Video gaming in South Korea
In South Korea, video games are considered to be a major social activity, with most of the games being cooperative or competitive. Locally developed Role-playing games, FPS, MMORPG and Mobile games have proven to be popular in the country. Professional competition surrounding video games enjoy a substantial following in South Korea—major tournaments are broadcast on television and have large prizes available. South Korea has developed a strong economy in Asia through the development of creative industries. New York Times culture writer Seth Schiesel has commented "When it comes to gaming, Korea is the developed market... When you look at gaming around the world, Korea is the leader in many ways..." Statistic provided by Korea Creative Content Agency shows that the industry has gained an average growth of 14.9% in sales since 2008. This statistic may reflects an increasing interest in online gaming the youth. Although it is difficult to mark an exact period, responsible for increasing trend in online gaming.
South Korea has been known for their pre-eminent infrastructure in video gaming, their dominance in eSports scenes. Many of the best video game players and coaches in the world were trained or originated from South Korea, the country's pro leagues and tournaments across numerous video games are acclaimed by many to be the "most prestigious and competitive". In January 1975, three units of the relabeled Pong machine Computer TV were installed in the Midopa Department Store in Seoul; the newspaper explained it as a "TV game" and said that big companies such as Samsung and Goldstar were producing new machines, most of them Pong clones. Until the end of the 1970s, "electronic entertainment rooms" spread around the country, despite fierce opposition by conservative parents and the regime. By 1980, only 43 arcade establishments were government-approved, while many hundreds were opened illegally; the Korean gaming industry started as an import market, getting machines from Japan and the USA. Since it didn't have any form of localization, the arcade manufacturers would put names in Hangul, making some name changes such as "Donkey Kong" becoming "King Kong".
Home computers were a luxury import in Korea in the late 1970s and software programming was the domain of institutes like KIST. In 1983, domestic computers – which were clones of Japanese and American models – started being distributed as well as computer magazines. In March of the same year, companies like Samsung started to offer computers to schools to raise a computer-savvy generation; these same companies would host software competitions, but most of the programmers that won those competitions developing games preferred to use their knowledge for more serious software or jobs. In 1984, the computer models became more standardized, with all new models based on either MSX or Apple II standard; this made it easier to import and copy foreign games, as there was no copyright law in Korea at the time for computer programs. In December 1985, Daewoo released the Zemmix, it was the first successful gaming hardware, owing its success to the huge number of imported and bootlegged games available. Because of that, domestic game development wasn't seen as necessary until July 1987, when a law protecting copyright ownership of computer programs was enacted.
This led to the creation of small businesses with the intention of publishing games. The country's first fully-fledged computer game was Sin'geom-ui Jeonseol known as Legend of the Sword, released for the Apple II computer platform in 1987, it was programmed by Nam In-Hwan and distributed by Aproman, being influenced by the Ultima series. Most of the stores that made unauthorized copies of games started to port them to Zemmix, the most representative publisher being Zemina, the first company to publish a domestic title, Brother Adventure, a Mario Bros. clone. However, the copyright law only covered the code itself, allowing the video game adaptation of foreign games. A group of Japanese companies brought to court cases against Haitai and Young Toys, but failed to win anything because the games in question were released before the enactment of the law. Most of the original Korean games were made by independent teams, such as "Mickey Soft's Kkoedori" and "New Age Team's Legendly Night"; the Korean company Topia was one of the first to begin producing action role-playing games, one of, Pungnyu Hyeopgaek, for MS-DOS, in 1989.
It was the first Korean title set in ancient China. Foreign companies like Sega and Nintendo had difficulty to enter the market, so they licensed out their consoles to Korean companies. Samsung took Sega's Master System, released in April 1989 as the "Samsung Gam*Boy". Most of the games were released on Korea on their original languages, being Phantasy Star the first game to be translated to Hangul. One year the Mega Drive arrived with the name of "Super Gam*Boy", having on 1992 all Samsung consoles renamed to "Aladdin Boy". Samsung produced its own game, a shoot'em up called "Uju Geobukseon". Hyundai was the responsible for the releasing the NES, named Comboy. However, It didn't have any translated games; the development of those systems started slow, as the software necessary was not as available as home computers. Most infringing companies found ways to convert MSX games to the Gam*Boy, due to their similar architecture. Two companies, Daou Infosys and Open Production, under the Jaem Jaem Club label, were responsible for a steady flow of domestic games
Cinema of North Korea
The cinema of North Korea began with the division of Korea and has been sustained since by the ruling Kim dynasty. Kim Il-Sung and his successor Kim Jong-Il were both cinephiles and sought to produce propaganda films based on the Juche ideology. Due to the totalitarian regime of North Korea, all film production is supervised by the Workers' Party of Korea and concerns propaganda. North Korea has produced some non-propaganda films for export to the wider world. North Korea's principal producer of feature films is the Korean Film Studio, a state-run studio founded in 1947 and located outside of Pyongyang. Other North Korean film studios include the Korean Documentary Film Studio, the April 25 Film Studio of the Korean People's Army and the Korean Science and Educational Film Studio These studios produce feature films, animated films, children's films and science films. According to a report from 1992, the Korean Feature Film Studio produced about forty films per year, while the other studios together accounted for another forty.
In addition to its domestic animated productions, SEK has produced animation for foreign companies. Production costs in North Korea are low, the quality of animators is well perceived. SEK has done work on such productions as Mondo TV's animated series Pocahontas and King Lion Simba and the films Light Years and Empress Chung. North Korean leader Kim Il-sung believed in Lenin's maxim: "Cinema is the most important of all arts." Accordingly, since the country's division, North Korean films have been used as vehicles for instilling government ideology into the people. A common theme is martyrdom for the nation; the film Fate of a Self-defence Corps Member, based on a novel written by Kim Il-sung during the fight against the Japanese occupation reflects this theme, as does the regarded film, Sea of Blood. The latter film comes from a novel telling the story of a woman farmer who becomes a national heroine by fighting the Japanese. Another favorite theme is the happiness of the current society; this theme can be seen reflected in titles of feature films like A Family of Workers, A Flowering Village, Rolling Mill Workers, When Apples Are Picked and Girls at a Port.
All of these films were awarded the People's Prize before 1974. The number of films produced in North Korea is difficult to determine. In 1992, Asiaweek reported that the country produced about 80 films annually, a BBC report in 2001 indicated that North Korea was producing about 60 films a year. In spite of these claims, Johannes Schönherr, an attendee of the 2000 Pyongyang International Film Festival, found little evidence for actual films or titles, he notes that the country offered only one domestic feature and one documentary at their most high-profile film festival, suggests that the high number of reported films includes short films and short installments of long-running series. He cites a 1998 North Korean pamphlet containing a list of films, made in the country up to 1998; this gives a total of 259 titles, indicates that the 1980s were the most prolific decade with about 15 to 20 films made yearly. The British Film Institute Sight & Sound magazine reported that an average of 20 films per year were made from the 1960s to the early 1990s.
However, in the economic hard times following the collapse of the Soviet Union film production reduced, from 2000 to 2009 only about 5 films per year were made. The Pyongyang International Film Festival, established in 1987 and broadened in scope in 2002, is now held every two years. After the division of Korea following the defeat of the Japanese Empire in WWII, filmmakers in the North and the South sought to produce the first Korean film after the liberation in their respective half of the peninsula. Although South Koreans were first, with Viva Freedom!, North Korea soon followed with My Home Village. Because of the secretive nature of the country as well as the lack of film exports, the exact number of feature films produced in North Korea is impossible to determine; the Internet Movie Database lists only 165 films produced in North Korea. Two of these were released in the years between the liberation from Japan and the outbreak of the Korean War, Our Construction and My Homeland. Five were released during the war, including Righteous Boy Partisans and Again to the Front.
These titles suggest that film was used for ideological purposes from the beginning of North Korea's existence as a separate entity. Nearly all studios and film archives were destroyed during the Korean War, after 1953 studios had to be rebuilt. A Spinner and Boidchi annun dchonson made in the 1960s. One of the most regarded films in North Korea, Sea of Blood, was produced in 1969; the entrance hall to the Korean Feature Film Studio contains a mural of "Dear Leader" Kim Jong-il supervising the production of this film. This is a two-part and white film; the first part is 125 minutes in duration, the second is 126 minutes. Kim Il-sung made a famous call for Juche art in 1966, saying, "Our art should develop in a revolutionary way, reflecting the Socialist content with the national form". In a 1973 treatise on film entitled Theory of Cinematic Art, Kim Jong-il further developed this idea of Juche art into the cinema, claiming that it is cinema's duty to help develop the people into "true communists", as a means "to eradicate capitalist elements".
The ideology-heavy nat
JoongAng Ilbo is a South Korean daily newspaper published in Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the three biggest newspapers in South Korea; the paper publishes an English edition, Korea JoongAng Daily, in alliance with the International New York Times. It was first published on September 22, 1965 by Lee Byung-chul, the founder of Samsung Group which once owned the Tongyang Broadcasting Company. In 1980, JoongAng Ilbo gave up TBC and TBC merged with KBS. JoongAng Ilbo is the pioneer in South Korea for the use of horizontal copy layout, topical sections, specialist reporters with investigative reporting teams. Since April 15, 1995, JoongAng Ilbo has been laid out horizontally and became a morning newspaper from on; as of March 18, 2007, it has produced a Sunday edition called JoongAng Sunday. The Korea JoongAng Daily is the English language version of the newspaper, it is one of three English-language daily newspapers in South Korea, along with The Korea Times and The Korea Herald, it runs news and feature stories by staff reporters, some stories translated from the Korean language newspaper.
The Korea JoongAng Daily is sold together with the International New York Times. JoongAng Ilbo publishes a United States edition, with branches from Toronto to Buenos Aires, its parent company, Joongang Media Network holds publication rights to Korean editions of Newsweek and Forbes as well as 25% of the shares of JTBC cable TV. List of newspapers in South Korea Communications in South Korea List of Korea-related topics Joongang Tongyang Broadcasting Company Sohn Suk-hee Official website Korea JoongAng Daily Joins.com
Gwanghwamun Plaza is a public open space on Sejongno, Jongno-gu in Seoul, South Korea. The plaza was opened on 1 August 2009 by the Seoul Metropolitan Government and is part of the City's plans for environmentally friendly renovation projects such as the Cheonggye Stream and Seoul Plaza, it is of historical significant as the location of royal administrative buildings, known as Yukjo-geori or Street of Six Ministries. The goal of opening and reconstruction of this plaza is making the plaza as a historical and cultural place for citizen; the area of the Gwanghwamun Plaza has a long history. It has been a public road for centuries of Korean history. Sometime in the 20th century it has been converted into a 16-lane roadway. A new pedestrian-friendly open downtown urban space was first announced in February 2004, along with projects for Namdaemun and Seoul Plaza. In December 2006, further plans for the plaza was announced; the project in conjunction with the restoration of Gwanghwamun was carried out by the Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea, schedule for completion by August 2009.
Construction of the plaza was scheduled to begin in February 2008, however it was delayed because of opposition from the National Police Agency, concerned that the plaza could be abused as a venue for mass protests. Construction commenced on 23 April 2008, after the Government decreed it a demonstration-free zone; the plans included moving the statue of King Sejong from Deoksugung to the Plaza. However, after surveys of citizens and experts, it was decided to commission a new statue of King Sejong in a sitting position and chose the design in a competition between a shortlist of artists recommended by the Korean Fine Arts Association and universities; the plaza was opened on 1 August 2009 after a renovation period of 15-months, which downsized the 600-meter Sejongno, from 16-lanes to 10-lanes of traffic, at a cost of ₩44.5 billion. It is in front of Gwanghwamun and stretches south from the three-way intersection, along the front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts on the west side and Kyobo Book Centre on the east side, to the Sejong-ro intersection, where the statue of the Admiral Yi Sun-sin stands.
At the opening the plaza was covered in a flower carpet, 162 m long and 17.5 m wide, with 224,537 flowers representing the number of days from when Seoul was declared the capital on 28 October 1394, to the opening of the plaza on 1 August 2009. The Plaza features a water fountain in honor of the achievements of Admiral Yi Sun-sin, it is named the 12.23 Fountain, to commemorates the 23 battles he fought with 12 warships, when he led Koreans to victory during the Japanese invasions of Korea. The water jets rises to a height of 18 meters along with 300 smaller jets, which symbolize the battles he fought on the sea, it has a waterway, two centimeters deep and one meter across, at 365 meters along the plaza's east side. The floor of it has 617 stones recording the major events from 1392 to 2008; the fountain is located next to the statue of Admiral Yi Sun-shin. This statue was erected on April 27, 1968. On 9 October 2009, two months after the Plaza opening, a second statue, the 6.2-meter high, 20-ton bronze statue of King Sejong the Great of Joseon was unveiled to the public.
It is located 250 meters behind the statue of the Admiral Yi Sun-sin. It was dedicated on Hangul Day in celebration of the 563rd anniversary of the invention of the Korean alphabet by King Sejong. Underneath the statues there is a small exhibition hall and museum about the two historical figures depicted the statues. Rallies and demonstrations are illegal at the Plaza and the Seoul Metropolitan Government has decreed that it is to use for cultural exhibitions and a demonstration-free zone; as of 1 June 2011, the Plaza along with Seoul Plaza are designated as smoke-free zones by the Seoul Metropolitan Government. Smokers are fined ₩100,000 in violation. On 23 September 2012, the Government started on a trial basis, a 550-m designated section of Sejong-ro as pedestrian-only but permitted for cyclists; the section includes the road from the Gwanghwamun three-way intersection, along the plaza in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts to the Sejong-ro intersection. The Plaza is the location for the start of the annual Seoul International Marathon, which finishes within the Olympic Stadium.
In the first winter after its opening the Plaza hosted an open air ice-rink from 12 December 2009 to 15 February 2010. The public rink was 2,250 sq. m, larger than the one at Seoul Plaza at 2,100 sq. m. The plaza is one of the site of street cheering of the FIFA World Cup. On 29 November 2009, parts of Sejong-ro were closed to traffic for twelve hours to film lengthy gunfight scenes for Korean Broadcasting System's 2009 spy action television drama series Iris, starring Lee Byung-hun, Kim Tae-hee, Jung Joon-ho, Kim Seung-woo and Kim So-yeon; the five lanes along the plaza in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts were closed to traffic from 07:00 to 19:00, while the five lanes on the Kyobo Book Centre side remains open to traffic. This marks the first time the Seoul Metropolitan Government has granted permission to blocked traffic along the Plaza for filming and it is part of Government's plans to promote the city's major tourist attractions. On 26 July 2012 at 23:00, boy band Beast held a guerilla concert at the Gwanghwamun end of the plaza, in front of an audience of 4,000 people.
It was part of their promotion for their fifth mini album Midnight Sun, the performance was broadcast on SBS's music show Inkigayo. In 2012, the plaza was used as a filming location for tvN
Webtoons are a type of webcomic that originated in South Korea. While webtoons were unknown outside of the country during their inception, there has been a surge in popularity internationally thanks in great part to most comics being read on smartphones; as digital comics have emerged as a popular medium, print publication of manhwa in South Korea has decreased. The amount of material published in webtoon form has now reached an equal amount as that published offline. There are three things that sets webtoons apart from regular comics and webcomics: each episode is published on one long, vertical strip. In the case of South Korea, there are different censorship laws for materials published online than in print which has led to more manhwa, pornographic in nature being produced and published as webtoons. Like other online publications, there are a variety of payment models used for webtoons; some offer a limited set of charge for the rest. Others allow only a certain number of chapters to be read per day without payment.
The Korean web portal Daum created a webtoon service known as Daum Webtoon in 2003 and was followed by Naver with the launch of Naver Webtoon in 2004. These services release webtoons that are available for free. According to David Welsh of Bloomberg, comics account for a quarter of all book sales in South Korea, while more than 3 million Korean users paid to access online manhwa and 10 million users read free webtoons; as of July 2014, Naver had published 520 webtoons while Daum had published 434. Since the early 2010s, services such as TappyToon and Spottoon have begun to translate webtoons into English while some Korean publishers like Lezhin and Toomics have begun to self translate their works. Examples of popular webtoons that have been translated into English are Lookism, Yumi's Cells, Tales of the Unusual, The God of High School and Tower of God. In recent years, these webtoons have been gaining popularity in Western markets, rivalling Japanese manga; the earliest webtoons were scanned original comics uploaded onto the Internet formatted on a one-page layout.
With the development of technology, authors were able to utilise flash animation effects. Enhanced preloading enabled authors to adopt a vertical layout with scrolling. In contrast to comics with a dense panel composition, scrolling brings new panels into view; this makes webtoons suitable for gradual and continuous representation, allowing webtoon reading to become more fluid. With the advent of the smartphone and tablet, webtoons have migrated to new platforms such as apps. Prior to 2014, most webtoons were only available in English through unofficial fan translations. In July 2014, Naver subsidiary Line began publication of translations of popular webtoons to English via the Line Webtoon service; the market for webtoons and their derivatives is valued at around KR₩420 billion. Although digital comics are popular, print publication remains the primary means of comic retail; some publishers offer online print content simultaneously. Webtoons have been taken as source material by a number of different mediums, including film and television.
This work was serialized in the Sports Chosun and garnered over 100 million homepage views being adapted into two films. And one television series. Another of Huh's works, was published in the Dong-a Ilbo for five years and sold 540,000 copies in paperback version. Naver's Line Webtoon service, launched in 2014, is now the biggest webtoon platform in Korea. According to Naver, it reaches over 6.2 million daily users. The free Line Webtoon translation service has allowed webtoons to form part of the global Korean Wave, they collaborate with movies. The webtoon format has expanded to other countries with many different distributors offering original and translated webtoons for users to read as well as offering platforms for anyone to upload their own webtoons. In mainland China and Taiwan, webtoons along with web manhua have seen an increase in production and popularity since they are published and just like in South Korea, have resulted in a resurgence and interest in the manhua industry as more content is consumed digitally.
All of the big webtoon portals in China are offered by the big internet companies in the country while in Taiwan the bigger webtoon publishers outside of the country like Comico and Line Webtoon are more popular since their services are available there. Indonesia and Thailand have become big markets for the webtoon industry with both Naver and Comico offering both original webtoons and translated titles in the two countries; some webtoons made in Indonesia and Thailand have been translated and published outside of the countries like Eggnoid. Vietnam launched its first webtoon portal, offering translated titles from Daum Webtoon and Mr. Blue with the intention of opening up another market. Many of the webtoon publishers have had success in penetrating markets outside of Asia with the biggest success being the United States and other English speaking countries. Lezhin and Naver are the only big publishers who translate their own titles rather than licensing them out and Naver of
History of Korean animation
The history of Korean animation, the manipulation of images to make them appear as moving, began with Japanese and American characters dominating the industry. The first sound animated character was created in 1936; the first feature-length animated character appeared in 1967. Dooly the Little Dinosaur revolutionized the character market in 1987; as animation characters specific to Korea appeared, the Korean character market continued to grow. Since Korean character franchises have exported their characters to other countries. Han Chang-Wan, a professor at Sejong University, published the history of animation character design in Korea at the Character Licensing Fair 2016; this study became the first to have turtle illustrations as Korean animated characters. This was revealed in'The Independent' newspaper. According to records, the first sound animated character was'Gaekkum', created in 1936; this first feature-length animated character appeared in 1967, in the namesake movie about a character named Hong Gildong.
With American and Japanese characters dominating the Korean animation industry until the 1970s, it wasn't until 1983 when Dooly the Little Dinosaur appeared in Bomulsum—a monthly magazine for kids—and changed the Korean character market. In 1987, Dooly the Little Dinosaur first aired as a six-part TV show, with another seven parts airing in 1988. In 1995, Kim Soo-jung, its creator, established a company named'Dooly World' and went into the character design industry; the following year, the animated movie'Dooly the Little Dinosaur' was released. In the 30 years since Dooly the Little Dinosaur launched, its related market generated 2–3 billion won per year; this paved the way for the character market in Korea. In 2003, Pororo the Little Penguin aired on EBS and became the new representation of Korean animation characters. Pororo aired in 127 countries around the world and was the first domestic animation to make a contract with Walt Disney Animation Studios directly, it was estimated that its brand value was worth 850 billion won and its economic impact amounted to 5.7 trillion won in 2013.
Many other domestic Korean animations have gained popularity, such as Tobot and Tayo the Little Bus. The animated Larva recorded 10 billion won in sales in 2013. In addition, domestic characters such as Tayo the Little Bus have earned considerable sales due to the support of young children. In the 1980s–1990s, cartoon characters expanded because: comic books were popular; the characters of this period had great stories. The symbolism in the images. Between 2000 and 2010, Flash characters became prevalent in Korea because: they facilitated production. In the files, scaling doen't affect quality and are much smaller, which increases speed of transmission, their popularity and rapid dissemination online. Story lines were aimed not only at children but at adults. In the decade, 3D animations were done with 3D STUDIO MAX or MAYA software and their production costs are much greater than for 2D Flash animations. History of Tayo bus and Seoul bus Article published in 2014 by the Seoul government. Ride'Larva', Where?
Article published in 2014 by the Seoul government
Cinema of Korea
The term "Cinema of Korea" encompasses the motion picture industries of North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life during the past century, the film industry has been at the mercy of political events, from the late Joseon dynasty to the Korean War to domestic governmental interference. While both countries have robust film industries today, only South Korean films have achieved wide international acclaim. North Korean films tend to portray their revolutionary themes. South Korean films enjoyed a "Golden age" during the late 1950s, 1960s, but by the 1970s had become considered to be of low quality. Nonetheless, by 2005 South Korea had become one of few nations to watch more domestic than imported films in theatres due to laws placing limits on the number of foreign films able to be shown per theatre per year. In the theaters, Korean films must be played for 73 days per year since 2006. On cable TV 25% domestic film quota will be reduced to 20% after KOR-US FTA. According to the October 19, 1897 issue of The Times, "Motion pictures have been introduced into Joseon, a country located in the Far East.
At the beginning of October 1897, motion pictures were screened for the public in Jingogae, Bukchon, in a shabby barrack, borrowed from its Chinese owner for three days. The works screened included short films and actuality films produced by France's Pathe Pictures". There are reports of another showing of a film to the public in 1898 near Namdaemun in Seoul. However, these claims have been refuted by researcher Brian Yecies, who says that he was unable to locate such an issue of The Times, or any similar article, considers the 1897 introduction date a myth. American traveler and lecturer Burton Holmes was the first to film in Korea as part of his travelogue programs. In addition to displaying his films abroad, he showed them to the Korean royal family in 1899. An announcement in the contemporary newspaper, Hwangseong sinmun, names another early public screening on June 23, 1903. Advertised by the Dongdaemun Electric Company, the price for admission to the viewing of scenic photography was 10 jeon.
Korea's first movie theater, Dongdaemun Motion Picture Studio, was opened in 1903. The Dansung-sa Theater opened in Seoul in November 1907. Before the creation of a domestic film industry, films imported from Europe and the United States were shown in Korean theaters; some of the imported films of the era most popular with Korean audiences were D. W. Griffith's Broken Blossoms and Way Down East, Douglas Fairbanks in Robin Hood, Fritz Lang's Nibelungen films and Kriemhilds Rache. Not a theater-operator, as the first film producer in Korea, Dansung-sa's owner, Pak Sung-pil, took an active part in supporting early Korean cinema, he financed the first Korean domestic film, Loyal Revenge, as well as the first Korean documentary film, Scenes of Kyongsong City and showed both at his theater on October 27, 1919. Uirijeok Guto was used as a kino drama, a live theatrical production against the backdrop of film projected on stage. For the next few years, film production in Korea consisted of documentaries.
As with the first showing of a film in Korea, the first feature film produced in Korea appears to be unclear. Some name a filming of Chunhyang-Jeon in 1921 as the first Korean feature film; the traditional story, was to become Korea's most-filmed story later. It was the first Korean feature film, was the first Korean sound film, color film and widescreen film. Im Kwon-taek's 2000 pansori version of Chunhyang brought the number of films based on Chunyang to 14. Other sources, name Yun Baek-nam's Ulha ui Mengse, released in April, 1923, as the first Korean feature film. Korean film studios at this time were Japanese-operated. A hat-merchant known as Yodo Orajo established. After appearing in the Choson Kinema's 1926 production Nongjungjo, the young actor Na Woon-gyu got the chance to write and star in his own film; the release of Na's film, Arirang is the start of the era of silent film in Korea. Like the folksong "Arirang", on which its title was based, Na Woon-gyu's Arirang did not have an overtly political theme.
However hidden or subtle messages could be magnified through the common use of a live narrator at the theater. A newspaper article of 1908 shows that this tradition of "byeonsa" appeared in Korea from the beginning of the showing of film in the country; as in Japan, this became an integral part to the showing of silent films for imported films, where the byeonsa provided an economical and entertaining alternative to translating intertitles. In an interesting aspect of the byeonsa tradition in Korea, when Japanese authorities were not present the narrators could inject satire and criticism of the occupation into the film narrative, giving the film a political subtext invisible to Japanese government censors; some of the more popular byeonsa were better-paid than the film actors. The success of Arirang inspired a burst of activity in the Korean film industry in the late 1920s, causing this period to become known as "The Golden Era of Silent Films". More than seventy films were produced at this time, the quality of film improved as well as the quantity.
Na Un-gyu followed Arirang with popular and critically respected films like Deuljwi. He formed Na Un-gyu Productions with Park Sung-pil for the purpose of producing films by Koreans for Koreans. Though