British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco plc is a British multinational cigarette and tobacco manufacturing company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the largest publicly traded tobacco company in the world. BAT has operations in around 180 countries, its four largest-selling brands are its native brand Dunhill and US brands Lucky Strike and Pall Mall. Other brands that the company markets include Rothmans. BAT is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it has secondary listings on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, the Nairobi Securities Exchange, the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange as well as the New York Stock Exchange. The company was formed in 1904, when the United Kingdom's Imperial Tobacco Company and the United States' American Tobacco Company agreed to form a joint venture, the British-American Tobacco Company Ltd; the parent companies agreed not to trade in each other's domestic territory and to assign trademarks, export businesses and overseas subsidiaries to the joint venture. James Buchanan Duke became company chairman and business was begun in countries as diverse as Canada, Germany, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, but not in the United Kingdom or in the United States.
In China, BAT inherited a factory in the Pudong district of Shanghai from W. D. & H. O. Wills, one of the precursor companies of Imperial Tobacco. Under the management of James Augustus Thomas from Lawsonville, Rockingham County, USA, by 1919 the Shanghai factory was producing more than 243 million cigarettes per week. Thomas worked with the local Wing Tai Vo Tobacco Company, which developed into BAT's principal Chinese partner after its success with the "Ruby Queen" cigarette brand. In 1911, the American Tobacco Company sold its share of the company. Imperial Tobacco reduced its shareholding, but it was not until 1980 that it divested its remaining interests in the company. At its peak in 1937, BAT distributed 55 billion cigarettes in China; the company's assets were seized by the Japanese in 1941 following their 1937 invasion. In 1949 the company was ejected from China following the foundation of the People's Republic. In 1976 the group companies were reorganised under a new holding company, B.
A. T. Industries. In 1994 BAT acquired American Tobacco Company; this brought the Lucky Pall Mall brands into BAT's portfolio. In 1999 it merged with Rothmans International; this made it the target of criticism from human rights groups. It sold its share of the factory on 6 November 2003 after an "exceptional request" from the British government. In 2002, BAT lost a lawsuit about the right to sell cigarettes under the Marlboro brand name in the UK, it had acquired Rothmans, which had bought a licence to use the name from Philip Morris. Philip Morris' attorneys invoked a get-out clause for the case of a major change of ownership. In 2003, BAT acquired Ente Tabacchi Italiani S.p. A, Italy's state tobacco company; the important acquisition would elevate BAT to the number two position in Italy, the second largest tobacco market in the European Union. The scale of the enlarged operations would bring significant opportunities to compete and grow ETI's local brands and BAT's international brands. In August 2003, BAT acquired a 67.8% holding in the Serbian tobacco company Duvanska Industrija Vranje, allowing local manufacture of its brands, freeing them from import duties.
In the longer term, export opportunities are planned as neighbouring countries in south east Europe developed free trade agreements. In July 2004 the U. S. business of British American Tobacco was combined with that of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, under the R. J. Reynolds name. R. J. Reynolds and Brown & Williamson were the second and third-ranking U. S. tobacco companies prior to the combination. When they combined, R. J. Reynolds became a subsidiary of Reynolds American, with BAT holding a 42% share. In January 2007, BAT closed its remaining UK production plant in Southampton with the loss of over 600 jobs. However, the global Research and Development operation and some financial functions will continue on the site. In 2008 BAT acquired Turkey's state-owned cigarette maker Tekel. In July 2008, BAT snus operations of the Scandinavian Tobacco Group. BAT acquired 60% of Indonesia's Bentoel Group in 2009 before increasing its stake to 100% the following year. In May 2011 BAT acquired the Colombian company Productora Tabacalera de Tabacos S.
A.. In October 2015 BAT acquired the Croatian tobacco company TDR d.o.o. Brands and Factory in Kanfanar. In October 2016, BAT offered to buy the remaining 57.8 percent of U. S. cigarette maker Reynolds American in a $47 billion takeover that would create the world's biggest listed tobacco company with brands including Newport, Lucky Strike and Pall Mall. In January 2017, Reynolds agreed to an increased $49.4 billion deal. The deal was completed in July 2017. In April 2017, the company announced the acquisition of a number of Bulgarian cigarette brands from Bulgartabac for more than €100 million. Recent financial performance has been as follows: The company offers an extensive range of brands: International Brands include Dunhill, North State Lucky Strike, Pall Mall, Rothmans International, State Express 555, KOOL, Viceroy. British American Tobacco does not own the rights to all of these brands in every nation they are marketed. Local brands owned by British American Tobacco include: Benson & Hedges, John Players Gold Leaf, State Express 555, Belmont (Colombia, Chile
Pyongyang, P'yŏngyang or Pyeongyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River about 109 kilometres upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288; the city was split from the South Pyongan province in 1946. It is administered as a directly-administered city with equal status to provinces, the same as special cities in South Korea, including Seoul; the city's other historic names include Kisong, Rakrang, Sŏgyong, Hogyong and Heijō. There are several variants. During the early 20th century, Pyongyang came to be known among missionaries as being the "Jerusalem of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism during the Pyongyang revival of 1907. After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang to "Kim Il-sung City", but others suggested that North Korea should begin calling Seoul "Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant Pyongyang the moniker "Kim Jong-il City", in the end neither proposal was implemented.
The Russian transliteration Пхёнья́н was adapted in Romanian as Phenian. In Poland the hyperforeignist pronunciation /ˈfɛɲ.jan/ is commoner than the original /ˈpxɛɲ.jan/. In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Jeulmun and Mumun pottery periods. North Koreans associate Pyongyang with the mythological city of "Asadal", or Wanggeom-seong, the first second millennium BC capital of Gojoseon according to Korean historiographies beginning with the 13th-century Samgungnyusa. Historians deny this claim because earlier Chinese historiographical works such as the Guanzi, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Records of the Grand Historian, Records of the Three Kingdoms, mention a much "Joseon"; the connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea for the use of propaganda. Pyongyang became a major city in old Joseon. Korean mythology asserts that Pyongyang was founded in 1122 BC on the site of the capital of the legendary king Dangun.
Wanggeom-seong, in the location of Pyongyang, became the capital of Gojoseon from 194 to 108 BC. It fell in the Han conquest of Gojoseon in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of Han ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery in the center and its capital established as 樂浪. Several archaeological findings from the Eastern Han period in the Pyeongyang area seems to suggest that Han forces launched brief incursions around these parts; the area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang, Pyeongyang remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after the Lelang Commandery was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo in 313. Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: Piarna, or "level land". In 668, Pyongyang became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty of China. However, by 676, it was left on the border between Silla and Balhae.
Pyongyang was left abandoned during the Later Silla period, until it was recovered by Wang Geon and decreed as the Western Capital of Goryeo. During the Joseon period, it became the provincial capital of Pyeongan Province. During the Japanese invasions of Korea, Pyongyang was captured by the Japanese until they were defeated in the Siege of Pyongyang. In the 17th century, it became temporarily occupied during the Qing invasion of Joseon until peace arrangements were made between Korea and Qing China. While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city. In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants, it was the site of the Battle of Pyongyang during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city.
It was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province beginning in 1896. Under Japanese colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called Heijō in Japanese. Pyongyang in the 1920s In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports about it which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers. By 1938, Pyongyang had a population of 235,000. On 25 August 1945, the Soviet 25th Army entered Pyongyang and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea. A People's Committee was established there, led by veteran Christian nationalist Cho Man-sik. Pyongyang became the de facto capital of North Korea upon its establishment in 1948. At the time, the Pyongyang government aimed to recapture Seoul. Pyongyang was again damaged in the Korean War, during which it was occupied by South Korean forces from 19 October to 6 December 1950. In 1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war, involving 1,400 UN aircraft.
After the war, the city was quickly
A cigarette known colloquially as a fag in British English, is a narrow cylinder containing psychoactive material tobacco, rolled into thin paper for smoking. Most cigarettes contain a "reconstituted tobacco" product known as "sheet", which consists of "recycled stems, scraps, collected dust, floor sweepings", to which are added glue and fillers; the cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder and allowing smoke to be inhaled from the other end, held in or to the mouth. Most modern cigarettes are filtered. Cigarette manufacturers have described cigarettes as a drug administration system for the delivery of nicotine in acceptable and attractive form. Cigarettes are addictive and cause cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, other health problems; the term cigarette, as used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but is sometimes used to refer to other substances, such as a cannabis cigarette. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, paper wrapping, white.
Cigar wrappers are composed of tobacco leaf or paper dipped in tobacco extract. Smoking rates have declined in the developed world, but continue to rise in developing nations. Cigarettes carry serious health risks, which are more prevalent than with other tobacco products, nicotine is highly addictive. About half of cigarette smokers lose on average 14 years of life. Cigarette use by pregnant women has been shown to cause birth defects, including low birth weight, fetal abnormalities, premature birth. Second-hand smoke from cigarettes causes many of the same health problems as smoking, including cancer, which has led to legislation and policy that has prohibited smoking in many workplaces and public areas. Cigarette smoke contains over 7,000 chemical compounds, including arsenic, cyanide, nicotine, carbon monoxide and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are carcinogenic. Additionally, cigarettes are a frequent source of mortality-associated fires in private homes, which prompted both the European Union and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not fire-standard compliant from 2011 onwards.
The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes; the Maya, the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean and Central and South America until recent times; the North American, Central American, South American cigarette used various plant wrappers. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya's paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, El juego de la pelota a pala. By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France; the French word was adopted by English in the 1840s. Some American reformers promoted the spelling cigaret, but this was never widespread and is now abandoned; the first patented cigarette-making machine was invented by Juan Nepomuceno Adorno of Mexico in 1847.
However, production climbed markedly when another cigarette-making machine was developed in the 1880s by James Albert Bonsack, which vastly increased the productivity of cigarette companies, which went from making about 40,000 hand-rolled cigarettes daily to around 4 million. In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became widespread during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish comrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of old newspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf; this was helped by the development of tobaccos suitable for cigarette use, by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry. Cigarettes may have been used in a manner similar to pipes and cigarillos and not inhaled; as cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic, inhaling may have become perceived as more agreeable. However, Moltke noticed in the 1830s that Ottomans inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia from their pipes.
The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is a 20th-century phenomenon. At the start of the 20th century, the per capita annual consumption in the U. S. was 54 cigarettes, consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time, about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked. By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691; the adverse health effects of cigarettes were known by the mid-19th century when they became known as coffins nails
Smoking in North Korea
Tobacco smoking is popular and, at least for men, culturally acceptable in North Korea. As of 2014, some 45% of men are reported to smoke daily, whilst in contrast only 2.5% of women smoke daily, with most of these being older women from rural areas. Smoking is a leading cause of death in North Korea, as of 2010 mortality figures indicate that 34% of men and 22% of women die due to smoking-related causes, the highest mortality figures in the world. There are tobacco control programs in North Korea, although smoking is not prohibited in all public spaces, the smoking rates have declined since their peak in the 2000s. All three leaders of North Korea—Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, Kim Jong-un. In general, North Koreans tend to prefer strong tobacco and different classes of quality range from homegrown to sought-after foreign brands that are considered status symbols; as a percentage of the available arable land compared to consumption, the tobacco crop is over-represented in North Korean agriculture.
Over 4,569,000 adults and 167,000 children in North Korea are believed to consume tobacco daily. It is estimated by the World Lung Foundation and American Cancer Society's The Tobacco Atlas that 45% of men, 2.5% of women, nearly 16% of boys and <1% of girls are daily smokers, with the average smoker smoking an average of 609 cigarettes per person per year. World Health Organization data is comparable, with 44% of men classified as smokers, whilst North Korean anti-smoking authorities put the figure higher, saying that some 54% of men are smokers. Overall, the average smoker consumes 12.4 cigarettes per day, with this figure rising to 15 per day when just male smokers are considered. The average smoker starts smoking at the age of 23 and the percentage of the population that smokes increases with age until the 55–64 age group, after which it declines. On average, people who live in urban areas tend to smoke more cigarettes per day than rural farmers. Data indicates that the prevalence of smoking in North Korea is on par with South Korea, although South Korean men pick up the habit earlier and smoke more cigarettes per day.
The high rate of smoking in South Korea is due to it being a capitalist society, where marketing is prevalent and consumption is uncontrolled. However, much of the current information regarding the smoking habits of North Koreans is obtained by studying North Korean defectors who now live in South Korea and may not be representative of the true picture. One study of defectors found that smoking is more common than anticipated, but nicotine dependence was not as severe as predicted. Defectors are reported as being interested in quitting smoking. Tobacco first arrived in Korea in the early-1600s from Japan and until around 1880, both men and women smoked. Today, North Koreans consider smoking to be a normal activity for men, but female smoking has become a social taboo. All of North Korea's three leaders—Kim Jong-un, his father Kim Jong-il and grandfather Kim Il-sung. Kim Jong-il has called smokers one of the "three main fools of the 21st century", along with people who do not understand music or computers.
The current leader Kim Jong-un is seen smoking in public, including in university classrooms, subway carriages, in the presence of his pregnant wife Ri Sol-ju, facts that "might make the life of the North Korean health educators more complicated." While discussing any negative aspects of the leaders has been rare, some North Koreans have raised the issue of the apparent contradiction between anti-smoking measures and Kim's public image with foreigners. Female smoking is a taboo in North Korea and is considered more disgraceful than heavy drinking. Women are said to "react with shock if you joke that maybe they secretly smoke in bathrooms". Smoking by older women, above the age of 45 to 50 is more tolerated in rural areas. In comparison, for men smoking is considered such an important social activity that men who do not smoke can become isolated at workplaces. Though most consumer items are in short supply in North Korea, there is a considerable variety of cigarettes available. In general, strong tobacco is preferred, filters are rare.
Western brands American, but Chinese and Japanese are popular with the elite and preferred over domestic cigarettes. Foreign cigarettes and the domestic 727 brand, whose name stands for 27 July, the date of the Korean Armistice Agreement. Menthol cigarettes are non-existent, but there is competition among tobacco companies to introduce other attractive products, such as fruit-flavoured balls inside the filter to give the cigarette a more distinct flavour; those who have hard currency can buy imported cigarettes from hard currency shops, although these will stock the best domestic brands to convince tourists of the quality of North Korean tobacco. Cigarettes are popular gifts, tourists are recommended to give Western brands of cigarettes to tour guides. Within the country, cigarettes are used as form of currency in bribery; those who roll their own tobacco prefer to use sheets of Rodong Sinmun—the organ of the Central Committee of the ruling Workers' Party of Korea—as rolling paper. One piece of the paper can be used to roll some 40-50 cigarettes.
According to one defector, when a North Korean "starts to smoke the Rodong Sinmun tobacco, he cannot smoke other kinds of tobacco. I used to smoke the Rodong Sin
A carpet is a textile floor covering consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made from wool, since the 20th century, synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon or polyester are used, as these fibers are less expensive than wool; the pile consists of twisted tufts which are heat-treated to maintain their structure. The term "carpet" is used interchangeably with the term "rug", although the term "carpet" can be applied to a floor covering that covers an entire house, whereas a "rug" is no bigger than a single room, traditionally does not span from one wall to another, is not attached as part of the floor. Carpets are used for a variety of purposes, including insulating a person's feet from a cold tile or concrete floor, making a room more comfortable as a place to sit on the floor, reducing sound from walking and adding decoration or colour to a room. Carpets can be made in any colour by using differently dyed fibers. Carpets can have many different types of motifs used to decorate the surface.
In the 2000s, carpets are used in industrial and commercial establishments such as retail stores and hotels and in private homes. In the 2010s, a huge range of carpets and rugs are available at many price and quality levels, ranging from inexpensive, synthetic carpets that are mass-produced in factories and used in commercial buildings to costly hand-knotted wool rugs which are used in private homes of wealthy families. Carpets can be produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric, made using needle felts, knotted by hand, made with their pile injected into a backing material, made by hooking wool or cotton through the meshes of a sturdy fabric or embroidered. Carpet is made in widths of 12 feet and 15 feet in the US, 4 m and 5 m in Europe. Since the 20th century, where necessary for wall-to-wall carpet, different widths of carpet can be seamed together with a seaming iron and seam tape and fixed to a floor over a cushioned underlay using nails, tack strips, adhesives, or decorative metal stair rods.
Wall-to-wall carpet is distinguished from rugs or mats, which are loose-laid floor coverings, as wall-to-wall carpet is fixed to the floor and covers a much larger area. The GoodWeave labelling scheme used throughout Europe and North America assures that child labour has not been used: importers pay for the labels, the revenue collected is used to monitor centres of production and educate exploited children; the term carpet comes from Old French carpite. One derivation of the term states that the French term came from the Old Italian carpita, from the verb "carpire" meaning to pluck; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the term "carpet" was first used in English in the late 13th century, with the meaning "coarse cloth", by the mid-14th century, "tablecloth, bedspread". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the term comes "...from Old French carpite "heavy decorated cloth, carpet," from Medieval Latin or Old Italian carpita "thick woolen cloth," from Latin carpere "to card, pluck," so called because it was made from unraveled, shreded, "plucked" fabric".
The meaning of the term "carpet" shifted in the 15th century to refer to floor coverings. The term "carpet" is used interchangeably with the term "rug"; some sources define a carpet as stretching from wall to wall. Another definition treats rugs as of lower quality or of smaller size, with carpets quite having finished ends. A third common definition is that a carpet is permanently fixed in place while a rug is laid out on the floor; the term "carpet" was applied to table and wall coverings, as carpets were not used on the floor in European interiors until the 15th century. The term "rug" was first used in English in the 1550s, with the meaning "coarse fabric"; the term is of "... Scandinavian origin; the meaning of "rug" "...evolved to "coverlet, wrap" "mat for the floor"". The carpet is produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric; the pile can be Berber. Plush carpet is a cut pile and Berber carpet is a loop pile. There are new styles of carpet combining the two styles called loop carpeting.
Many colored yarns are used and this process is capable of producing intricate patterns from predetermined designs. These carpets are the most expensive due to the slow speed of the manufacturing process; these are famous in Iran, India and Arabia. These carpets are more technologically advanced. Needle felts are produced by intermingling and felting individual synthetic fibers using barbed and forked needles forming an durable carpet; these carpets are found in commercial settings such as hotels and restaurants where there is frequent traffic. On a knotted pile carpet, the structural weft threads alternate with a supplementary weft that rises at right angles to the surface of the weave; this supplementary weft is attached to the warp by one of three knot types, such as shag carpet, popular in the 1970s, to form the pile or nap of the carpet. Knotting by hand is most prevalent in oriental rugs and carpets. Kashmir carpets
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea