Robert Bushnell Ryan was an American actor who most portrayed hardened cops and ruthless villains. Ryan was born in Chicago, the first child of Mable Arbutus, a secretary, Timothy Aloysius Ryan, from a wealthy family that owned a real estate firm, he was of English descent. Ryan was educated at Loyola Academy, he graduated from Dartmouth College in 1932, having held the school's heavyweight boxing title all four years of his attendance. After graduation, the 6′4" Ryan found employment as a stoker on a ship to Africa, a WPA worker, a ranch hand in Montana, among other odd jobs, he returned home in 1936 when his father died, decided to become an actor. In 1937 Ryan joined a little theatre group in Chicago; the following year he enrolled in the Max Reinhardt Workshop in Hollywood. In November 1939 Paramount signed Ryan to a long term contract, they announced. Ryan had small parts in The Ghost Breakers and Queen of the Mob, a his first credited role in Golden Gloves, directed by Edward Dmytryk, who would go on to make several films with Ryan.
Ryan had small bits in Texas Rangers Ride Again. Paramount dropped him, he went to Broadway where he was cast in a production of Clifford Odets' Clash by Night, directed by Lee Strasberg and produced by Billy Rose starring Tallulah Bankhead and Lee J. Cobb, it only had a run of 49 performances but was high profile and led to him being signed to a long term contract by RKO. Ryan a good role in Bombardier, starring Pat O'Brien, was fourth billed in a Fred Astaire musical The Sky's the Limit, playing a friend of Astaire. Both films were popular, he had a good part in Behind the Rising Sun, directed by Dmytryk, a huge box office success. Ryan was third billed in The Iron Major, with O'Brien, Gangway for Tomorrow. RKO promoted him to star status in Tender Comrade, where he was Ginger Rogers' leading man, directed for the third time by Dymytryk, it was a bit hit. Popular was Marine Raiders which Ryan co-starred alongside O'Brien again. Ryan enlisted in the United States Marine Corps and served as a drill instructor at Camp Pendleton, located between Oceanside and San Clemente in Southern California.
At Camp Pendleton, he befriended writer and future director Richard Brooks, whose novel, The Brick Foxhole, he admired. He took up painting, his military service was from January 1944 to November 1945. When Ryan was discharged from the Marine Corps he returned to RKO who put him in a Randolph Scott western, Trail Street, popular, he was in The Woman on the Beach with Joan Bennett for Jean Renoir, which lost money. Ryan's breakthrough film role was as an anti-Semitic killer in Crossfire, a film noir based on Brooks's novel, directed by Dmytryk and co-starring Robert Young, Robert Mitchum and Gloria Grahame; the role won Ryan his sole career Oscar nomination, for Best Supporting Actor. The film was successful at the box office. Ryan co starred with Merle Oberon in Berlin Express for director Jacques Tourneur, he was reunited with Scott in Return of the Bad Men, with O'Brien in The Boy with Green Hair for Joseph Losey and produced by Dore Schary, head of production at RKO. MGM borrowed him to make Act of Violence for Fred Zinnemann.
He stayed at that studio to make Caught for Max Ophuls with James Mason. Back at RKO Ryan had one of his best roles, The Set-Up, directed by Robert Wise, as an over-the-hill boxer, brutally punished for refusing to take a dive, he was top billed in The Woman on Pier 13, an anti-communist melodrama directed by Robert Stevenson, made at the prompting of RKO's new owner, Howard Hughes. Ryan did some film noirs: The Secret Fury with Claudette Colbert directed by Mel Ferrer, Born to Be Bad directed by Nicholas Ray. In 1950 the studio bought The Miami Story as a vehicle for him, he made a Western, Best of the Badmen, a war film with John Wayne, Flying Leathernecks, directed by Ray. It was announced he was working on an original film story called The Alpine Slide about avalanches, but no film resulted. Ryan was reteamed with Robert Mitchum, his Crossfire co star, in The Racket, directed by John Cromwell, he did another film noir for Nicholas Ray, On Dangerous Ground, with Ida Lupino the film adaptation of Clash by Night with Barbara Stanwyck and Marilyn Monroe under Fritz Lang.
According to David Thomson, "at RKO Ryan created the character of a modern neurotic such as the American screen had not dreamed of before. "His last film at RKO for a number of years was Beware, My Lovely with Lupino, done for Lupino's company. Ryan went over to MGM where he played a villain in Anthony Mann's western The Naked Spur, starring James Stewart, it was popular. He did City Beneath the Sea for Budd Boetticher at Universal, Inferno at MGM, Alaska Seas at Paramount, he was the leading man for Shirley Booth in About Mrs. Greer Garson in Her Twelve Men; the latter was made at MGM, now being run by Dore Schary. Schary cast Ryan as the head villain in Bad Day at Black Rock, he did an off Broadway production of Coriolanus directed by John Houseman. Ryan returned to RKO for Escape to Burma with Stanwyck. More seen was Sam Fuller's House of Bamboo and Raoul Walsh's The Tall Men, both at Fox. By now his fee was $150,000 a film, he starred in The Proud Ones (
John Michael Frankenheimer was an American film and television director known for social dramas and action/suspense films. Among his credits were Birdman of Alcatraz, The Manchurian Candidate, Seven Days in May, The Train, Grand Prix, French Connection II, Black Sunday, Ronin. Frankenheimer won four Emmy Awards—three consecutive—in the 1990s for directing the television movies Against the Wall, The Burning Season and George Wallace, the latter of which received a Golden Globe Award for Best Miniseries or Television Film, he was considered one of the last remaining directors who insisted on having complete control over all elements of production, making his style unique in Hollywood. Frankenheimer's 30 feature films and over 50 plays for television were notable for their influence on contemporary thought, he became a pioneer of the "modern-day political thriller," having begun his career at the peak of the Cold War. He was technically accomplished from his days in live television, he developed a "tremendous propensity for exploring political situations" which would ensnare his characters.
Movie critic Leonard Maltin writes that "in his time... Frankenheimer worked with the top writers and actors in a series of films that dealt with issues that were just on top of the moment—things that were facing us all." Frankenheimer was born in Queens, New York, the son of Helen Mary and Walter Martin Frankenheimer, a stockbroker. Frankenheimer once speculated, his father was of German Jewish descent, his mother was Irish Catholic, Frankenheimer was raised in his mother's religion. He became interested in movies at an early age. In 1947, he graduated from La Salle Military Academy in Long Island, New York. In 1951, he graduated from Williams College in Williamstown, where he had studied English, he developed an interest in acting as a career while in college but began thinking about directing when he was in the Air Force. This led him to join a film squadron based in Burbank, where he shot his first documentary, he began studying film theory by reading books about other famous directors, such as Sergei Eisenstein along with how-to books about the craft of film making.
Frankenheimer began his directing career in live television at CBS. Throughout the 1950s he directed over 140 episodes of shows like Playhouse 90, Climax!, Danger, including The Comedian, written by Rod Serling and starring Mickey Rooney as a ragingly vicious television comedian. Frankenheimer's first theatrical film was The Young Stranger, starring James MacArthur as the rebellious teenage son of a powerful Hollywood movie producer, he directed the production, based on a Climax! episode, "Deal a Blow", which he directed when he was 26. Frankenheimer returned to television during the late 1950s, moving to film permanently in 1961 with The Young Savages, in which he worked for the first time with Burt Lancaster in a story of a young boy murdered by a New York gang, his departure from television is considered to signal the end of the Golden Age of Television. Roger Ebert considered Frankenheimer to have had a special gift as a filmmaker and to have been a "master craftsman", he stated that Frankenheimer made some of the "most distinctive films of his time" and that he was " one of the most gifted directors of drama on television".
Production of Birdman of Alcatraz began under director Charles Crichton. Burt Lancaster, producing, as well as starring, asked Frankenheimer to take over the film; as Frankenheimer describes in Charles Champlin's interview book, he advised Lancaster that the script was too long, but was told he had to shoot all, written. The first cut of the film was four-and-a-half hours long, the length Frankenheimer had predicted. Moreover, the film was constructed. Frankenheimer said the film would have to be rewritten and reshot. Lancaster was committed to star in Judgment at Nuremberg, so he made that film while Frankenheimer prepared the reshoots; the finished film, released in 1962, was a huge success and was nominated for four Oscars, including one for Lancaster's performance. Frankenheimer was next hired by producer John Houseman to direct All Fall Down, a family drama starring Eva Marie Saint and Warren Beatty. Due to production difficulties with Birdman of Alcatraz, All Fall Down was released first.
Frankenheimer followed this with The Manchurian Candidate. Frankenheimer and producer George Axelrod bought Richard Condon's 1959 novel after it had been turned down by many Hollywood studios. After Frank Sinatra committed to the film, they secured backing from United Artists; the story of a Korean War veteran, brainwashed by the Communist Chinese to assassinate a candidate for President, co-starred Laurence Harvey, Janet Leigh, James Gregory, John McGiver, Angela Lansbury. Frankenheimer had to fight to cast Lansbury who had worked with him on All Fall Down and was only three years older than Harvey, who would play her son in the film. Sinatra's preference had been for Lucille Ball; the film was nominated for two Oscars, including one for Lansbury. The film was unseen, either theatrically or on broadcast, for many years. Urban legend has it that the film was pulled from circulati
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson, Peggy Ashcroft and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles. Late in his career, he had considerable success in television roles, his family had no theatrical connections, but Olivier's father, a clergyman, decided that his son should become an actor. After attending a drama school in London, Olivier learned his craft in a succession of acting jobs during the late 1920s. In 1930 he had his first important West End success in Noël Coward's Private Lives, he appeared in his first film. In 1935 he played in a celebrated production of Romeo and Juliet alongside Gielgud and Ashcroft, by the end of the decade he was an established star. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, building it into a respected company.
There his most celebrated roles included Sophocles's Oedipus. In the 1950s Olivier was an independent actor-manager, but his stage career was in the doldrums until he joined the avant garde English Stage Company in 1957 to play the title role in The Entertainer, a part he played on film. From 1963 to 1973 he was the founding director of Britain's National Theatre, running a resident company that fostered many future stars, his own parts there included the title role in Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. Among Olivier's films are Wuthering Heights, a trilogy of Shakespeare films as actor-director: Henry V, Richard III, his films included The Shoes of the Fisherman, Marathon Man, The Boys from Brazil. His television appearances included an adaptation of The Moon and Sixpence, Long Day's Journey into Night, Love Among the Ruins, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Brideshead Revisited and King Lear. Olivier's honours included a life peerage and the Order of Merit. For his on-screen work he received four Academy Awards, two British Academy Film Awards, five Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards.
The National Theatre's largest auditorium is named in his honour, he is commemorated in the Laurence Olivier Awards, given annually by the Society of London Theatre. He was married three times, to the actresses Jill Esmond from 1930 to 1940, Vivien Leigh from 1940 to 1960, Joan Plowright from 1961 until his death. Olivier was born in Dorking, the youngest of the three children of the Reverend Gerard Kerr Olivier and his wife Agnes Louise, née Crookenden, their elder children were Sybille and Gerard Dacres "Dickie". His great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent, Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen. Gerard Olivier had begun a career as a schoolmaster, but in his thirties he discovered a strong religious vocation and was ordained as a priest of the Church of England, he practised high church, ritualist Anglicanism and liked to be addressed as "Father Olivier". This made him unacceptable to most Anglican congregations, the only church posts he was offered were temporary deputising for regular incumbents in their absence.
This meant a nomadic existence, for Laurence's first few years, he never lived in one place long enough to make friends. In 1912, when Olivier was five, his father secured a permanent appointment as assistant rector at St Saviour's, Pimlico, he held the post for six years, a stable family life was at last possible. Olivier was devoted to his mother, but not to his father, whom he found a remote parent, he learned a great deal of the art of performing from him. As a young man Gerard Olivier had considered a stage career and was a dramatic and effective preacher. Olivier wrote that his father knew "when to drop the voice, when to bellow about the perils of hellfire, when to slip in a gag, when to wax sentimental... The quick changes of mood and manner absorbed me, I have never forgotten them." In 1916, after attending a series of preparatory schools, Olivier passed the singing examination for admission to the choir school of All Saints, Margaret Street, in central London. His elder brother was a pupil, Olivier settled in, though he felt himself to be something of an outsider.
The church's style of worship was Anglo-Catholic, with emphasis on ritual and incense. The theatricality of the services appealed to Olivier, the vicar encouraged the students to develop a taste for secular as well as religious drama. In a school production of Julius Caesar in 1917, the ten-year-old Olivier's performance as Brutus impressed an audience that included Lady Tree, the young Sybil Thorndike, Ellen Terry, who wrote in her diary, "The small boy who played Brutus is a great actor." He won praise in other schoolboy productions, as Maria in Twelfth Night and Katherine in The Taming of the Shrew. From All Saints, Olivier went on to St Edward's School, from 1920 to 1924, he made little mark until his final year, when he played Puck in the school's production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. In January 1924, his brother left England to work in India as a rubber planter. Olivier missed him and asked his father how soon he could follow, he recalled in his memoirs that his father replied, "Don't be such a fool, you're not going to India, you're going on the stage."
In 1924 Gerard Olivier, a habitually fru
Kirk Douglas is an American actor and author. A centenarian, he is one of the last surviving stars of the film industry's Golden Age. After an impoverished childhood with immigrant parents and six sisters, he had his film debut in The Strange Love of Martha Ivers with Barbara Stanwyck. Douglas soon developed into a leading box-office star throughout the 1950s, known for serious dramas, including westerns and war movies. During his career, he appeared in more than 90 movies. Douglas is known for his explosive acting style. Douglas became an international star through positive reception for his leading role as an unscrupulous boxing hero in Champion, which brought him his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Other early films include Young Man with a Horn, playing opposite Lauren Doris Day, he received a second Oscar nomination for his dramatic role in The Bad and the Beautiful, opposite Lana Turner, his third nomination for portraying Vincent van Gogh in Lust for Life. In 1955, he established Bryna Productions, which began producing films as varied as Paths of Glory and Spartacus.
In those two films, he collaborated with the then-relatively-unknown director Stanley Kubrick taking lead roles in both films. Douglas has been praised for helping to break the Hollywood blacklist by having Dalton Trumbo write Spartacus with an official on-screen credit, although this has been disputed by others, he produced and starred in Lonely Are the Brave, considered a classic, Seven Days in May, opposite Burt Lancaster, with whom he made seven films. In 1963, he starred in the Broadway play One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, a story he purchased, which he gave to his son Michael Douglas, who turned it into an Oscar-winning film; as an actor and philanthropist, Douglas has received three Academy Award nominations, an Oscar for Lifetime Achievement, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. As an author, he has written ten memoirs, he is No. 17 on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest male screen legends of classic Hollywood cinema, the highest-ranked living person on the list. After surviving a helicopter crash in 1991 and suffering a stroke in 1996, he has focused on renewing his spiritual and religious life.
He lives with Anne Buydens, a producer. Douglas was born Issur Danielovitch Demsky in Amsterdam, New York, the son of Bryna "Bertha" and Herschel "Harry" Danielovitch, his parents were Jewish emigrants from Chavusy, Mogilev Region, in the Russian Empire, the family spoke Yiddish at home. His father's brother, who emigrated earlier, used the surname Demsky, which Douglas's family adopted in the United States. Douglas grew up as Izzy Demsky and changed his name to Kirk Douglas before entering the United States Navy during World War II. In his 1988 autobiography, The Ragman's Son, Douglas notes the hardships that he, along with six sisters and his parents, endured during their early years in Amsterdam, New York: My father, a horse trader in Russia, got himself a horse and a small wagon, became a ragman, buying old rags, pieces of metal, junk for pennies and dimes.... On Eagle Street, in the poorest section of town, where all the families were struggling, the ragman was on the lowest rung on the ladder.
And I was the ragman's son. Growing up, Douglas sold snacks to mill workers to earn enough to buy milk and bread to help his family, he delivered newspapers and during his youth he had more than forty jobs before becoming an actor. He found living in a family with six sisters to be stifling: "I was dying to get out. In a sense, it lit a fire under me." In high school, after acting in plays, he knew he wanted to become a professional actor. Unable to afford the tuition, Douglas talked his way into the dean's office at St. Lawrence University and showed him a list of his high school honors, he received a loan which he paid back by working part-time as a janitor. He wrestled one summer in a carnival to make money. Douglas's acting talents were noticed at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City, which gave him a special scholarship. One of his classmates was Betty Joan Perske, who would play an important role in launching his film career. Bacall wrote that she "had a wild crush on Kirk," and they dated casually.
Another classmate, a friend of Bacall's, was aspiring actress Diana Dill, who would become Douglas's first wife. During their time together, Bacall learned Douglas had no money, that he once spent the night in jail since he had no place to sleep, she once gave him her uncle's old coat to keep warm: "I thought he must be frozen in the winter.... He was thrilled and grateful." Sometimes, just to see him, she would drag a friend or her mother to the restaurant where he worked as a busboy and waiter. He told her. During that period she fantasized about someday sharing her personal and stage lives with Douglas, but would be disappointed: "Kirk did not pursue me, he was friendly and sweet—enjoyed my company—but I was too young for him," the eight-years-younger Bacall wrote. Douglas first wanted to be an actor after he recited the poem The Red Robin of Spring while in kindergarten and received applause, he enlisted in the United States Navy in 1941, shortly after the United Stat
Eldred Gregory Peck was an American actor. He was one of the most popular film stars from the 1940s to the 1960s. Peck received five Academy Award for Best Actor nominations and won once for his performance as Atticus Finch in the 1962 drama film To Kill a Mockingbird. Peck received Oscar nominations for his roles in The Keys of the Kingdom, The Yearling, Gentleman's Agreement and Twelve O'Clock High. Other notable films in which he appeared include Spellbound, The Gunfighter, Roman Holiday, Moby Dick, The Big Country, The Bravados, Pork Chop Hill, The Guns of Navarone, Cape Fear, How the West Was Won, The Omen and The Boys from Brazil. U. S. President Lyndon Johnson honored Peck with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969 for his lifetime humanitarian efforts. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Peck among Greatest Male Stars of Classic Hollywood cinema, ranking him at No. 12. Eldred Gregory Peck was born on April 5, 1916, in San Diego, the son of Bernice Mae "Bunny", Gregory Pearl Peck, a Rochester New York-born chemist and pharmacist.
His father was of English and Irish heritage and his mother was of English and Scots ancestry. She converted to her husband's religion, Roman Catholicism, when she married Gregory Pearl, Peck was raised as a Catholic. Through his Irish-born paternal grandmother Catherine Ashe, Peck was related to Thomas Ashe, who participated in the Easter Rising less than three weeks after Peck's birth and died while being force fed during his hunger strike in 1917. Peck's parents divorced when he was five and he was brought up by his maternal grandmother, who took him to the movies every week. At the age of 10 he was sent to a Catholic military school, St. John's Military Academy in Los Angeles. While he was a student there, his grandmother died. At 14, he moved back to San Diego to live with his father, attended San Diego High School, after graduating enrolled for one year at San Diego State Teacher's College. While there, he joined the track team, took his first theatre and public-speaking courses, pledged the Epsilon Eta fraternity.
Peck, had ambitions to be a doctor and the following year gained admission to the University of California, Berkeley, as an English major and pre-medical student. Standing 6 ft 3 in, he rowed on the university crew. Although his tuition fee was only $26 per year, Peck still struggled to pay, took a job as a "hasher" for the Gamma Phi Beta sorority in exchange for meals. At Berkeley, encouraged by the acting coach who saw in him perfect material for university theatre, Peck became more and more interested in acting, he was recruited by Edwin Duerr, director of the university's Little Theater, appeared in five plays during his senior year. Peck would say about Berkeley that "it was a special experience for me and three of the greatest years of my life, it woke me up and made me a human being." In 1997, Peck donated $25,000 to the Berkeley rowing crew in honor of his coach, the renowned Ky Ebright. Peck was ready to graduate from Cal Berkeley, but was not able to graduate along with his friends because he lacked one course.
His college friends wondered how he'd get along without his degree. "I have all I need from the University," he told them, reassuringly. Peck dropped the name "Eldred" and headed to New York City to study at the Neighborhood Playhouse with the legendary acting teacher Sanford Meisner, he was broke and sometimes slept in Central Park. He worked as a tour guide for NBC's television broadcasting. In 1940, Peck learned more of the acting craft, working in exchange for food, at the Barter Theatre in Abingdon, appearing in five plays including Family Portrait and On Earth As It Is, his stage career began in 1941 when he played the secretary in a Katharine Cornell production of George Bernard Shaw's play The Doctor's Dilemma. The play opened in San Francisco just one week before the attack on Pearl Harbor, he made his Broadway debut as the lead in Emlyn Williams' The Morning Star in 1942. His second Broadway performance that year was in I with Edward Pawley. Peck's acting abilities were in high demand during World War II because he was exempt from military service owing to a back injury suffered while receiving dance and movement lessons from Martha Graham as part of his acting training.
Twentieth Century Fox claimed he had injured his back while rowing at university, but in Peck's words, "In Hollywood, they didn't think a dance class was macho enough, I guess. I've been trying to straighten out that story for years."In 1947, Peck co-founded The La Jolla Playhouse, at his birthplace, with Mel Ferrer and Dorothy McGuire. This summer stock company presented productions in the La Jolla High School Auditorium from 1947 until 1964. In 1983 the La Jolla Playhouse reopened in a new home at the University of California, San Diego where it still thrives today, it has attracted Hollywood film stars on hiatus both as performers and enthusiastic supporters since its inception. Peck's first film, Days of Glory, was released in 1944, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor five times, four of which came in his first five years of film acting: for The Keys of the Kingdom, The Yearling, Gentleman's Agreement, Twelve O'Clock High. The Keys of the Kingdom emphasized his stately presence.
As the farmer Ezra "Penny" Baxter in The Yearling, his good-humored warmth and affection toward the characters p
7th Infantry Division (United States)
The 7th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the United States Army. Today, it exists as a unique 250-man administrative headquarters based at Joint Base Lewis-McChord overseeing several units, though none of the 7th Infantry Division's own historic forces are active; the division was first activated in December 1917 in World War I, based at Fort Ord, California for most of its history. Although elements of the division saw brief active service in World War I, it is best known for its participation in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II where it took heavy casualties engaging the Imperial Japanese Army in the Aleutian Islands and Okinawa. Following the Japanese surrender in 1945, the division was stationed in Japan and Korea, with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 was one of the first units in action, it took part in the Inchon Landings and the advance north until Chinese forces counter-attacked and overwhelmed the scattered division. The 7th went on to fight in the Battle of Pork Chop Hill and the Battle of Old Baldy.
After the Korean War ended, the division returned to the United States. In the late 1980s, it saw action overseas in Operation Golden Pheasant in Honduras and Operation Just Cause in Panama. In the early 1990s, it provided domestic support to the civil authorities in Operation Green Sweep and during the 1992 Los Angeles Riots; the division's final role was as a training and evaluation unit for Army National Guard brigades, which it undertook until its inactivation in 2006. On 26 April 2012, the Department of Defense announced the reactivation of the 7th Infantry Division headquarters as an administrative unit; the 7th Infantry Division was activated on 6 December 1917 eight months after the American entry into World War I, as the 7th Division of the Regular Army at Camp Wheeler, Georgia. One month it prepared to deploy to Europe as a part of the American Expeditionary Force. Most of the division sailed to Europe aboard the SS Leviathan. While on the Western Front, the 7th Division did not see action at full divisional strength, though its infantry and reconnaissance elements did engage German forces.
On 11 October 1918, it first came under shell fire and at Saint-Mihiel, came under chemical attack. Elements of the 7th probed up toward Prény near the Moselle River, capturing positions and driving German forces out of the region, it was at this time. In early November, the 7th Division began preparing for an assault on the Hindenburg Line as part of the Second Army; the division launched a reconnaissance in force on the Voëvre plain, but the main assault was never conducted as hostilities ended on 11 November 1918 with the signing of the Armistice with Germany. During its 33 days on the front line, the 7th Division suffered 1,709 casualties, including 204 killed in action and 1,505 wounded in action, and was awarded a campaign streamer for Lorraine. The division served on occupation duties as it began preparations to return to the United States; the 7th Division arrived home in late 1919, served at Camp Funston, until July 1920, moved to Camp Meade, Maryland until 22 September 1921, when it was inactivated due to funding cuts.
The 7th Division was represented in the active Regular Army from 1921 to 1939 by its even-numbered infantry brigade and select supporting elements. Other units of the division were placed on the Regular Army Inactive list and staffed by Organized Reserve personnel; these reserve units trained with the 14th Infantry Brigade at Fort Riley, Fort Crook, Fort Snelling, Fort Leavenworth, conducted the Citizens' Military Training Camps in the division's area. The division was formed on a provisional status during maneuvers in the 1920s and 1930s, the division headquarters was activated for the August 1937 Fourth United States Army maneuvers at Camp Ripley, with the Minnesota Army National Guard's 92nd Infantry Brigade. On 1 July 1940, the 7th Division was formally reactivated at Camp Ord, under the command of Major General Joseph W. Stilwell. Most of the early troops in the division were conscripted as a part of the US Army's first peacetime military draft; the 7th Division was assigned to III Corps of the Fourth United States Army, transferred to Longview, Washington, in August 1941 to participate in tactical maneuvers.
Following this training, the division moved back to Fort Ord, where it was located when the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor caused the United States to declare war. The formation proceeded immediately to San Jose, arriving 11 December 1941 to help protect the west coast and allay civilian fears of invasion; the 53rd Infantry Regiment was removed from the 7th Division and replaced with the 159th Infantry Regiment, newly deployed from the California Army National Guard. For the early parts of the war, the division participated in construction and training roles. Subordinate units practiced boat loading at the Monterey Wharf and amphibious assault techniques at the Salinas River in California. On 9 April 1942, the division was formally redesignated as the 7th Motorized Division and transferred to Camp San Luis Obispo on 24 April 1942. Three months divisional training commenced in the Mojave Desert in preparation for its planned deployment to the African theater, it was again designated the 7th Infantry Division on 1 January 1943, when the motorized equipment was removed from the unit and it became a light infantry division once more, as the Army eliminated the motorized division concept fearing it would be logistically difficult and that the troops were no longer needed in North Africa.
The 7th Infantry Division began rigorous amphibious assault training under US Marines fro
Sun Myung Moon
Sun Myung Moon was a Korean religious leader known for his business ventures and support for political causes. A messiah claimant, he was the founder of the Unification movement, of its noted "Blessing" or mass wedding ceremony, the author of its unique theology the Divine Principle, he was an opponent of communism and an advocate for Korean reunification, for which he was recognized by the governments of both North and South Korea. Businesses he promoted included News World Communications, an international news media corporation known for its American subsidiary The Washington Times, Tongil Group, a South Korean business group, as well as various related organizations. Moon was born in; when he was a child, his family converted to Christianity. In 1947 he was convicted by the North Korean government of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. In 1954, he founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul, South Korea based on conservative, family-oriented teachings from new interpretations of the Bible.
In 1971, he moved to the United States and became well known after giving a series of public speeches on his beliefs. In the 1982 case United States v. Sun Myung Moon he was found guilty of willfully filing false federal income tax returns and sentenced to 18 months in federal prison, his case generated protests from clergy and civil libertarians, who said that the trial was biased against him. Moon was criticized for making high demands of his followers, his wedding ceremonies drew criticism after they involved members of other churches, including Roman Catholic archbishop Emmanuel Milingo. He was criticized for his relationships with political and religious figures, including U. S. Presidents Richard Nixon, George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, North Korean President Kim Il Sung, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Sun Myung Moon was born Moon Yong Myeong on 25 February 1920, in modern-day North P'yŏng'an Province, North Korea, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule.
He was the younger of two sons in a farming family of eight children. Moon's family followed Confucianist beliefs until he was around 10 years old, when they converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church. In 1941, Moon began studying electrical engineering at Waseda University in Japan. During this time he cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan. In 1943, he returned to Seoul and married Sun Kil Choi on 28 April 1945. On 2 April 1946 Sung Jin Moon was born. In the 1940s, Moon attended a church in Sangdo dong, led by the messianic minister Baek Moon Kim, who claimed that he had been given by Jesus the mission to spread the message of a "new Israel" throughout the world. Around this time Moon changed his given name to Sun Myung. Following World War II, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel into two trusteeships: the United States and the Soviet Union. Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or disappeared in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho, bishop of Pyongyang and all monks of Tokwon abbey.
In 1947 Moon was convicted by the North Korean government of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. In 1950, during the Korean War United Nations troops had raided Hŭngnam and the guards fled. Moon traveled to Busan, South Korea. Moon emerged from his years in the labor camp as a staunch anti-communist, his teachings viewed the Cold War between democracy and communism as the final conflict between God and Satan, with divided Korea as its primary front line. In 1954, Moon formally founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul, he drew young acolytes who helped to build the foundations of church affiliated business and cultural organizations. At his new church, he preached a conservative, family-oriented value system and his interpretation of the Bible. On 8 January 1957, Choi divorced. Moon has said that when he was fifteen years old Jesus anointed him to carry out his unfinished work by becoming parent to all of humanity.
The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle is the main theological textbook of the Unification movement. It was co-written by Moon and early disciple Hyo Won Eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973; the book lays out the core of Unification theology, is held to have the status of scripture by believers. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes God's purpose in creating human beings, the fall of man, restoration – the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God intended. God is viewed as the creator, whose nature combines both masculinity and femininity, is the source of all truth and goodness. Human beings and the universe reflect God's personality and purpose. "Give-and-take action" and "subject and object position" are "key interpretive concepts", the self is designed to be God's object.
The purpose of human existence is to return joy to God. The "four-position foundation" is "another important and interpretive concept", a