrieved : 25 July 2012)
  • Kellog, Day Otis, & Smith, William Robertson, "The Encyclopædia Britannica: latest edition. A dictionary of arts, sciences and general literature", Volume 25, Werner (1902)
  • Madiya, Clémentine Faïk-Nzuji, "Canadian Museum of Civilization", Canadian Centre for Folk Culture Studies, "International Centre for African Language, Literature and Tradition", (Louvain, Belgium), ISBN 0-660-15965-1
  • Kesteloot, Lilyan, "Introduction aux religions d'Afrique noire", s.n., 2007, p 50,
  • Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frobenius-Institut, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kulturmorphologie, Frobenius Gesellschaft, "Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, Volumes 43-44", F. Steiner (1997), pp 144–5, «  Henry Gravrand, "La Civilisation Sereer - Pangool" [in] », ISBN 3515028420