Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
Institute for Basic Science
The Institute for Basic Science is a Korean government-funded research institute that conducts basic science research and relevant pure basic research. IBS was established in November 2011 by the Lee Myung-bak administration as a research institute be a core of the International Science and Business Belt upon relocation of their headquarters from a rented property to their own campus in January 2018 using land reclaimed from the Taejŏn Expo'93 in Expo Science Park. Comprising 30 research centers across the nation and a headquarters in Daejeon, IBS has 551 permanent employees, including 435 scientists and close to 710 graduate or doctoral course students; the organization is under the National Science and Technology Council, under the Ministry of Science and ICT. In 2011, the Korean government announced an investment of more than 2 trillion KRW to build a heavy ion accelerator facility, named RAON, in northern Daejeon by 2021; the facility, if completed on time, is expected to be the world's first device using both the isotope separator on line and in-flight methods.
In December 2018, the IBS Center for Climate Physics, headed by Axel Timmermann, will begin to utilize a 1.43-petaflop Cray XC50 supercomputer, named Aleph, for climate physics research. IBS consists of a headquarters and secondary units in the form of research centers. IBS plans to establish a total of 50 research centers. IBS research centers are divided into several categories: HQ, campus and pioneer research. HQ Centers' research groups are affiliated with IBS. Campus Centers are based in the nation's technology universities. Extramural Centers are based in universities other than technology universities. Pioneer Research Centers are headquarters-based centers headed not by a director, but by a group of up to five chief investigators; as of April 2017, there are 28 centers operating in various fields of science including 6 in chemistry, 8 in life science, 3 in interdisciplinary science, 9 in physics, 1 in earth science, 1 in mathematics. The centers are located at IBS HQ in Daejeon and relevant universities in Seoul, Daegu, Pohang, Busan and Gwangju.
There are two affiliated organizations: the National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, the Rare Isotope Science Project. The annual budget for each center ranges from 2 to 10 million USD. Once launched, centers run with no fixed time frame to conduct their research. Se-jung Oh Ph. D. in physics from Stanford University, Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Seoul National University, 2nd President of the National Research Foundation of Korea Doochul Kim Ph. D. in electrical engineering from Johns Hopkins University, Professor in the Department of Physics at Seoul National University, 5th President of the Korea Institute for Advanced Study IBS School, UST IBS School is a graduate program jointly founded by IBS and the University of Science and Technology in Korea. The school opened in September 2015 to foster young scientists in basic science by utilizing HQ Centers' facilities. IBS Young Scientist Fellowship IBS has been running this program since 2013 to provide opportunities for early career researchers to gain research experience by carrying out independent research within IBS centers.
Riken Max Planck Society Facility for Rare Isotope Beams On-Line Isotope Mass Separator Official website Special Act of Establishment of and Support for International Science and Business Belt Korea Legislation Research Institute
Dongdaemun District is one of the 25 gu of Seoul, South Korea. It is located to the north of the River Han, its district office is in Yongdu-dong where is close to the underground station of branch of Line 2. The mayor of this district is Sarip Hong since July 2006. Dongdaemun District was first created in 1943 when the "gu" system started and was larger in area than today. Seongbuk District separated from the district in 1949, Changsin Dong and Sungin Dong were given to Jongno District in 1975. An additional 17 dong separated to become Jungnang District in 1988. Dongdaemun District comprises 14 dongs. Cheongnyangni-dong Dapsimni 1-dong Dapsimni 2-dong Hoegi-dong Hwigyeong 1-dong Hwigyeong 2-dong Imun 1-dong Imun 2-dong Jangan 1-dong Jangan 2-dong Jegi-dong Jeonnong 1-dong Jeonnong 2-dong Yongsin-dong KORAIL and Seoul MetroUnderground Line 1 ← Sinseol-dong — Jegi-dong — Cheongnyangni — Hoegi — Hankuk University of Foreign Studies — Sinimun → Seoul MetroUnderground Line 2Sinseol-dong — Yongdu → Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit CorporationUnderground Line 5 ← Dapsimni — Janghanpyeong → KORAILJungang Section Line from Yongsan to Paldang ← Cheongnyangni — Hoegi → There are more stations will add.
Dongdaemun District borders Seongbuk District to the north-west, Jungnang District to the east, Gwangjin District to the south-east, Seongdong District to the south, meets Jung District at a point in the south-west and borders Jongno District to the west. The busiest neighbourhood of the district is the Cheongnyangni area - a large commercial zone formed around Cheongnyangni Station, one of the secondary CBDs of Seoul. Dongdaemun District is named after the east gate in Seoul's city walls, but Dongdaemun itself is located in Jongno District; this is due to an administrative border change. University of Seoul Kyunghee University Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Korea Institute for Advanced Study Gyeongdong Market Dongseo Market King Sejong Memorial Seoul City Cultural Asset: Seonnongdan, King Sejong Sindobi National Treasure: Supyo Historical Site: Yeonghuiwon The grave sites of Kim Byeongro, Han Yongwoon, Ahn Changho and Oh Sechang are located in this district. Anguo, China Yanqing, China Shanghai, China New York City, United States Los Angeles, United States Paris, France Lyon, France London, England Official site
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
KAIST is a national research university located in Daedeok Innopolis, South Korea. KAIST was established by the Korean government in 1971 as the nation's first research-oriented science and engineering institution. KAIST has been internationally accredited in business education, hosting the Secretariat of AAPBS. KAIST has 10,200 full-time students and 1,140 faculty researchers and had a total budget of US$765 million in 2013, of which US$459 million was from research contracts. From 1980 to 2008, the institute was known as the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. In 2008, the name was shortened to "KAIST". In 2007, KAIST partnered with international institutions and adopted dual degree programs for its students, its partner institutions include the Technical University of Denmark, Carnegie Mellon University, the Georgia Institute of Technology, the Technical University of Berlin, the Technical University of Munich. The institute was founded in 1971 as the Korea Advanced Institute of Science by a loan of US$6 million from the United States Agency for International Development and supported by President Park Chung-Hee.
The institute's academic scheme was designed by Frederick E. Terman, vice president of Stanford University, Chung Geum-mo, a professor at the Polytechnic Institution of Brooklyn; the institute's two main functions were to train advanced scientists and engineers and develop a structure of graduate education in the country. Research studies began by 1973 and undergraduates studied for bachelor's degrees by 1984. In 1981 the government merged the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and the Korean Institute of Science and Technology to form the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, or KAIST. Due to differing research philosophies, KIST and KAIST split in 1989. In the same year KAIST and the Korea Institute of Technology combined and moved from Seoul to the Daedeok Science Town in Daejeon; the first act of President Suh upon his inauguration in July 2006 was to lay out the KAIST Development Plan. The ‘KAIST Development Five-Year Plan’ was finalized on February 5, 2007 by KAIST Steering Committee.
The goals of KAIST set by Suh were to become one of the best science and technology universities in the world, to become one of the top-10 universities by 2011. In January 2008, the university dropped its full name, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, changed its official name to only KAIST. Admission to KAIST is based on overall grades, grades on math and science courses, recommendation letters from teachers, study plan, personal statements, other data that show the excellence of potential students, does not rely on a standardized test conducted by the university. In 2014, the acceptance rate for local students was 14.9%, for international students at 13.2%. Full scholarships are given to all students including international students in the bachelor and doctorate courses. Doctoral students are given military-exemption benefits from South Korea's compulsory military service. Up to 80% of courses taught in KAIST are conducted in English. Undergraduate students can join the school through an “open major system” that allows students to take classes for three terms and choose a discipline that suits their aptitude, undergraduates are allowed to change their major anytime.
KAIST has produced many doctorates through the integrated master’s and doctoral program and early-completion system. Students must publish papers in internationally renowned academic journals for graduation. KAIST produced a total of 48,398 alumni from 1975 to 2014, with 13,743 bachelor's, 24,776 master's, 9,879 doctorate degree holders; as of October 2015, 11,354 students were enrolled in KAIST with 4,469 bachelor’s, 3,091 master’s, 3,794 doctoral students. More than 70 percent of KAIST undergraduates come from specialized science high schools. On average, about 600 international students from more than 70 different countries come to study at KAIST, making KAIST one of the most ethnically diverse universities in the country. KAIST is organized into 2 schools and 33 departments/divisions. KAIST has three affiliated institutes including the Korea Institute of Advanced Study, National NanoFab Center, Korea Science Academy. KAIST has one campus in Seoul; the university is located in the Daedeok Science Town in the city of Daejeon, 150 kilometers south of the capital Seoul.
Daedeok is home to some 50 public and private research institutes, universities such as CNU and high-tech venture capital companies. Most lectures, research activities, housing services are located in the Daejeon main campus, it has a total of 29 dormitories. Twenty-three dormitories for male students and four dormitories for female students are located on the outskirts of the campus, two apartments for married students are located outside the campus; the Seoul campus is the home of the Business Faculty of the university. The graduate schools of finance and information & media management are located there; the total area of the Seoul campus is 413,346 m2. The Munji campus, the former campus of Information and Communications University until its merger with KAIST, is located ca. 4 km away from the main campus. It has a total of two dormitories, one for undergraduate students and the other for graduate students; the Institute for Basic Science Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research is located here doing particle and nuclear physics related to dark matter and the Rare Isotope Science Project has the Superconducting Radio Frequency test facility.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea