The Yellow Sea is located between China and Korea. The name is given to the northern part of the East China Sea, a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean, it is located between the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden yellow; the innermost bay of the Yellow Sea is called the Bohai Sea. Into it flow both the Yellow River and Hai He. Deposits of sand and silt from those rivers contribute to the sea colour; the northern extension of the Yellow Sea is called the Korea Bay. The Yellow Sea is one of four seas named after common colour terms — the others being the Black Sea, the Red Sea and the White Sea. Since 1 November 2018, the Yellow Sea has served as the location of "peace zones" between North and South Korea; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Yellow Sea as follows: The Yellow Sea is separated from the Sea of Japan by the boundary from the southern end of Haenam Peninsula in Jeollanamdo to Jeju Island and divided into the East China Sea by the boundary from the west end of Jeju Island to the Yangtze River estuary.
The Yellow Sea, excluding the Bohai, extends by about 960 km from north to south and about 700 km from east to west. Its depth is only 44 m on average, with a maximum of 152 m; the sea is a flooded section of continental shelf that formed after the last ice age as sea levels rose 120 m to their current levels. The depth increases from north to south; the sea bottom and shores are dominated by sand and silt brought by the rivers through the Bohai Sea and the Korea Bay. Those deposits, together with sand storms are responsible for the yellow water color and the sea name. Major islands of the sea include Anmado, Daebudo, Gageodo, Hauido, Hongdo, Jindo, Sido, Sindo, Wando and Yeonpyeongdo; the area has dry winters with strong northerly monsoons blowing from late November to March. Average January temperatures are − 3 °C in the south. Summers are warm with frequent typhoons between June and October. Air temperatures range between 10 and 28 °C; the average annual precipitation increases from about 500 mm in the north to 1,000 mm in the south.
Fog is frequent along the coasts in the upwelling cold-water areas. The sea has a warm cyclone current, it is a part of the Kuroshio Current, which diverges near the western part of Japan and flows northward into the Yellow Sea at the speed of below 0.8 km/h. Southward currents prevail near the sea coast in the winter monsoon period; the water temperature is close to freezing in the northern part in winter, so drift ice patches and continuous ice fields form and hinder navigation between November and March. The water temperature and salinity are homogeneous across the depth; the southern waters are warmer at 6–8 °C. In spring and summer, the upper layer is warmed up by the sun and diluted by the fresh water from rivers, while the deeper water remains cold and saline; this deep water stagnates and moves south. Commercial bottom-dwelling fishes are found around this mass of water at its southern part. Summer temperatures range between 22 and 28 °C; the average salinity is low, at 30‰ in the north to 33–34‰ in the south, dropping to 26‰ or lower near the river deltas.
In the southwest monsoon season the increased rainfall and runoff further reduce the salinity of the upper sea layer. Water transparency increases from about 10 meters in the north up to 45 meters in the south. Tides are semidiurnal, i.e. rise twice a day. Their amplitude varies between about 3 meters at the coast of China. Tides are higher at the Korean Peninsula ranging between 4 and 8 meters and reaching the maximum in spring; the tidal system rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The speed of the tidal current is less than 1.6 km/h in the middle of the sea, but may increase to more than 5.6 km/h near the coasts. The fastest tides reaching 20 km/h occur in the Myeongnyang Strait between the Jindo Island and the Korean Peninsula; the tide-related sea level variations result in a land pass 2.9 km long and 10–40 meters wide opening for an hour between Jindo and Modo islands. The event occurs about twice a year, in the middle of June, it had long been celebrated in a local festival called "Jindo Sea Parting Festival", but was unknown to the world until 1975, when the French ambassador Pierre Randi described the phenomenon in a French newspaper.
The sea is rich in seaweed, crustaceans, clams, in blue-green algae which bloom in summer and contribute to the water color. For example, the seaweed production in the area was as high as 1.5 million tonnes in 1979 for China alone. The abundance of all those species increases toward the south and indicates high sea productivity that accounts for the large fish production in the sea. Newer species of goby fish was discovered; the southern part of the Yellow Sea, including the entire west coast of Korea, contains a 10 km-wide belt of inte
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions. Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from small amounts of matter; the first test of a fission bomb released an amount of energy equal to 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released energy equal to 10 million tons of TNT. A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in war, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, the U. S. Army Air Forces detonated a uranium gun-type fission bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
S. Army Air Forces detonated a plutonium implosion-type fission bomb nicknamed "Fat Man" over the Japanese city of Nagasaki; these bombings caused injuries that resulted in the deaths of 200,000 civilians and military personnel. The ethics of these bombings and their role in Japan's surrender are subjects of debate. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated over two thousand times for testing and demonstration. Only a few nations are suspected of seeking them; the only countries known to have detonated nuclear weapons—and acknowledge possessing them—are the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, China, India and North Korea. Israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though, in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Turkey and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states. South Africa is the only country to have independently developed and renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons aims to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons, but its effectiveness has been questioned, political tensions remained high in the 1970s and 1980s. Modernisation of weapons continues to this day. There are two basic types of nuclear weapons: those that derive the majority of their energy from nuclear fission reactions alone, those that use fission reactions to begin nuclear fusion reactions that produce a large amount of the total energy output. All existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is from fission reactions are referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs; this has long been noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom, just as it does with fusion weapons. In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material is forced into supercriticality—allowing an exponential growth of nuclear chain reactions—either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another or by compression of a sub-critical sphere or cylinder of fissile material using chemically-fueled explosive lenses.
The latter approach, the "implosion" method, is more sophisticated than the former. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself; the amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT. All fission reactions generate the remains of the split atomic nuclei. Many fission products are either radioactive or moderately radioactive, as such, they are a serious form of radioactive contamination. Fission products are the principal radioactive component of nuclear fallout. Another source of radioactivity is the burst of free neutrons produced by the weapon; when they collide with other nuclei in surrounding material, the neutrons transmute those nuclei into other isotopes, altering their stability and making them radioactive. The most used fissile materials for nuclear weapons applications have been uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
Less used has been uranium-233. Neptunium-237 and some isotopes of americium may be usable for nuclear explosives as well, but it is not clear that this has been implemented, their plausible use in nuclear weapons is a matter of dispute; the other basic type of nuclear weapon produces a large proportion of its energy in nuclear fusion reactions. Such fusion weapons are referred to as thermonuclear weapons or more colloquially as hydrogen bombs, as they rely on fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen. All such weapons derive a significant portion of their energy from fission reactions used to "trigger" fusion reactions, fusion reactions can themselves trigger additional fission reactions. Only six countries—United States, United Kingdom, China and India—have conducted thermonuclear weapon tests. North Korea claims to have tested a fusion weapon as of January 2016. Thermonuclear weapons a
Jeju Island is an island in Jeju Province, South Korea. The island lies in the Korea Strait, south of South Jeolla Province; the island contains Lava Tubes. Jejudo has a moderate climate. Jeju is a popular holiday destination and a sizable portion of the economy relies on tourism and economic activity from its civil/naval base; the island has been called by many different names including: Doi Dongyeongju Juho Tammora Seomra Tangna Tamna Quelpart, Quelparte or Quelpaert Island Joonwonhado Taekseungnido Samdado Before the Japanese annexation in 1910, the island was known as Quelpart to Europeans. The name Quelpart came from the first European ship to spot the island, the Dutch Quelpaert, which sighted it after being blown off course on its way to the Dutch trading base in Nagasaki, from Taiwan; the earliest known polity on the island was the kingdom of Tamna. From April 3, 1948 to May 1949, the South Korean government conducted an anticommunist campaign to suppress an attempted uprising on the island.
The main cause for the rebellion was the election scheduled for May 10, 1948, designed by the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea to create a new government for all of Korea. The elections were only planned for the south of the country, the half of the peninsula under UNTCOK control. Fearing that the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters for the South Korean Labor party reacted violently, attacking local police and rightist youth groups stationed on Jeju Island. Atrocities were committed by both sides, but those by South Korean government forces are the best-documented. On one occasion, American soldiers discovered the bodies of 97 people, killed by government forces. On another, American soldiers encountered police. Between 40,000 and 60,000 people died as a result of the rebellion, or up to 25% of the island’s total population; some 40,000 others fled to Japan to escape the fighting. In the decades after the uprising, memory of the event was suppressed by the government through strict punishment.
However, in 2006, the Korean government apologized for its role in the killings and promised reparations. As of 2010, these had not been paid. In 2008, bodies of victims of a massacre were discovered in a mass grave near Jeju International Airport. On November 11, 2018, It was announced that preparations were being made for North Korean leader Kim Jung-Un to visit Jeju during his upcoming visit to South Korea. Kim would be transported to Jeju via helicopter; the announcement came in after 200 tonnes of tangerines which were harvested in Jeju were flown to North Korea as a sign of appreciation for nearly 2 tonnes of North Korean mushrooms which Kim allowed South Korean President Moon Jae-In to take back to South Korea following the September 2018 inter-Korean summit. Jejudo is a volcanic island, dominated by Hallasan: a volcano 1,950 metres high and the highest mountain in South Korea; the island measures 73 kilometres across, east to west, 41 kilometres from north to south. The island formed by volcanic eruptions 2 million years ago, during the Cenozoic era.
The island consists chiefly of lava. An area covering about 12% of Jejudo is known as Gotjawal Forest; this area remained uncultivated until the 21st century, as its base of'a'a lava made it difficult to develop for agriculture. Because this forest remained pristine for so long, it has a unique ecology; the forest is the main source of groundwater and thus the main water source for the half million people of the island, because rainwater penetrates directly into the aquifer through the cracks of the'a'a lava under the forest. Gotjawal forest is considered an internationally important wetland under the Ramsar Convention by some researchers because it is the habitat of unique species of plants and is the main source of water for the residents, although to date it has not been declared a Ramsar site. About 2 million years ago, the island of Jeju was formed through volcanic activity. About 1.2 million years ago, a magma chamber began to erupt. About 700 thousand years ago, the island had been formed through volcanic activity.
Volcanic activity stopped for 100 thousand years. About 300 thousand years ago, volcanic activity restarted along the coastline. About 100 thousand years ago, volcanic activity formed Halla Mountain. About 25 thousand years ago, lateral eruptions around Halla Mountain left multiple oreum. Volcanic activity stopped and prolonged weathering and erosion helped shape the island. Jeju has a humid subtropical climate. Four distinct seasons are experienced on Jeju. In January 2016, a cold wave affected the region. Snow and frigid weather forced the cancellation of 1,200 flights on Jejudo, stranding 90,300 passengers. Tourism is an important component of the local economy; the island is sometimes called "South Korea’s Hawaii". Tourists from China do not require a visa to visit Jeju, unlike the rest of South Kor
Shimonoseki is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Shimonoseki is the biggest city in Yamaguchi Prefecture, it is at the southwestern tip of Honshu, facing the Tsushima Strait and Kitakyushu across the Kanmon Straits. Nicknamed the "Fugu Capital," it is known for the locally caught pufferfish and is the largest harvester of the pufferfish in Japan; as of October 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 265,684 and a population density of 370 persons per km². The total area is 716.14 km². The Heike and Genji fought at Dan-no-ura near the present Kanmonkyo Bridge; the city prior to 1902 was known as Bakan and formally Akamagaseki. On February 13, 2005, Shimonoseki absorbed the towns of Hōhoku, Kikugawa and Toyoura to create the new and expanded city of Shimonseki. Since October 1, 2005, the city has been designated as a core city by the Japanese Government; the geographical position of Shimonoseki has given it historical importance with the Bombardment of Shimonoseki in 1864 and the Treaty of Shimonoseki, where a defeated China handed over Taiwan and Port Arthur to the victorious Japanese in 1895.
An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Shimonoseki as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom. On January 7, 2006, the wooden station building at Shimonoseki station, which had dated back to 1942, was destroyed in a fire, the cause of, suspected to be arson. Shimonoseki has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters. Precipitation is heavier in summer. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. Shimonoseki Shipyard and Machinery Works Yamaguchi Financial Group, Inc; the Yamaguchi Bank, Ltd. Momiji Bank,Ltd. YM Securities Co. Ltd. Hayashikane Sangyo Co. Ltd. CHOFU SEISAKUSHO Co. Ltd. Harakosan Co. Ltd. Minato-Yamaguchi Co. Ltd. Yamaguchi Shimbun Minato Shimbun The Kanpu ferry to South Korea regularly; the Gwangyang Beech to Gwangyang, South Korea regularly. The Orient ferry to Shanghai, China regularly; the Orient ferry to Qingdao, China was suspended in November 2015. The main Shinkansen station Sanyō Shinkansen Shin-Shimonoseki Station The main JR West stations Sanyō Main Line Shimonoseki Station Hatabu Station - Hatabu Station is a railway station on the Sanyō Main Line and the San'in Main Line.
Shin-Shimonoseki Station - Shin-Shimonoseki Station is a railway station on the Sanyō Shinkansen Line and the Sanyō Main Line. Chōfu Station Ozuki Station San'in Main Line Hatabu Station Ayaragi Station Kajikuri-Gōdaichi Station Yasuoka Station Fukue Station Yoshimi Station Umegatō Station Kuroimura Station Kawatana-Onsen Station Kogushi Station Yutama Station Ukahongō Station Nagato-Futami Station Takibe Station Kottoi Station Agawa Station Nagato-Awano Station Regular bus services are provided by Sanden Kohtsu, as well as by group companies of Sanden Kohtsu. Bus companies Sanden Kohtsu Co. Ltd. Blue Line Kohtsu Co. Ltd. Intercity bus services go to the following destinations: Tokyo, Kobe, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Airport, etc. Chūgoku ExpresswayShimonoseki interchange Ozuki interchange Ozuki Bypass Shimonoseki-Kita Bypass National Route 2 National Route 9 National Route 191 National Route 435 National Route 491 Shimonoseki is served by four airports outside the city. Kitakyūshū Airport Kokura Airport Yamaguchi Ube Airport Fukuoka Airport National Fisheries University Shimonoseki City University University of East Asia Baiko Gakuin University Shimonoseki Junior College The city has a North Korean school, Yamaguchi Korean Elementary and Junior High School.
It housed two other North Korean schools, Yamaguchi Korean High School and Shimonoseki Korean Elementary and Junior High School|下関朝鮮初中級学校}}. As a city of a quarter million people, it has some public schools too. Fugu uni Sea urchin Whale Anko Goosefish Kawara Soba Ganryu Yaki Mentaiko Roe Fuku Chochin Akamagaseki Suzuri Jourou Ningyo Shimonoseki is home to many festivals that are held throughout the year. Of these, the most famous are Shimonoseki Bakan Festival. Shimonoseki Fugu Festival: Haedomari Market Kawatana Onsen Festival Shimonoseki Kaikyo Festival: Karato, Ganryujima Island Suhouteisai Festival: Castle town Chofu Kanmon Kaikyo Fireworks Festival: Karato Shimonoseki Bakan Festival: Along the street from Karato-cho to Shimonoseki Station TOUR de Shimonoseki Shimonoseki Kaikyo Marathon Shimonoseki Fish Festival: Shimonoseki Fishing Port Little Busan Fest: Green Mall Kōzan-ji - The butsuden completed in 1320 is a National Treasure of Japan. Akama Shrine Kaikyō Yume Tower Shimonoseki City Art Museum Shimonoseki Chofu Museum Shimonoseki City Archaeological Museum Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum Doigahama Site Anthropological Museum The firefly museum of toyota town The Yamagin Archive of the Yamaguchi Bank FC Baleine Shimonoseki Shimonoseki Baseball Stadium Shimonoseki Boat Race Stadium Shimonoseki City Gymnasium Shimonoseki Track and field stadium Shimonoseki city swimming pool Nogihama General Park The Goda-ikka yakuza syndicate is headquartered in Shimonoseki.
A designated yakuza group, the Goda-ikka is the largest yakuza syndicate in Yamaguchi Prefecture. Shimonoseki has one Japanese and six international sister cities: Santos (São Paulo
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897, it was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul; the kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade and science and technology. However, the dynasty was weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.
After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined in the late 19th century; the Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea. By the late 14th century, the nearly 500-year-old Goryeo established in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. Following the emergence of the Ming dynasty, the royal court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions: the group led by General Yi and the camp led by General Choe. Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo; when a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388, the 14th year of U of Goryeo, to demand that Goguryeo's former northern territory be handed over to Ming China, General Choe seized the chance to argue for an attack on the Liaodong Peninsula.
Yi was chosen to lead the attack. He killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yi on the throne. In 1392, Yi eliminated Jeong Mong-ju respected leader of a group loyal to Goryeo dynasty, dethroned King Gongyang, exiling him to Wonju, before he ascended the throne; the Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after 500 years of rule. In the beginning of his reign, Yi Seonggye, now ruler of Korea, intended to continue use of the name Goryeo for the country he ruled and change the royal line of descent to his own, thus maintaining the façade of continuing the 500-year-old Goryeo tradition. However, after numerous threats of mutiny from the drastically weakened but still influential Gwonmun nobles, who continued to swear allegiance to the remnants of the Goryeo and now the demoted Wang clan, the consensus in the reformed court was that a new dynastic title was needed to signify the change. In naming the new dynasty, Taejo contemplated two possibilities - "Hwaryeong" and "Joseon".
After much internal deliberation, as well as endorsement by the neighboring Ming dynasty's emperor, Taejo declared the name of the kingdom to be Joseon, a tribute to the ancient Korean state of Gojoseon. He moved the capital to Hanyang from Kaesong; when the new dynasty was promulgated and brought into existence, Taejo brought up the issue of which son would be his successor. Although Yi Bangwon, Taejo's fifth son by Queen Sineui, had contributed most to assisting his father's rise to power, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun used their influence on King Taejo to name his eighth son Grand Prince Uian as crown prince in 1392; this conflict arose because Jeong Dojeon, who shaped and laid down ideological and legal foundations of the new dynasty more than anyone else, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers appointed by the king while Yi Bangwon wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled directly by the king. With Taejo's support, Jeong Dojeon kept limiting the royal family's power by prohibiting political involvement of princes and attempting to abolish their private armies.
Both sides were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok, while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bangwon struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Dojeon and his supporters as well as Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince in 1398; this incident became known as the First Strife of Princes. Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, psychologically exhausted from the death of
Mahāyāna is one of two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. This movement added a further set of discourses, although it was small in India, it had long-term historical significance; the Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana is sometimes classified as a part of Mahāyāna Buddhism, but some scholars consider it to be a different branch altogether. According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" refers to the path of the Bodhisattva seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle". A bodhisattva who has accomplished this goal is called a samyaksaṃbuddha, or "fully enlightened Buddha". A samyaksaṃbuddha can establish the Dharma and lead disciples to enlightenment. Mahāyāna Buddhists teach that enlightenment can be attained in a single lifetime, this can be accomplished by a layperson; the Mahāyāna tradition is the largest major tradition of Buddhism existing today, with 53% of practitioners, compared to 36% for Theravada and 6% for Vajrayana in 2010.
In the course of its history, Mahāyāna Buddhism spread from India to various other South and Southeast Asian countries such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia and Singapore. Mahayana Buddhism spread to other South and Southeast Asian countries, such as Afghanistan, Cambodia, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Burma and other Central Asian countries before being replaced by Theravada Buddhism or other religions. Large Mahāyāna scholastic centers such as Nalanda thrived during the latter period of Buddhism in India, between the seventh and twelfth centuries. Major traditions of Mahāyāna Buddhism today include Chan Buddhism, Korean Seon, Japanese Zen, Pure Land Buddhism, Nichiren Buddhism and Vietnamese Buddhism, it may include the Vajrayana traditions of Tiantai, Shingon Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, which add esoteric teachings to the Mahāyāna tradition. According to Jan Nattier, the term Mahāyāna was an honorary synonym for Bodhisattvayāna – the vehicle of a bodhisattva seeking buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.
The term Mahāyāna was therefore adopted at an early date as a synonym for the path and the teachings of the bodhisattvas. Since it was an honorary term for Bodhisattvayāna, the adoption of the term Mahāyāna and its application to Bodhisattvayāna did not represent a significant turning point in the development of a Mahāyāna tradition; the earliest Mahāyāna texts use the term Mahāyāna as a synonym for Bodhisattvayāna, but the term Hīnayāna is comparatively rare in the earliest sources. The presumed dichotomy between Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna can be deceptive, as the two terms were not formed in relation to one another in the same era. Among the earliest and most important references to Mahāyāna are those that occur in the Lotus Sūtra dating between the 1st century BCE and the 1st century CE. Seishi Karashima has suggested that the term first used in an earlier Gandhāri Prakrit version of the Lotus Sūtra was not the term mahāyāna but the Prakrit word mahājāna in the sense of mahājñāna. At a stage when the early Prakrit word was converted into Sanskrit, this mahājāna, being phonetically ambivalent, was mistakenly converted into mahāyāna because of what may have been a double meaning in the famous Parable of the Burning House, which talks of three vehicles or carts.
The origins of Mahāyāna are still not understood and there are numerous competing theories. The earliest Western views of Mahāyāna assumed that it existed as a separate school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna" schools. According to David Drewes, for most of the 20th century, the leading theories about the origins of Mahāyāna were that it was either a lay movement or that it developed among the Mahāsāṃghika Nikaya; these theories have been overturned or shown to be problematic. The earliest textual evidence of "Mahāyāna" comes from sūtras originating around the beginning of the common era. Jan Nattier has noted that some of the earliest Mahāyāna texts, such as the Ugraparipṛccha Sūtra use the term "Mahāyāna", yet there is no doctrinal difference between Mahāyāna in this context and the early schools, that "Mahāyāna" referred rather to the rigorous emulation of Gautama Buddha in the path of a bodhisattva seeking to become a enlightened buddha. Nattier writes that in the Ugra, Mahāyāna is not a school, but a rigorous and demanding "spiritual vocation, to be pursued within the existing Buddhist community."Several scholars such as Hendrik Kern and A.
K. Warder suggested that Mahāyāna and its sutras developed among the Mahāsāṃghika Nikaya, some pointing to the area along the Kṛṣṇa River in the Āndhra region of southern India as a geographical origin. Paul Williams thinks that "there can be no doubt that at least some early Mahāyāna sutras originated in Mahāsāṃghika circles", pointing to the Mahāsāṃghika doctrine of the supramundane nature of the Buddha, close to the Mahāyāna view of the Buddha. Anthony Barber and Sree Padma note that "historians of Buddhist thought have been aware for quite some time that such pivotally important Mahayana Buddhist thinkers as Nāgārjuna, Candrakīrti, Āryadeva, Bhavaviveka, among many others, formulated their theories